king arthur


  • [75] Geoffrey Ashe is one dissenter from this view, believing that Geoffrey’s narrative is partially derived from a lost source telling of the deeds of a 5th-century British
    king named Riotamus, this figure being the original Arthur, although historians and Celticists have been reluctant to follow Ashe in his conclusions.

  • The 9th-century Historia Brittonum also refers to this tale, with the boar there named Troy(n)t.[59] Finally, Arthur is mentioned numerous times in the Welsh Triads, a collection
    of short summaries of Welsh tradition and legend which are classified into groups of three linked characters or episodes to assist recall.

  • Perceval, although unfinished, was particularly popular: four separate continuations of the poem appeared over the next half century, with the notion of the Grail and its
    quest being developed by other writers such as Robert de Boron, a fact that helped accelerate the decline of Arthur in continental romance.

  • Although Malory’s English version of the great French romances was popular, there were increasing attacks upon the truthfulness of the historical framework of the Arthurian
    romances – established since Geoffrey of Monmouth’s time – and thus the legitimacy of the whole Matter of Britain.

  • [105] Similarly, the most popular Arthurian tale throughout this period seems to have been that of Tom Thumb, which was told first through chapbooks and later through the
    political plays of Henry Fielding; although the action is clearly set in Arthurian Britain, the treatment is humorous and Arthur appears as a primarily comedic version of his romance character.

  • [16] It is not even certain that Arthur was considered a king in the early texts.

  • [71] Finally, Geoffrey borrowed many of the names for Arthur’s possessions, close family, and companions from the pre-Galfridian Welsh tradition, including Kaius (Cei), Beduerus
    (Bedwyr), Guenhuuara (Gwenhwyfar), Uther (Uthyr) and perhaps also Caliburnus (Caledfwlch), the latter becoming Excalibur in subsequent Arthurian tales.

  • [7] The other text that seems to support the case for Arthur’s historical existence is the 10th-century Annales Cambriae, which also link Arthur with the Battle of Badon.

  • There is clear evidence that Arthur and Arthurian tales were familiar on the Continent before Geoffrey’s work became widely known (see for example, the Modena Archivolt),[81]
    and “Celtic” names and stories not found in Geoffrey’s Historia appear in the Arthurian romances.

  • [65][66] Also important are the references to Arthur in William of Malmesbury’s De Gestis Regum Anglorum and Herman’s De Miraculis Sanctae Mariae Laudunensis, which together
    provide the first certain evidence for a belief that Arthur was not actually dead and would at some point return, a theme that is often revisited in post-Galfridian folklore.

  • [94] Chrétien’s work even appears to feed back into Welsh Arthurian literature, with the result that the romance Arthur began to replace the heroic, active Arthur in Welsh
    literary tradition.

  • The textual sources for Arthur are usually divided into those written before Geoffrey’s Historia (known as pre-Galfridian texts, from the Latin form of Geoffrey, Galfridus)
    and those written afterwards, which could not avoid his influence (Galfridian, or post-Galfridian, texts).

  • [103] Social changes associated with the end of the medieval period and the Renaissance also conspired to rob the character of Arthur and his associated legend of some of
    their power to enthrall audiences, with the result that 1634 saw the last printing of Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur for nearly 200 years.

  • He seems to have made use of the list of Arthur’s twelve battles against the Saxons found in the 9th-century Historia Brittonum, along with the battle of Camlann from the
    Annales Cambriae and the idea that Arthur was still alive.

  • [72] However, while names, key events, and titles may have been borrowed, Brynley Roberts has argued that “the Arthurian section is Geoffrey’s literary creation and it owes
    nothing to prior narrative.

  • [104] King Arthur and the Arthurian legend were not entirely abandoned, but until the early 19th century the material was taken less seriously and was often used simply as
    a vehicle for allegories of 17th- and 18th-century politics.

  • In particular, Arthur features in a number of well-known vitae (“Lives”) of post-Roman saints, none of which are now generally considered to be reliable historical sources
    (the earliest probably dates from the 11th century).

