The Kew site, which has been dated as formally starting in 1759, although it can be traced back to the exotic garden at Kew Park, formed by Henry, Lord Capell of Tewkesbury,
consists of 132 hectares (330 acres) of gardens and botanical glasshouses, four Grade I listed buildings, and 36 Grade II listed structures, all set in an internationally significant landscape.
 The bridge forms part of a path designed to encourage visitors to visit more of the gardens than had hitherto been popular and connects the two art galleries,
via the Temperate and Evolution Houses and the woodland glade, to the Minka House and the Bamboo Garden.
 William Chambers built several garden structures, including the lofty Great Pagoda built in 1761 which still remains.
 Around 1600, the land that would become the gardens was known as Kew Field, a large field strip farmed by one of the new private estates.
 The Temperate House Main article: Temperate House, Kew Gardens Inside the Temperate House The Temperate House, re-opened in May 2018 after being closed for restoration,
is a greenhouse that has twice the floor area of the Palm House and is the world’s largest surviving Victorian glass structure.
Although various other members of Nymphaeaceae grew well, the house did not suit the Victoria, purportedly because of a poor ventilation system, and this specimen was moved
to another, smaller, house (Victoria amazonica House No.
The gallery originally opened in 1882 and is still the only permanent exhibition in Great Britain dedicated to the work of one woman.
 Royal residences in the area which would later influence the layout and construction of the gardens began in 1299 when Edward I moved his court to a manor house in neighbouring
Richmond (then called Sheen).
Work on the building of the house was completed in November 2001 but the internal artifacts were not all in place until 2006.
1 Near the Palm House is a building known as the General Museum or “Museum No.
 After 1958 it was known as the Wood Museum and displayed samples of wood from around the world.
To the rear of the building is the “Queen’s Garden” which includes a collection of plants believed to have medicinal qualities.
 The Palm House and lake to Victoria Gate The Arboretum, which covers the southern two-thirds of the site, contains over 14,000 trees of many thousands of varieties.
 During the time the gallery was closed the opportunity was also taken to restore the paintings to their original condition.
 Kew consists mostly of the gardens themselves and a small surrounding community.
 In 1965, following increasing overcrowding, a new building was constructed, and research expanded into seed collection for plant conservation.
 Around the start of the 16th century courtiers attending Richmond Palace settled in Kew and built large houses.
The Temperate House, which is twice as large as the Palm House, followed later in the 19th century.
It was initially installed as a temporary exhibition, but was given a permanent home at Kew Gardens due to its popularity.
The building was formerly known as the Aroid House No.
3 was originally known as the Timber Museum, it opened in 1863 and closed in 1958.
 In 1840, the gardens were adopted as a national botanical garden, in large part due to the efforts of the Royal Horticultural Society and its president William Cavendish.
“ Some early plants came from the walled garden established by William Coys at Stubbers in North Ockendon.
 The tunnel is now used to carry piped hot water to the Palm House, from oil-fired boilers located near the original chimney, which is extant, and is Grade II listed.
The Tea House at Kew Gardens after the arson attack in 1913 by suffragettes Olive Wharry and Lilian Lenton The Palm House was built by architect Decimus Burton and iron-maker
Richard Turner between 1844 and 1848, and was the first large-scale structural use of wrought iron.
Former plant houses The following plant houses were in use in 1974.
 There is a viewing gallery in the central section from which visitors can look down on that part of the collection.
It was originally erected in around 1900 in a suburb of Okazaki and is now located within the bamboo collection in the west-central part of Kew Gardens.
 It became part of the Gardens in 1904, and was opened in 1910 as the Museum of British Forestry or Museum No.
Former museum buildings The School of Horticulture building was formerly known as the Reference Museum or Museum No.
Intended to accommodate Kew’s expanding collection of hardy and temperate plants, it took 40 years to construct, during which time costs soared.
The building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 for its special architectural or historic interest.
 The Orchid Collection is housed in two climate zones within the Princess of Wales Conservatory.
 Early royal residences at Kew included Mary Tudor’s house, which was in existence by 1522 when a driveway was built to connect it to the palace at Richmond.
 Evolution House Formerly known as the Australian House.
1″ (even though it is now the only museum on the site), which was designed by Decimus Burton and opened in 1857.
