The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Salomonici), also known as the Order of Solomon’s Temple, the
Knights Templar, or simply the Templars, was a Catholic military order, one of the most wealthy and popular of the Western Christian military orders.
Following the suppression of the Order, a number of Knights Templar joined the newly established Order of Christ, which effectively reabsorbed the Knights Templar and its
properties in AD 1319, especially in Portugal.
 Apart from the Order of Christ, there is no clear historical connection between the Knights Templar and any other modern organization, the earliest of which emerged
publicly in the 18th century.
The situation was complex, however, since during the two hundred years of their existence, the Templars had become a part of daily life throughout Christendom.
 There was a cardinal rule that the warriors of the order should never surrender unless the Templar flag had fallen, and even then they were first to try to regroup with
another of the Christian orders, such as that of the Hospitallers.
With this formal blessing, the Templars became a favoured charity throughout Christendom, receiving money, land, businesses, and noble-born sons from families who were eager
to help with the fight in the Holy Land.
 Temperance movement Main articles: IOGT and Tempel Riddare Orden Many temperance organizations named themselves after the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of
the Temple of Solomon, citing the belief that the original Knights Templar “drank sour milk, and also because they were fighting ‘a great crusade’ against ‘this terrible vice’ of alcohol”.
According to some historians, King Philip, who was already deeply in debt to the Templars from his war against England, decided to seize upon the rumours for his own purposes.
Portugal was the first country in Europe where they had settled, occurring only two or three years after the order’s foundation in Jerusalem and even having presence during
The Grand Master exercised his authority via the visitors-general of the order, who were knights specially appointed by the Grand Master and convent of Jerusalem to visit
the different provinces, correct malpractices, introduce new regulations, and resolve important disputes.
 The abrupt disappearance of a major part of the European infrastructure gave rise to speculation and legends, which have kept the “Templar” name alive into the present
 Rumours about the Templars’ secret initiation ceremony created distrust, and King Philip IV of France, while being deeply in debt to the order, used this distrust to take
advantage of the situation.
The Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II reclaimed the city for Christians in the Sixth Crusade of 1229, without Templar aid, but only held it for a little more than a decade.
 Grand Masters Main article: Grand Masters of the Knights Templar Templar building at Saint Martin des Champs, France Starting with founder Hugues de Payens in 1118–1119,
the order’s highest office was that of Grand Master, a position which was held for life, though considering the martial nature of the order, this could mean a very short tenure.
 Bernard-Raymond Fabré-Palaprat produced the Larmenius Charter in 1804 with a claim of succession to the original Catholic Christian military order.
 The largest of these, the International Order of Good Templars (IOGT), grew throughout the world after being started in the 19th century and continues to advocate for
the abstinence from alcohol and other drugs; other Orders in this tradition include those of the Templars of Honor and Temperance (Tempel Riddare Orden), which has a large presence in Scandinavia.
One theory on the origin of Freemasonry claims direct descent from the historical Knights Templar through its final fourteenth-century members who were thought to have taken
refuge in Scotland and aided Robert the Bruce in his victory at Bannockburn.
After the Templars were abolished on 22 March 1312, the Order of Christ was founded in 1319 under the protection of the Portuguese king Denis, who refused
to persecute the former knights as in most other states under the influence of the Catholic Church.
 The remaining Templars around Europe were either arrested and tried under the Papal investigation (with virtually none convicted), absorbed into other Catholic
military orders, or pensioned off and allowed to live out their days peacefully.
 The Templars were closely tied to the Crusades; no longer able to secure their holdings in the Holy Land, support for the order faded.
Under his protection, Templar organizations simply changed their name, from “Knights Templar” to the reconstituted Order of Christ and also a parallel Supreme Order of Christ
of the Holy See; both are considered successors to the Knights Templar.
The order was still not subject to local government, making it everywhere a “state within a state” – its standing army, although it no longer had a well-defined mission, could
pass freely through all borders.