  • The Welsh prose tale Culhwch and Olwen (c. 1100), included in the modern Mabinogion collection, has a much longer list of more than 200 of Arthur’s men, though Cei and Bedwyr
    again take a central place.

  • [74] There have been relatively few modern attempts to challenge the notion that the Historia Regum Britanniae is primarily Geoffrey’s own work, with scholarly opinion often
    echoing William of Newburgh’s late-12th-century comment that Geoffrey “made up” his narrative, perhaps through an “inordinate love of lying”.

  • [5] In some Welsh and Breton tales and poems that date from before this work, Arthur appears either as a great warrior defending Britain from human and supernatural enemies
    or as a magical figure of folklore, sometimes associated with the Welsh otherworld Annwn.

  • The old notion that some of these Welsh versions actually underlie Geoffrey’s Historia, advanced by antiquarians such as the 18th-century Lewis Morris, has long since been
    discounted in academic circles.

  • “[15] Some scholars argue that Arthur was originally a fictional hero of folklore—or even a half-forgotten Celtic deity—who became credited with real deeds in the distant

  • In the view of historian Thomas Charles-Edwards, “at this stage of the enquiry, one can only say that there may well have been an historical Arthur [but …] the historian
    can as yet say nothing of value about him”.

  • [102] Decline, revival, and the modern legend Post-medieval literature The end of the Middle Ages brought with it a waning of interest in King Arthur.

  • The most significant of these 13th-century prose romances was the Vulgate Cycle (also known as the Lancelot-Grail Cycle), a series of five Middle French prose works written
    in the first half of that century.

  • [13] He is absent from Bede’s early-8th-century Ecclesiastical History of the English People, another major early source for post-Roman history that mentions Badon.

  • Malory based his book—originally titled The Whole Book of King Arthur and of His Noble Knights of the Round Table—on the various previous romance versions, in particular the
    Vulgate Cycle, and appears to have aimed at creating a comprehensive and authoritative collection of Arthurian stories.

  • One school of thought, citing entries in the Historia Brittonum (History of the Britons) and Annales Cambriae (Welsh Annals), saw Arthur as a genuine historical figure, a
    Romano-British leader who fought against the invading Anglo-Saxons some time in the late 5th to early 6th century.

  • The later manuscripts of the Triads are partly derivative from Geoffrey of Monmouth and later continental traditions, but the earliest ones show no such influence and are
    usually agreed to refer to pre-existing Welsh traditions.

  • [70] Arthur’s status as the king of all Britain seems to be borrowed from pre-Galfridian tradition, being found in Culhwch and Olwen, the Welsh Triads, and the saints’ lives.

  • [41] Some scholars have suggested it is relevant to this debate that the legendary King Arthur’s name only appears as Arthur or Arturus in early Latin Arthurian texts, never
    as Artōrius (though Classical Latin Artōrius became Arturius in some Vulgar Latin dialects).

  • Although the themes, events and characters of the Arthurian legend varied widely from text to text, and there is no one canonical version, Geoffrey’s version of events often
    served as the starting point for later stories.

  • The historian John Morris made the putative reign of Arthur the organising principle of his history of sub-Roman Britain and Ireland, The Age of Arthur (1973).

  • [6] How much of Geoffrey’s Historia (completed in 1138) was adapted from such earlier sources, rather than invented by Geoffrey himself, is unknown.

  • However, this may not say anything about the origin of the name Arthur, as Artōrius would regularly become Art(h)ur when borrowed into Welsh.

  • Arthur’s name also occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin.

  • In both the earliest materials and Geoffrey he is a great and ferocious warrior, who laughs as he personally slaughters witches and giants and takes a leading role in all
    military campaigns,[84] whereas in the continental romances he becomes the roi fainéant, the “do-nothing king”, whose “inactivity and acquiescence constituted a central flaw in his otherwise ideal society”.

  • [101] Perhaps as a result of this, and the fact that Le Morte D’Arthur was one of the earliest printed books in England, published by William Caxton in 1485, most later Arthurian
    works are derivative of Malory’s.