It was sculpted by Martin Holden and is a replica of one by Thomas Tompion, a celebrated 17th-century clockmaker, which had been sited near the surviving palace building since
1832 to mark the site of James Bradley’s observations leading to his discovery of the aberration of light.
 Marianne North Gallery The Marianne North Gallery of Botanic Art The Marianne North Gallery was built in the 1880s to house the paintings of Marianne North, an
MP’s daughter who travelled alone to North and South America, South Africa, and many parts of Asia, at a time when women rarely did so, to paint plants.
The upper two floors are now an education center and the ground floor houses The Botanical restaurant.
Each storey finishes with a projecting roof, after the Chinese manner, originally covered with ceramic tiles and adorned with large dragons; a tale is still propagated that
they were made of gold and were reputedly sold by George IV to settle his debts.
It is considered “the world’s most important surviving Victorian glass and iron structure”.
 The compost heap is in an area of the gardens not accessible to the public, but a viewing platform, made of wood which had been illegally traded but seized by Customs
officers in HMRC, has been erected to allow visitors to observe the heap as it goes through its cycle.
Kew was the location of the successful effort in the 19th century to propagate rubber trees for cultivation outside South America.
Palm House Main article: Palm House, Kew Gardens The Palm House and Parterre The disguised Palm House chimney, the “Shaft of the Great Palm-Stove”, designed by Decimus
Burton The Palm House (1844–1848) was the result of cooperation between architect Decimus Burton and iron founder Richard Turner, and continues upon the glass house design principles developed by John Claudius Loudon and Joseph
As the Alpine House can only house around 200 at a time the ones on show are regularly rotated.
 The accompanying photograph shows a section of the walkway, including the steel supports, which were designed to rust to a tree-like appearance to help the walkway fit
in visually with its surroundings.
After many changes of use, it is currently used as a restaurant.
 The Grass Garden was created on its current site in the early 1980s to display ornamental and economic grasses; it was redesigned and replanted between 1994 and 1997.
 Ice House The Ice House is believed to be early 18th-century, it has a brick dome with an access arch and barrel-vaulted passageway, covered by a mound of earth.
It was built to house Victoria amazonica, the largest of the water lily family Nymphaeaceae.
1 and was used to display species of Araceae, the building was listed Grade II* in 1950.
A large part of the herbarium has been digitised, and is available to the general public on-line.
 Plant houses Alpine House The Davies Alpine House (2014).
It is one of London’s top tourist attractions and is a World Heritage Site.
Waterlily House The Waterlily House The Waterlily House is the hottest and most humid of the houses at Kew and contains a large pond with varieties of water lily, surrounded
by a display of economically important heat-loving plants.
 The compost is mainly used in the gardens, but on occasion has been auctioned as part of a fundraising event for the gardens.
 With an abundance of natural light, the building is now used for various exhibitions, weddings, and private events.
Work on the house started on 7 May 2001 and, when the framework was completed on 21 May, a Japanese ceremony was held to mark what was considered an auspicious occasion.
 Jodrell Laboratory View of the Jodrell Laboratory across part of the grass collection The original Jodrell laboratory, named after Mr. T. J. Phillips Jodrell who
funded it, was established in 1876 and consisted of four research rooms and an office.
King William’s Temple A double porticoed Doric temple in stone with a series of cast-iron panels set in the inside walls commemorating British military victories from
Minden (1759) to Waterloo (1815).
This plant was originally transported to Kew in vials of clean water and arrived in February 1849, after several prior attempts to transport seeds and roots had failed.
The glass roof extends down to the ground, giving the conservatory a distinctive appearance and helping to maximize the use of the sun’s energy.
In front of the Palm House on the east side are the Queen’s Beasts, ten statues of animals bearing shields.
The gallery had suffered considerable structural degradation since its creation and during a period from 2008 to 2009 major restoration and refurbishment took place, with
works led by leading conservation architects Donald Insall Associates.
Japanese craftsmen reassembled the framework and British builders who had worked on the Globe Theatre added the mud wall panels.
The heat for the house was initially obtained by running a flue from the nearby Palm House but it was later equipped with its own boiler.