Although not prescribed by the Templar Rule, it later became customary for members of the order to wear long and prominent beards.
All of them were subject to the Grand Master, appointed for life, who oversaw both the order’s military efforts in the East and their financial holdings in the West.
Many sites also maintain the name “Temple” because of centuries-old association with the Templars.
 The current position of the Roman Catholic Church is that the medieval persecution of the Knights Templar was unjust, that nothing was inherently wrong with the order
or its rule, and that Pope Clement was pressed into his actions by the magnitude of the public scandal and by the dominating influence of King Philip IV, who was Clement’s relative.
 Order of Christ Further information: Order of Christ (Portugal) and History of the Order of Christ Following the dissolution of the Knights Templar,
the Order of Christ was erected in 1319 and absorbed many of the Knights Templar into its ranks, along with Knights Templar properties in Portugal.
 The white mantle was assigned to the Templars at the Council of Troyes in 1129, and the cross was most probably added to their robes at the launch of the Second Crusade
in 1147, when Pope Eugenius III, King Louis VII of France, and many other notables attended a meeting of the French Templars at their headquarters near Paris.
They were prominent in Christian finance; non-combatant members of the order, who made up as much as 90% of their members, managed a large economic infrastructure throughout
Squires were generally not members of the order but were instead outsiders who were hired for a set period of time.
The Grand Master oversaw all of the operations of the order, including both the military operations in the Holy Land and Eastern Europe and the Templars’ financial and business
dealings in Western Europe.
 Legacy With their military mission and extensive financial resources, the Knights Templar funded a large number of building projects around Europe and the Holy Land.
The Templar Order, though its members were sworn to individual poverty, was given control of wealth beyond direct donations.
 Organization The Templars were organized as a monastic order similar to Bernard’s Cistercian Order, which was considered the first effective international organization
 There have been speculative popular publications surrounding the order’s early occupation of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem as well as speculation about what relics the
Templars may have found there.
 Most brothers joined for life, although some were allowed to join for a set period.
The Templars were accused of idolatry and were suspected of worshiping either a figure known as Baphomet or a mummified severed head they recovered, amongst other artifacts,
at their original headquarters on the Temple Mount that many scholars theorize might have been that of John the Baptist, among other things.
When the rest of the Crusader army did not follow, the Templars, including their Grand Master, were surrounded and beheaded.
Two of the four Inns of Court which may call members to act as barristers are the Inner Temple and Middle Temple – the entire area known as Temple, London.
 The Portuguese king, Denis I, refused to pursue and persecute the former knights, as had occurred in all other sovereign states under the influence of the Catholic Church.
In 1119, the French knight Hugues de Payens approached King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem, and proposed creating a Catholic monastic religious
order for the protection of these pilgrims.
 The story of the persecution and sudden dissolution of the secretive yet powerful medieval Templars has drawn many other groups to use alleged connections with them
as a way of enhancing their own image and mystery.
 At dawn on Friday, 13 October 1307—a date sometimes incorrectly cited as the origin of the popular stories about Friday the 13th—King Philip IV ordered de Molay
and scores of other French Templars to be simultaneously arrested.
 Distinctive architectural elements of Templar buildings include the use of the image of “two knights on a single horse”, representing the Knights’ poverty, and round
buildings designed to resemble the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem.
Some had sufficient legal experience to defend themselves in the trials, but in 1310, having appointed the archbishop of Sens, Philippe de Marigny, to lead the investigation,
Philip blocked this attempt, using the previously forced confessions to have dozens of Templars burned at the stake in Paris.
A nobleman who was interested in participating in the Crusades might place all his assets under Templar management while he was away.
In about 1240, Alberic of Trois-Fontaines described the Templars as an “order of bearded brethren”; while during the interrogations by the papal commissioners in Paris in
1310–1311, out of nearly 230 knights and brothers questioned, 76 are described as wearing a beard, in some cases specified as being “in the style of the Templars”, and 133 are said to have shaved off their beards, either in renunciation of
the order or because they had hoped to escape detection.