  • [100] Arthur receiving the later tradition’s sword Excalibur in N. C. Wyeth’s illustration for The Boy’s King Arthur (1922), a modern edition of Thomas Malory’s 1485 Le Morte
    d’Arthur The development of the medieval Arthurian cycle and the character of the “Arthur of romance” culminated in Le Morte d’Arthur, Thomas Malory’s retelling of the entire legend in a single work in English in the late 15th century.

  • [2][32] Name The origin of the Welsh name “Arthur” remains a matter of debate.

  • [50] A facsimile page of Y Gododdin, one of the most famous early Welsh texts featuring Arthur (c. 1275) One of the most famous Welsh poetic references to Arthur comes in
    the collection of heroic death-songs known as Y Gododdin (The Gododdin), attributed to 6th-century poet Aneirin.

  • [91] Chrétien was thus “instrumental both in the elaboration of the Arthurian legend and in the establishment of the ideal form for the diffusion of that legend”,[92] and
    much of what came after him in terms of the portrayal of Arthur and his world built upon the foundations he had laid.

  • [45] Classical Latin Arcturus would also have become Art(h)ur when borrowed into Welsh, and its brightness and position in the sky led people to regard it as the “guardian
    of the bear” (which is the meaning of the name in Ancient Greek) and the “leader” of the other stars in Boötes.

  • [51] Y Gododdin is known only from a 13th-century manuscript, so it is impossible to determine whether this passage is original or a later interpolation, but John Koch’s view
    that the passage dates from a 7th-century or earlier version is regarded as unproven; 9th- or 10th-century dates are often proposed for it.

  • The Historia Brittonum, a 9th-century Latin historical compilation attributed in some late manuscripts to a Welsh cleric called Nennius, contains the first datable mention
    of King Arthur, listing twelve battles that Arthur fought.

  • [82] From the perspective of Arthur, perhaps the most significant effect of this great outpouring of new Arthurian story was on the role of the king himself: much of this
    12th-century and later Arthurian literature centres less on Arthur himself than on characters such as Lancelot and Guinevere, Percival, Galahad, Gawain, Ywain, and Tristan and Iseult.

  • While it was not the only creative force behind Arthurian romance, many of its elements were borrowed and developed (e.g., Merlin and the final fate of Arthur), and it provided
    the historical framework into which the romancers’ tales of magical and wonderful adventures were inserted.

  • [52] Several poems attributed to Taliesin, a poet said to have lived in the 6th century, also refer to Arthur, although these all probably date from between the 8th and 12th

  • [2] However, because historical documents for the post-Roman period are scarce, a definitive answer to the question of Arthur’s historical existence is unlikely.

  • [10] Partly in reaction to such theories, another school of thought emerged which argued that Arthur had no historical existence at all.

  • Even so, he found little to say about a historical Arthur.

  • Even in these, however, Arthur’s court has started to embody legendary Britain as a whole, with “Arthur’s Court” sometimes substituted for “The Island of Britain” in the formula
    “Three XXX of the Island of Britain”.

  • [79] Romance traditions The popularity of Geoffrey’s Historia and its other derivative works (such as Wace’s Roman de Brut) gave rise to a significant numbers of new Arthurian
    works in continental Europe during the 12th and 13th centuries, particularly in France.

  • The details of Arthur’s story are mainly composed of Welsh and English folklore and literary invention, and modern historians generally agree that he is unhistorical.

  • [64] Similar incidents are described in the medieval biographies of Carannog, Padarn, and Eufflam, probably written around the 12th century.

  • A less obviously legendary account of Arthur appears in the Legenda Sancti Goeznovii, which is often claimed to date from the early 11th century (although the earliest manuscript
    of this text dates from the 15th century and the text is now dated to the late 12th to early 13th century).

  • In these French stories, the narrative focus often shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table.

  • [99] This series of texts was quickly followed by the Post-Vulgate Cycle (c. 1230–40), of which the Suite du Merlin is a part, which greatly reduced the importance of Lancelot’s
    affair with Guinevere but continued to sideline Arthur, and to focus more on the Grail quest.

  • “[73] Geoffrey makes the Welsh Medraut into the villainous Modredus, but there is no trace of such a negative character for this figure in Welsh sources until the 16th century.

  • [4] Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the Matter of Britain.