 The tunnel acted as a flue between the boilers and the chimney, but the distance proved too great for efficient working, and so two small chimneys were added to the Palm
The “Dutch House” adjoining was purchased by George III in 1781 as a nursery for the royal children.
Although only 16 metres (52 ft) long the apex of the roof arch extends to a height of 10 metres (33 ft) in order to allow the natural airflow of a building of this shape to
aid in the all-important ventilation required for the type of plants to be housed.
On the walls garlands and medallions with the names and numbers of British and Hanovarian units connected with the Seven Years’ War.
 Ornamental buildings Great Pagoda The Pagoda Main article: Great Pagoda, Kew Gardens In the southeast corner of Kew Gardens stands the Great Pagoda (by Sir William
Chambers), erected in 1762, from a design in imitation of the Chinese Ta.
[‘”Kew’s scientific collections – Kew”. www.kew.org. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
2. ^ “Living collections at Kew”. Kew.org.
3. ^ “Science collections at Kew”. kew.org.
4. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. “Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew”. UNESCO World
Heritage Centre. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
5. ^ “Most visited attractions in London UK 2021”. Statista. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
6. ^ Dyduch, Amy (28 March 2014). “Dozens of jobs at risk as Kew Gardens faces £5m shortfall”. Richmond Guardian. Retrieved
26 June 2014.
7. ^ Jump up to:a b “Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew”. World Heritage. UNESCO. Retrieved 24 March 2009.
8. ^ “Kew, History & Heritage” (PDF). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 24
9. ^ “Director of Royal Botanic Gardens”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 14 October 2010. Archived from the original on 15 March 2007. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
10. ^ Historic England (1 October 1987). “Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (1000830)”.
National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
11. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Malden, H E (1911). Kew, A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3. pp. 482–487.
12. ^ Lysons, Daniel (1792). The Environs of London: volume 1: County of
Surrey. pp. 202–211.
13. ^ “London Attractions and Places of Interest Index”. milesfaster.co.uk.
14. ^ Harrison, W (1848). The Visitor’s Hand-book to Richmond, Kew Gardens, and Hampton Court. Cradock and Company. p. 25.
15. ^ Parker, Lynn and
Ross-Jones, Kiri (13 August 2013). The Story of Kew Gardens. Arcturus Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 9781782127482.
16. ^ Jones, Martin. “Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Wakehurst Place”. infobritain.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 September 2013.
Retrieved 14 September 2014.
17. ^ UNESCO Advisory Body (2003). UNESCO Advisory Body Evaluation Kew (United Kingdom) No 1084 (PDF) (Report). UNESCO.
18. ^ Drayton, Richard Harry (2000). Nature’s Government: Science, Imperial Britain, and the
‘Improvement’ of the World. Yale University Press. p. 78. ISBN 0300059760.
19. ^ The Epicure’s Almanack, Longman, 1815, pages 226-227.
20. ^ Smith, R G (1989). Stubbers: The Walled garden.
21. ^ Jarrell, Richard A. (1983). “Masson, Francis”.
In Halpenny, Francess G (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. V (1801–1820) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
22. ^ “Lancelot ‘Capability’ Brown (1716–1783)”. Kew History & Heritage. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the
original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
23. ^ Lankester Botanical Garden (2010). “Biographies” (PDF). Lankesteriana. 10 (2/3): 183–206, page 186. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 May 2014.
24. ^ “Palm House and Rose Garden”.
Visit Kew Gardens. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
25. ^ The Crystal Palace was an even more imposing glass and iron structure but a fire destroyed it.
26. ^ “Suffragists burn a pavilion at Kew; Two Arrested and Held Without
Bail – One Throws a Book at a Magistrate”. The New York Times. 21 February 1913.
27. ^ Bone, Victoria (16 October 2007). “Kew: Razed, reborn and rejuvenated”. BBC News. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
28. ^ “Kew Gardens Flagpole”. Royal Botanic Gardens,
Kew. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
29. ^ Kennedy, Maev (3 May 2018). “‘Breathtakingly beautiful’: Kew’s Temperate House reopens after revamp”. The Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
30. ^ “Celebrating
the tree”. Kew blog. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
31. ^ “Treasures of London – The ‘Old Lion’ Maidenhair Tree, Kew Gardens”. exploring-london.com. 4 February 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2018.