 The Templars still managed many businesses, and many Europeans had daily contact with the Templar network, such as by working at a Templar farm or vineyard, or using the
order as a bank in which to store personal valuables.
 Another major benefit came in 1139, when Innocent II’s papal bull Omne Datum Optimum exempted the order from obedience to local laws.
Bernard put his weight behind them and wrote persuasively on their behalf in the letter “In Praise of the New Knighthood”, and in 1129, at the Council of Troyes, he
led a group of leading churchmen to officially approve and endorse the order on behalf of the church.
De Molay reportedly remained defiant to the end, asking to be tied in such a way that he could face the Notre Dame Cathedral and hold his hands together in prayer.
He began pressuring the church to take action against the order, as a way of freeing himself from his debts.
Templars were often the advance shock troops in key battles of the Crusades, as the heavily armoured knights on their warhorses would set out to charge at the enemy, ahead
of the main army bodies, in an attempt to break opposition lines.
 The Military Order of Christ consider themselves the successors of the former Knights Templar.
This innovative arrangement was an early form of banking and may have been the first formal system to support the use of cheques; it improved the safety of pilgrims by making
them less attractive targets for thieves, and also contributed to the Templar coffers.
 This uncompromising principle, along with their reputation for courage, excellent training, and heavy armament, made the Templars one of the most feared combat forces
in medieval times.
Some Grand Masters also served as battlefield commanders, though this was not always wise: several blunders in de Ridefort’s combat leadership contributed to the devastating
defeat at the Battle of Hattin.
The visitors-general had the power to remove knights from office and to suspend the Master of the province concerned.
In 1307, he pressured Pope Clement to have many of the order’s members in France arrested, tortured into giving false confessions, and then burned at the stake.
 According to legend, he called out from the flames that both Pope Clement and King Philip would soon meet him before God.
History Rise After the Franks in the First Crusade captured Jerusalem from the Fatimid Caliphate in 1099 A.D., many Christians made pilgrimages to various sacred sites
in the Holy Land.
 With the order’s military mission now less important, support for the organization began to dwindle.
For example, during the Siege of Ascalon in 1153, Grand Master Bernard de Tremelay led a group of 40 Templars through a breach in the city walls.
 They developed innovative financial techniques that were an early form of banking, building a network of nearly 1,000 commanderies and fortifications across Europe
and the Holy Land, and arguably forming the world’s first multinational corporation.
Officially endorsed by the Roman Catholic Church by such decrees as the papal bull Omne datum optimum of Pope Innocent II, the Templars became a favored charity throughout
Christendom and grew rapidly in membership and power.
 Freemasonry Main article: Knights Templar (Freemasonry) Freemasonry has incorporated the symbols and rituals of several medieval military orders in a number
of Masonic bodies since at least the 18th century.
Although the city of Jerusalem was relatively secure under Christian control, the rest of Outremer was not.
 As the order grew, more guidelines were added, and the original list of 72 clauses was expanded to several hundred in its final form.
 With Philip threatening military action unless the pope complied with his wishes, Pope Clement finally agreed to disband the order, citing the public scandal
that had been generated by the confessions.
At the Council of Vienne in 1312, he issued a series of papal bulls, including Vox in excelso, which officially dissolved the order, and Ad providam, which turned over most
Templar assets to the Hospitallers.
 For example, some of the Templars’ lands in London were later rented to lawyers, which led to the names of the Temple Bar gateway and the Temple Underground station.
[‘The Latin estimates of Saladin’s army are no doubt greatly exaggerated (26,000 in Tyre xxi. 23; 12,000 Turks and 9,000 Arabs in Anon.Rhen. v. 517).
2. Archer, Thomas Andrew; Kingsford, Charles Lethbridge (1894). The Crusades: The Story of the
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. T. Fisher Unwin. p. 176.; Burgtorf, Jochen (2008). The central convent of Hospitallers and Templars : history, organization, and personnel (1099/1120–1310). Leiden: Brill. pp. 545–46. ISBN 978-90-04-16660-8.