  • [98] As such, Arthur became even more of a relatively minor character in these French prose romances; in the Vulgate itself he only figures significantly in the Estoire de
    Merlin and the Mort Artu.

  • So, for example, the 16th-century humanist scholar Polydore Vergil famously rejected the claim that Arthur was the ruler of a post-Roman empire, found throughout the post-Galfridian
    medieval “chronicle tradition”, to the horror of Welsh and English antiquarians.

  • They were more likely added at some point in the 10th century and may never have existed in any earlier set of annals.

  • Pre-Galfridian traditions The earliest literary references to Arthur come from Welsh and Breton sources.

  • Whereas Arthur is very much at the centre of the pre-Galfridian material and Geoffrey’s Historia itself, in the romances he is rapidly sidelined.

  • [20] Andrew Breeze has recently argued that Arthur was historical, and claimed to have identified the locations of his battles as well as the place and date of his death (in
    the context of the Extreme weather events of 535–536),[21][22] but his conclusions are disputed.

  • The fact of the matter is that there is no historical evidence about Arthur; we must reject him from our histories and, above all, from the titles of our books.

  • King Arthur (Welsh: Brenin Arthur, Cornish: Arthur Gernow, Breton: Roue Arzhur) was a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence
    of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries.

  • The so-called “Arthur stone”, discovered in 1998 among the ruins at Tintagel Castle in Cornwall in securely dated 6th-century contexts, created a brief stir but proved irrelevant.

  • [96] The Round Table experiences a vision of the Holy Grail, an illumination by Évrard d’Espinques (c. 1475)[97] Up to c. 1210, continental Arthurian romance was expressed
    primarily through poetry; after this date the tales began to be told in prose.

  • The 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance that became a significant strand
    of medieval literature.