32. ^ “Treetop Walkway”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
33. ^ Rose, Steve (9 October 2017). “David Marks obituary”. Retrieved 12 October 2017 – via www.theguardian.com.
34. ^ “The making of the Treetop Walkway”. Royal Botanic Gardens,
Kew. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
35. ^ Correspondent, Louise Jury, Chief Arts (13 April 2012). “New St Pancras wins major award for architecture”. Evening Standard. Retrieved 24 April 2022.
36. ^ “Kew Garden
set to bee a permanent home for popular sculpture The Hive”. Evening Standard. 24 April 2018. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
37. ^ “Visit Kew Gardens: Visitor Information And Events To Inspire Your Visit”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from
the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
38. ^ Jump up to:a b “Compost heap”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
39. ^ Jump up to:a b “Compost heap”. Visit Kew Gardens.
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
40. ^ “Aroid House No 1 listing”.
41. ^ “Visit Kew Gardens – The Orangery”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 3 May 2012.
Retrieved 24 April 2012.
42. ^ Jump up to:a b Kohlmaier, Georg and von Sortory, Barna. Houses of Glass, A Nineteenth-Century Building Type. The MIT Press, 1990 (p300)
43. ^ Kohlmaier, Georg and von Sortory, Barna. Houses of Glass, A Nineteenth-Century
Building Type. The MIT Press, 1990 (p140)
44. ^ Jump up to:a b c Kohlmaier, Georg and von Sortory, Barna. Houses of Glass, A Nineteenth-Century Building Type. The MIT Press, 1990 (p296)
45. ^ Kohlmaier, Georg and von Sortory, Barna. Houses of
Glass, A Nineteenth-Century Building Type. The MIT Press, 1990 (p299)
46. ^ “Local Sculptures – 10 Queen’s Beasts”. Brentford Dock Residents. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
47. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e “Kew Gardens private underground railway”. Ian Visits.
Retrieved 10 January 2019.
48. ^ Historic England. “CAMPANILE, Richmond upon Thames (1251642)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 10 January 2019.
49. ^ Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Augusta, Princess of Wales Archived 20 February 2014
at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 6 October 2005.
50. ^ Secrets of the Princess of Wales Conservatory, Kew Gardens, retrieved 14 September 2021
51. ^ Jump up to:a b The History of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
52. ^ “Temperate House, Royal Botanic
Gardens”. Donald Insall Associates. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
53. ^ “Waterlily House”. Visit Kew Gardens. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 11 June 2014.
54. ^ Historic England (9 May 2011). “Australian
House Kew (1401475)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
55. ^ Jump up to:a b c d The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Key Plan, 1974
56. ^ Morley, James (1 August 2002). “Kew, History & Heritage”. Kew. Archived from the
original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
57. ^ “Dragons to return to The Great Pagoda at Kew after 200-year hunt”. Historic Royal Palaces. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
58. ^ “‘Japan 2001′ fest set to take center stage in U.K.” The Japan
Times. 15 February 2001. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
59. ^ “Queen Charlotte’s Cottage”. Historic Royal Palaces. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
60. ^ Historic England. “King William’s temple (1251785)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved
27 November 2017.
61. ^ Historic England. “Temple of Aeolus (1262669)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
62. ^ Jump up to:a b c Mcewen, Ron (2018). “”SOLVING THE MYSTERIES OF KEW’S EXTANT GARDEN TEMPLES.””. Garden
History. 46 (2): 196–216. JSTOR 26589606. Retrieved 11 February 2022.
63. ^ Historic England. “Temple of Arethusa (1251777)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
64. ^ Historic England. “Temple of Bellona (1262581)”.
National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
65. ^ Historic England. “Ruined Arch (1251956)”. National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
66. ^ Historic England. “Ice House (1251799)”. National Heritage List
for England. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
67. ^ “Kew Palace”. Donald Insall Associates. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
68. ^ “Kew Gardens Sundial”. Public Monuments and Sculpture Association. Archived from
the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
69. ^ “Thomas Tompion (bapt.1639 d. 1713) – Sundial”. www.royalcollection.org.uk. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
70. ^ “Medical Museums”. medicalmuseums.org. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
“Marianne North Gallery, Royal Botanic Gardens”. Donald Insall Associates. Retrieved 2 October 2015.