3. ^ Jump
up to:a b c Burman 1990, p. 45.
4. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Barber 1992, pp. 314–26
By Molay’s time the Grand Master was presiding over at least 970 houses, including commanderies and castles in the east and west, serviced by a membership which is
unlikely to have been less than 7,000, excluding employees and dependents, who must have been seven or eight times that number.
5. ^ Selwood, Dominic (2002). Knights of the Cloister. Templars and Hospitallers in Central-Southern Occitania 1100–1300.
Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. ISBN 978-0-85115-828-0.
6. ^ Martin 2005, p. 47.
7. ^ Nicholson 2001, p. 4.
8. ^ Barber 1994.
9. ^ Miller, Duane (2017). ‘Knights Templar’ in War and Religion, Vol. 2. Santa Barbara, California: ABC–CLIO. pp.
462–64. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
10. ^ Barber 1993.
11. ^ Barber, Malcolm (1995). The new knighthood : a history of the Order of the Temple (Canto ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. xxi–xxii. ISBN 978-0-521-55872-3.
12. ^ Burman
1990, pp. 13, 19.
13. ^ Selwood, Dominic (20 April 2013). “Birth of the Order”. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
14. ^ Barber 1994, p. 7.
15. ^ Read 2001, p. 91.
16. ^ Selwood, Dominic (28 May 2013). “The Knights Templar 4: St Bernard of Clairvaux”.
Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
17. ^ Selwood, Dominic (1996). “‘Quidam autem dubitaverunt’: the Saint, the Sinner and a Possible Chronology”. Autour de la Première Croisade. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne.
pp. 221–230. ISBN 978-2-85944-308-5.
18. ^ Barber 1994, p. 56.
19. ^ Burman 1990, p. 40.
20. ^ Stevenson 1907, p. 218.
21. ^ Stephen A. Dafoe. “In Praise of the New Knighthood”. TemplarHistory.com. Archived from the original on 26 March 2017.
Retrieved 20 March 2007.
22. ^ Martin 2005.
23. ^ Ralls, Karen (2007). Knights Templar Encyclopedia. Career Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-56414-926-8.
24. ^ Benson, Michael (2005). Inside Secret Societies. Kensington. p. 90.
25. ^ Martin 2005,
26. ^ Martin 2005, p. 113.
27. ^ Demurger, p. 139. “During four years, Jacques de Molay and his order were totally committed, with other Christian forces of Cyprus and Armenia, to an enterprise of reconquest of the Holy Land, in liaison
with the offensives of Ghazan, the Mongol Khan of Persia.”
28. ^ Nicholson 2001, p. 201
The Templars retained a base on Arwad island (also known as Ruad island, formerly Arados) off Tortosa (Tartus) until October 1302 or 1303, when the island was
recaptured by the Mamluks.
29. ^ Nicholson 2001, p. 5.
30. ^ Nicholson 2001, p. 237.
31. ^ Barber 2006.
32. ^ “Convent of Christ in Tomar”. World Heritage Site. Archived from the original on 31 December 2006. Retrieved 20 March 2007.
“Friday the 13th”. snopes.com. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
34. ^ David Emery. “Why Friday the 13th is unlucky”. urbanlegends.about.com. Retrieved 26 March 2007.
35. ^ Jump up to:a b “Les derniers jours des Templiers”. Science et Avenir: 52–61. July
36. ^ Riley-Smith, Johnathan (1995). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades. Oxford: Oxford Press. p. 213.
37. ^ Rice, Joshua (1 June 2022). “Burn in Hell”. History Today. 72 (6): 16–18.
38. ^ Dodd, Gwilym; Musson, Anthony (2006).
The Reign of Edward II: New Perspectives. Boydell & Brewer. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-903153-19-2.
39. ^ Barber 1993, p. 178.
40. ^ Edgeller, Johnathan (2010). Taking the Templar Habit: Rule, Initiation Ritual, and the Accusations against the Order (PDF).