Works Cited

[‘Neubecker 1998–2002
2. ^ Jump up to:a b c Tom Shippey, “So Much Smoke”, review of Higham 2002, London Review of Books, 40:24:23 (20 December 2018)
3. ^ Higham 2002, pp. 11–37, has a summary of the debate on this point.
4. ^ Charles-Edwards 1991,
p. 15; Sims-Williams 1991. Y Gododdin cannot be dated precisely: it describes 6th-century events and contains 9th- or 10th-century spelling, but the surviving copy is 13th-century.
5. ^ Thorpe 1966, but see also Loomis 1956
6. ^ See Padel 1994;
Sims-Williams 1991; Green 2007b; and Roberts 1991a
7. ^ Dumville 1986; Higham 2002, pp. 116–169; Green 2007b, pp. 15–26, 30–38.
8. ^ Green 2007b, pp. 26–30; Koch 1996, pp. 251–253.
9. ^ Charles-Edwards 1991, p. 29
10. ^ Morris 1973
11. ^
Myres 1986, p. 16
12. ^ , De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, chapter 26.
13. ^ Pryor 2004, pp. 22–27
14. ^ Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, Book 1.16.
15. ^ Dumville 1977, pp. 187–188
16. ^ Green 2009; Padel 1994; Green 2007b,
chapters five and seven.
17. ^ Historia Brittonum 56, 73; Annales Cambriae 516, 537.
18. ^ For example, Ashley 2005.
19. ^ Heroic Age 1999
20. ^ Modern scholarship views the Glastonbury cross as the result of a probably late-12th-century fraud.
See Rahtz 1993 and Carey 1999.
21. ^ Andrew Breeze, “The Historical Arthur and Sixth-Century Scotland”, Northern History 52:2:158-181 (2015)
22. ^ Breeze, Andrew (2020). British Battles 493-937: Mount Badon to Brunanburh. London: Anthem Press.
pp. 13–24. doi:10.2307/j.ctvv4187r. ISBN 9781785272233. JSTOR j.ctvv4187r. S2CID 243164764.
23. ^ “King Arthur ‘was real, wasn’t a king… and lived in Strathclyde'”. The Independent. 3 September 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
24. ^ Higham,
Nicholas J. (2018). King Arthur: The Making of the Legend. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. pp. 262–63. ISBN 978-0-300-21092-7.
25. ^ “537 and Camlann (Flint Johnson, University of Wisconsin – River Falls)”. Retrieved
19 April 2021.
26. ^ Littleton & Malcor 1994
27. ^ Ashe 1985
28. ^ Reno 1996
29. ^ Phillips & Keatman 1992
30. ^ Phillips, Graham (2016). The Lost Tomb of King Arthur: The Search for Camelot and the Isle of Avalon. Bear & Company.
31. ^
Bartrum, Peter Clement (1993). A Welsh Classical Dictionary, people in History and Legend up to about A.D. 1000 (PDF). National Library of Wales. p. 35. William Owen Pughe in his Cambrian Biography, 1803, … put forward the suggestion that Arthur
was the same person as Athrwys ap Meurig. It was discussed and rejected by Sharon Turner (History of the Anglo-Saxons, Bk.3, Ch.3, 1805) and Rice Rees (Welsh Saints, 1836, pp.185-6), but accepted by Robert Owen (The Kymry, 1891, p.77)
32. ^ David,
Brian, Review of Nicholas J. Higham, King Arthur: The Making of the Legend in Comitatus: A Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 50:221-222 (2019) doi:10.1353/cjm.2019.0021 Project MUSE 734087
33. ^ Koch 2006, p. 121
34. ^ Malone 1925
35. ^
Marcella Chelotti, Vincenza Morizio, Marina Silvestrini, Le epigrafi romane di Canosa, Volume 1, Edipuglia srl, 1990, pp. 261, 264.
36. ^ Ciro Santoro, “Per la nuova iscrizione messapica di Oria”, La Zagaglia, A. VII, n. 27, 1965, pp. 271–293.
37. ^
Ciro Santoro, “La Nuova Epigrafe Messapica “IM 4. 16, I-III” di Ostuni ed nomi” in Art-, Ricerche e Studi, Volume 12, 1979, pp. 45–60
38. ^ Wilhelm Schulze, “Zur Geschichte lateinischer Eigennamen” (Volume 5, Issue 2 of Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft
der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Philologisch-Historische Klasse, Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften Göttingen Philologisch-Historische Klasse), 2nd edition, Weidmann, 1966, p. 72, pp. 333–338
39. ^ Olli Salomies, Die römischen Vornamen. Studien zur
römischen Namengebung. Helsinki 1987, p. 68