72. ^ Jump up to:a b “Wood collection at Kew”.
73. ^ “Cambridge Cottage”. Heritage Gateway.
74. ^ Historic England. “Cambridge Cottage (1065396)”.
National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
75. ^ “Plants”. Kew Gardens. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
76. ^ “Aquatic Collection”. Kew Gardens. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
77. ^ “Bonsai Collection”. Kew Gardens. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
“Arid Collection”. Kew Gardens. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
79. ^ “Carnivorous Plant Collection”. Kew Gardens. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
80. ^ “Grass Collection”. Kew Gardens. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
81. ^ “Orchid Collection”. Kew Gardens. Retrieved
31 July 2019.
82. ^ “Arboretum”. Kew Gardens. Retrieved 31 July 2019.
83. ^ Kew Herbarium Catalogue
84. ^ Jump up to:a b “Kew website, Herbarium Collections”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved
19 October 2016.
85. ^ “Welcome to the Kew Herbarium Catalogue”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
86. ^ “Index Herbariorum”. Steere Herbarium, New York Botanical Garden. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
87. ^ “The Fungarium”
Retrieved March 2020
88. ^ “Kew’s Library” Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. Retrieved March 2020
89. ^ “The Library | Kew”. www.kew.org. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
90. ^ Fortey, Richard (2008). Dry Store Room No. 1. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780007209880.
Jump up to:a b “Jodrell Laboratory”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 15 July 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
92. ^ “Economic Botany Collection”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
93. ^ Metcalfe, C R; Jones,
Keith (1976). Jodrell Laboratory Centenary 1876-1976. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
94. ^ Ghosh, Pallab (18 May 2010). “Waterlily saved from extinction”. BBC News. Retrieved 19 May 2010.
95. ^ Magdalena, Carlos (November 2009). “The world’s tiniest
waterlily doesn’t grow in water!”. Water Gardeners International. 4 (4). Retrieved 19 May 2010.
96. ^ “Parks Regulation Act 1872”. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
97. ^ McCarthy, Michael (30 January 2001). “How many policemen does it take to guard
an orchid?”. The Independent.
98. ^ “Parks Regulation Act 1872: 3 Definition of “park-keeper” Section 3″. www.legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
99. ^ “Parks Regulation Act 1872: 7 Powers, duties, and privileges of park-keeper”. www.legislation.gov.uk.
Retrieved 25 August 2014.
100. ^ Dictionary of Scottish Architects: Robert Lorimer
101. ^ “Eating and drinking | Kew”. www.kew.org. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
102. ^ Adam, Whittaker (15 December 2021). “Lumsden & Mizzi serve up new Kitchen
& Shop for Kew”. Blooloop. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
103. ^ “Videos”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 18 June 2015. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
104. ^ “World Garden”. British Council Film Collection. The British Council.
Retrieved 24 January 2014.
105. ^ “IMDb: Time Team: Season 10, Episode 9 Kew Gardens, London”. IMDb.com. 2 March 2003.
106. ^ “IMDb: Art of the Garden: Season 1, Episode 2 The Great Palm House at Kew”. IMDb.com. 4 June 2004.
107. ^ “A Year at
Kew”. Episode guide. BBC. 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
108. ^ “BBC Two: Cruickshank on Kew: The Garden That Changed the World”. BBC. 10 December 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
109. ^ “Kew: Kingdom of Plants with David Attenborough”. Kew.org.
Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
110. ^ Maria, Charlene (17 January 2022). “Sherlock Holmes: Best Murder Cases In The Series, Ranked”. TheGamer. Retrieved 12 February 2022.
111. ^ Reid, Panthea (2 December
2013). “Virginia Woolf: early fiction”. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 2. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
112. ^ Woolf, Virginia (1921). Kew Gardens.
113. ^ “Royalty opens Kew Gardens’ Elizabeth Gate”. Richmond and Twickenham Times. 21 October 2012. Retrieved
29 September 2014.
114. ^ “Which gate to use”. Visit Kew Gardens. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Archived from the original on 11 February 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
115. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e “Getting here”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved
24 May 2015.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/frted/7042692841/’]