Texas Tech University. pp. 62–66. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011.
41. ^ Martin 2005, p. 118.
42. ^ Martin 2005, p. 122.
43. ^ Sobecki 2006, p. 963.
44. ^ Jump up to:a b Barber 1993, p. 3.
45. ^ Martin 2005, pp. 123–24.
Martin 2005, p. 125.
47. ^ Martin 2005, p. 140.
48. ^ Malcolm Barber has researched this legend and concluded that it originates from La Chronique métrique attribuée à Geffroi de Paris, ed. A. Divèrres, Strasbourg, 1956, pp. 5711–5742. Geoffrey
of Paris was “apparently an eye-witness, who describes de Molay as showing no sign of fear and, significantly, as telling those present that God would avenge their deaths”. Barber 2006, p. 357, footnote 110
49. ^ In The New Knighthood, Barber referred
to a variant of this legend, about how an unspecified Templar had appeared before and denounced Clement V and, when he was about to be executed sometime later, warned that both Pope and King would “within a year and a day be obliged to explain their
crimes in the presence of God”, found in the work by Ferreto of Vicenza, Historia rerum in Italia gestarum ab anno 1250 ad annum usque 1318 (Barber 1994, pp. 314–15).
50. ^ Templários no condado portucalense antes do reconhecimento formal da ordem:
O caso de Braga no início do séc. XII – Revista da Faculdade de Letras [Templars in the County of Portucale before the formal recognition of the order: The case of Braga in early 12th century], Ciências e Técnicas do Património, Porto 2013, Volume
XII, pp. 231–243. Author: Paula Pinto Costa, FLUP/CEPESE (University of Porto)
51. ^ “The Order of Christ and the Papacy”. 6 May 2008. Archived from the original on 6 May 2008.
52. ^ Martin 2005, pp. 140–42.
53. ^ Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913).
“Order of the Knights of Christ” . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
54. ^ Jump up to:a b Matthew Anthony Fitzsimons; Jean Bécarud (1969). The Catholic Church today: Western Europe. University of Notre Dame Press. p. 159.
Jump up to:a b Helen J. Nicholson (1 January 2004). The Crusades. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-313-32685-1.
56. ^ “Note of Clarification from the Secretariat of State”. news.va. Pontifical Council for Social Communication. 16 October
2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012. Vatican City,(VIS)-
57. ^ Noonan, James-Charles, Jr. (1996). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church. Viking. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-670-86745-5.
58. ^ Jump up to:a b Robert
Ferguson (26 August 2011). The Knights Templar and Scotland. History Press Limited. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-7524-6977-5.
59. ^ Jump up to:a b Jochen, Burgtorf; Paul F., Crawford; Helen J., Nicholson (28 June 2013). The Debate on the Trial of the Templars
(1307–1314). Ashgate. p. 298. ISBN 978-1-4094-8102-7.
60. ^ Charles d’Aigrefeuille, Histoire de la ville de Montpellier, Volume 2, p. 193 (Montpellier: J. Martel, 1737–1739).
61. ^ Sophia Menache, Clement V, p. 218, 2002 paperback edition ISBN
0-521-59219-4 (Cambridge University Press, originally published in 1998).
62. ^ Germain-François Poullain de Saint-Foix, Oeuvres complettes de M. de Saint-Foix, Historiographe des Ordres du Roi, p. 287, Volume 3 (Maestricht: Jean-Edme Dupour & Philippe
Roux, Imprimeurs-Libraires, associés, 1778).
63. ^ Étienne Baluze, Vitae Paparum Avenionensis, 3 Volumes (Paris, 1693).
64. ^ Pierre Dupuy, Histoire de l’Ordre Militaire des Templiers (Foppens, Brusselles, 1751).
65. ^ Frale, Barbara (2004).
“The Chinon chart – Papal absolution to the last Templar, Master Jacques de Molay”. Journal of Medieval History. 30 (2): 109–34. doi:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2004.03.004. S2CID 153985534.