40. ^ Herbig, Gust., “Falisca”, Glotta, Band II, Göttingen, 1910, p. 98
41. ^ Zimmer 2009
42. ^ Koch 1996, p. 253
43. ^ See Higham 2002, p. 74.
44. ^ See Higham 2002, p. 80.
45. ^ Chambers 1964,
p. 170; Bromwich 1978, p. 544; Johnson 2002, pp. 38–39; Walter 2005, p. 74; Zimmer 2006, p. 37; Zimmer 2009
46. ^ Anderson 2004, pp. 28–29; Green 2007b, pp. 191–194.
47. ^ Green 2007b, pp. 45–176
48. ^ Green 2007b, pp. 93–130
49. ^ Padel 1994
has a thorough discussion of this aspect of Arthur’s character.
50. ^ Green 2007b, pp. 135–176. On his possessions and wife, see also Ford 1983.
51. ^ Williams 1937, p. 64, line 1242
52. ^ Charles-Edwards 1991, p. 15; Koch 1996, pp. 242–245;
Green 2007b, pp. 13–15, 50–52.
53. ^ See, for example, Haycock 1983–1984 and Koch 1996, pp. 264–265.
54. ^ Online translations of this poem are out-dated and inaccurate. See Haycock 2007, pp. 293–311 for a full translation, and Green 2007b, p.
197 for a discussion of its Arthurian aspects.
55. ^ See, for example, Green 2007b, pp. 54–67 and Budgey 1992, who includes a translation.
56. ^ Koch & Carey 1994, pp. 314–15
57. ^ Lanier 1881
58. ^ Sims-Williams 1991, pp. 38–46 has a full
translation and analysis of this poem.
59. ^ For a discussion of the tale, see Bromwich & Evans 1992; see also Padel 1994, pp. 2–4; Roberts 1991a; and Green 2007b, pp. 67–72 and chapter three.
60. ^ Barber 1986, pp. 17–18, 49; Bromwich 1978
61. ^
Roberts 1991a, pp. 78, 81
62. ^ Roberts 1991a
63. ^ Translated in Coe & Young 1995, pp. 22–27. On the Glastonbury tale and its Otherworldly antecedents, see Sims-Williams 1991, pp. 58–61.
64. ^ Coe & Young 1995, pp. 26–37
65. ^ Bourgès, André-Yves,
“Guillaume le Breton et l’hagiographie bretonne aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles”, in: Annales de Bretagne et des pays de l’Ouest, 1995, 102–1, pp. 35–45.
66. ^ See Ashe 1985 for an attempt to use this vita as a historical source.
67. ^ Padel 1994,
pp. 8–12; Green 2007b, pp. 72–75, 259, 261–262; Bullock-Davies 1982
68. ^ Wright 1985; Thorpe 1966
69. ^ Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae Book 8.19–24, Book 9, Book 10, Book 11.1–2
70. ^ Roberts 1991b, p. 106; Padel 1994, pp.
71. ^ Green 2007b, pp. 217–219
72. ^ Roberts 1991b, pp. 109–110, 112; Bromwich & Evans 1992, pp. 64–65
73. ^ Roberts 1991b, p. 108
74. ^ Bromwich 1978, pp. 454–455
75. ^ See, for example, Brooke 1986, p. 95.
76. ^ Ashe 1985, p. 6;
Padel 1995, p. 110; Higham 2002, p. 76.
77. ^ Crick 1989
78. ^ Sweet 2004, p. 140. See further, Roberts 1991b and Roberts 1980.
79. ^ As noted by, for example, Ashe 1996.
80. ^ For example, Thorpe 1966, p. 29
81. ^ Stokstad 1996
82. ^
Loomis 1956; Bromwich 1983; Bromwich 1991.
83. ^ Lacy 1996a, p. 16; Morris 1982, p. 2.
84. ^ For example, Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae Book 10.3.
85. ^ Padel 2000, p. 81
86. ^ Morris 1982, pp. 99–102; Lacy 1996a, p. 17.
87. ^
Lacy 1996a, p. 17
88. ^ Pyle 1903
89. ^ Burgess & Busby 1999
90. ^ Lacy 1996b
91. ^ Kibler & Carroll 1991, p. 1
92. ^ Lacy 1996b, p. 88
93. ^ Roach 1949–1983
94. ^ Ulrich von Zatzikhoven 2005
95. ^ Padel 2000, pp. 77–82
96. ^ See
Jones & Jones 1949 for accurate translations of all three texts. It is not entirely certain what, exactly, the relationship is between these Welsh romances and Chrétien’s works, however: see Koch 1996, pp. 280–288 for a survey of opinions
97. ^
BNF c. 1475, fol. 610v
98. ^ Jump up to:a b Lacy 1992–1996
99. ^ For a study of this cycle, see Burns 1985.
100. ^ Lacy 1996c, p. 344
101. ^ On Malory and his work, see Field 1993 and Field 1998.
102. ^ Vinaver 1990
103. ^ Carley 1984
104. ^
Parins 1995, p. 5
105. ^ Jump up to:a b Ashe 1968, pp. 20–21; Merriman 1973
106. ^ Green 2007a
107. ^ Parins 1995, pp. 8–10
108. ^ Wordsworth 1835
109. ^ See Potwin 1902 for the sources that Tennyson used when writing this poem
110. ^
Taylor & Brewer 1983, p. 127