66. ^ Burman 1990, p. 28.
67. ^ Barber 1993, p. 10.
68. ^ International,
American. “The Knights Templar and Knights Hospitaller”. www.medievalwarfare.info. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
69. ^ Selwood, Dominic (20 March 2013). “The Knights Templar 1: The Knights”. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
70. ^ The Rule of the Templars.
p. article 17.
71. ^ Barber 1994, p. 190.
72. ^ Martin 2005, p. 54.
73. ^ Moeller 1912.
74. ^ Selwood, Dominic (7 April 2013). “The Knights Templars 2: Sergeants, Women, Chaplains, Affiliates”. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved
12 April 2013.
75. ^ Read 2001, p. 137.
76. ^ Hourihane, Colum (2012). “Flags and standards”. The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture. OUP USA. p. 514. ISBN 978-0-19-539536-5. the Knights Templar […] carried white shields with
red crosses but [their] sacred banner, Beauséant, was white with a black chief
77. ^ Burman 1990, p. 43.
78. ^ Burman 1990, p. 30–33.
79. ^ Martin 2005, p. 32.
80. ^ Barber 1994, p. 191.
81. ^ Jump up to:a b Burman 1990, p. 44.
82. ^ Barber
1994, p. 66
According to William of Tyre it was under Eugenius III that the Templars received the right to wear the characteristic red cross upon their tunics, symbolising their willingness to suffer martyrdom in the defence of the Holy Land.
12.7, p. 554. James of Vitry, ‘Historia Hierosolimatana’, ed. J. ars, Gesta Dei per Francos, vol I(ii), Hanover, 1611, p. 1083, interprets this as a sign of martyrdom.)
83. ^ Martin 2005, p. 43
The Pope conferred on the Templars the right to
wear a red cross on their white mantles, which symbolised their willingness to suffer martyrdom in defending the Holy Land against the infidel.
84. ^ Read 2001, p. 121
Pope Eugenius gave them the right to wear a scarlet cross over their hearts,
so that the sign would serve triumphantly as a shield and they would never turn away in the face of the infidels’: the red blood of the martyr was superimposed on the white of the chaste.” (Melville, La Vie des Templiers, p. 92.)
85. ^ Burman 1990,
86. ^ Nicholson 2001, p. 141.
87. ^ Barber 1994, p. 193.
88. ^ Harris, Oliver D. (2013). “Beards: true and false”. Church Monuments. 28: 124–32 (124–25).
89. ^ Nicholson 2001, pp. 48, 124–27.
90. ^ Martin 2005, p. 52.
91. ^ Newman,
Sharan (2007). The Real History Behind the Templars. Berkeley Publishing. pp. 304–12.
92. ^ Barber 1993, p. 4.
93. ^ Martin 2005, p. 58.
94. ^ Ruggeri, Amanda. “The hidden world of the Knights Templar”. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
95. ^ Barber
1994, pp. 194–95.
96. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Ralls, Karen (2007). Knights Templar Encyclopedia: The Essential Guide to the People, Places, Events, and Symbols of the Order of the Temple. Red Wheel Weiser Conari. p. 53. ISBN 978-1-56414-926-8. Founded
in Portugal and approved by papal bull in 1319, after the suppression of their Order in 1312, a number of Templars joined the newly established Order of Christ. The knights of this Order became known as the Knights of Christ. The wore a white mantle
with a red cross that had a white twist in the middle, which also has been translated as a double cross of red and silver in some medieval documents. Initially, the Order of Christ was located at Castro Marim; later, its headquarters was relocated
to Tomar, the location of the castle of the Knights Templar.
97. ^ Jump up to:a b c Gourdin, Theodore S. (1855). Historical Sketch of the Order of Knights Templar. Walker & Evans. p. 22. Upon the suppression of the Order of Templars in Portugal,
their estates were given to this equestrian militia. The name of the Order was changed to that of the Order of Christ. The Templars in Portugal suffered comparatively little persecution, and the Order of Christ, since its foundation in 1317, has always
been protected by the sovereigns of that country, and also by the Popes of Rome.