111. ^ See Rosenberg 1973 and Taylor & Brewer 1983, pp. 89–128 for analyses of The Idylls of the King.
112. ^ See, for example, Simpson 1990.
113. ^ Staines 1996, p. 449
114. ^ Taylor & Brewer 1983, pp. 127–161;
Mancoff 1990.
115. ^ Green 2007a, p. 127; Gamerschlag 1983
116. ^ Twain 1889; Smith & Thompson 1996.
117. ^ Watson 2002
118. ^ Mancoff 1990
119. ^ Workman 1994
120. ^ Hardy 1923; Binyon 1923; and Masefield 1927
121. ^ Eliot 1949; Barber
2004, pp. 327–328
122. ^ White 1958; Bradley 1982; Tondro 2002, p. 170
123. ^ Lagorio 1996
124. ^ Lupack & Lupack 1991
125. ^ Porius. New York: Overlook Duckworth 2007. pp. 8–19.
126. ^ C. A. Coates, John Cowper Powys in Search of a Landscape.
Totowa, NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1982, p. 139.
127. ^ New York: Simon and Schuster. C. A. Coates, John Cowper Powys in Search of a Landscape. pp. 92–97.
128. ^ Harty 1996; Harty 1997
129. ^ Taylor & Brewer 1983, chapter nine; see also Higham 2002,
pp. 21–22, 30.
130. ^ Thompson 1996, p. 141
131. ^ For example: Rosemary Sutcliff’s The Lantern Bearers (1959) and Sword at Sunset (1963); Mary Stewart’s The Crystal Cave (1970) and its sequels; Parke Godwin’s Firelord (1980) and its sequels;
Stephen Lawhead’s The Pendragon Cycle (1987–99); Nikolai Tolstoy’s The Coming of the King (1988); Jack Whyte’s The Camulod Chronicles (1992–97); and Bernard Cornwell’s The Warlord Chronicles (1995–97). See List of books about King Arthur.
132. ^
Thomas 1993, pp. 128–131
133. ^ Lupack 2002, p. 2; Forbush & Forbush 1915
134. ^ Lacy 1996d, p. 364
2. Anderson, Graham (2004), King Arthur in Antiquity, London: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-31714-6.
3. Ashe, Geoffrey (1985), The Discovery of
King Arthur, Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/Doubleday, ISBN 978-0-385-19032-9.
4. Ashe, Geoffrey (1996), “Geoffrey of Monmouth”, in Lacy, Norris (ed.), The New Arthurian Encyclopedia, New York: Garland, pp. 179–182, ISBN 978-1-56865-432-4.
5. Ashe,
Geoffrey (1968), “The Visionary Kingdom”, in Ashe, Geoffrey (ed.), The Quest for Arthur’s Britain, London: Granada, ISBN 0-586-08044-9.
6. Ashley, Michael (2005), The Mammoth Book of King Arthur, London: Robinson, ISBN 978-1-84119-249-9.
7. Barber,
Richard (1986), King Arthur: Hero and Legend, Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, ISBN 0-85115-254-6.
8. Barber, Richard (2004), The Holy Grail: Imagination and Belief, London: Allen Lane, ISBN 978-0-7139-9206-9.
9. Bibliothèque nationale de France
[French National Library] (c. 1475), Français 116: Lancelot en prose [French MS 116: The Prose Lancelot] (in French), Illuminated by Évrard d’Espinques. Originally commissioned for Jacques d’Armagnac, now held by the BNF Department of Manuscripts
10. Binyon, Laurence (1923), Arthur: A Tragedy, London: Heinemann, OCLC 17768778.
11. Bradley, Marion Zimmer (1982), The Mists of Avalon, New York: Knopf, ISBN 978-0-394-52406-1.
12. Bromwich, Rachel (1978), Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The
Welsh Triads, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 978-0-7083-0690-1. 2nd ed.
13. Bromwich, Rachel (1983), “Celtic Elements in Arthurian Romance: A General Survey”, in Grout, P. B.; Diverres, Armel Hugh (eds.), The Legend of Arthur in the Middle
Ages, Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, pp. 41–55, ISBN 978-0-85991-132-0.
14. Bromwich, Rachel (1991), “First Transmission to England and France”, in Bromwich, Rachel; Jarman, A. O. H.; Roberts, Brynley F. (eds.), The Arthur of the Welsh, Cardiff:
University of Wales Press, pp. 273–298, ISBN 978-0-7083-1107-3.
15. Bromwich, Rachel; Evans, D. Simon (1992), Culhwch and Olwen. An Edition and Study of the Oldest Arthurian Tale, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, ISBN 978-0-7083-1127-1.
16. Brooke,
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