98. ^ Finlo Rohrer (19 October 2007). “What are the Knights Templar up to now?”. BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 13 April 2008.
99. ^ The Mythology Of The Secret Societies
(London: Secker and Warburg, 1972). ISBN 0-436-42030-9
100. ^ Peter Partner, The Murdered Magicians: The Templars And Their Myth (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982). ISBN 0-19-215847-3
101. ^ John Walliss, Apocalyptic Trajectories: Millenarianism
and Violence In The Contemporary World, p. 130 (Bern: Peter Lang AG, European Academic Publishers, 2004). ISBN 3-03910-290-7
102. ^ Michael Haag, Templars: History and Myth: From Solomon’s Temple To The Freemasons (Profile Books Ltd, 2009). ISBN
103. ^ F. A. Dutra, “Dinis, King of Portugal”, in Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia (Routledge, 2003), p. 285.
104. ^ Jump up to:a b Nicholson, Helen (2014). A Brief History of the Knights Templar. Little, Brown. p. 151. ISBN
105. ^ Ammerman, Robert T.; Ott, Peggy J.; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999). Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-1-135-67215-7.
106. ^ Clausen, Daniel (2021). Templar Succession: Establishing
Continuity 1307-Present. USA: Codex Spiritualis Press. pp. 95–111. ISBN 979-8465277525.
107. ^ Malet, David (2013). Foreign Fighters: Transnational Identity in Civic Conflicts. Oxford University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-0-19-993945-9.
108. ^ Jump
up to:a b Napier, Gordon (2011). A to Z of the Knights Templar: A Guide to Their History and Legacy. History Press. p. 424. ISBN 978-0-7524-7362-8.
109. ^ Clausen, Daniel (2021). Templar Succession: Establishing Continuity 1307-Present. Codex Spiritualis
Press. pp. 21–61. ISBN 979-8465277525.
110. ^ Knights Templar FAQ, accessed 10 January 2007.
111. ^ “Freemasonry Today periodical (Issue January 2002)”. Grand Lodge Publications Ltd. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 28 May
112. ^ Miller, Duane (2017). ‘Knights Templar’ in War and Religion, Vol 2. Santa Barbara, California: ABC–CLIO. p. 464. Retrieved 28 May 2017.
113. ^ The History Channel, Decoding the Past: The Templar Code, 7 November 2005, video documentary
written by Marcy Marzuni.
114. ^ Magy Seif El-Nasr; Maha Al-Saati; Simon Niedenthal; David Milam. “Assassin’s Creed: A Multi-Cultural Read”. pp. 6–7. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009. we interviewed
Jade Raymond … Jade says … Templar Treasure was ripe for exploring. What did the Templars find
115. ^ Martin 2005, p. 133. Helmut Brackert, Stephan Fuchs (eds.), Titurel, Walter de Gruyter, 2002, p. 189 Archived 1 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine.
There is no evidence of any actual connection of the historical Templars with the Grail, nor any claim on the part of any Templar to have discovered such a relic. See Karen Ralls, Knights Templar Encyclopedia: The Essential Guide to the People, Places,
Events and Symbols of the Order of the Temple, p. 156 (The Career Press, Inc., 2007). ISBN 978-1-56414-926-8
116. ^ Louis Charpentier, Les Mystères de la Cathédrale de Chartres (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1966), translated The Mysteries of Chartres
Cathedral (London: Research Into Lost Knowledge Organization, 1972).
117. ^ Sanello, Frank (2003). The Knights Templars: God’s Warriors, the Devil’s Bankers. Taylor Trade Publishing. pp. 207–08. ISBN 978-0-87833-302-8.
b. Isle of Avalon, Lundy.
“The Rule of the Knights Templar A Powerful Champion” The Knights Templar. Mystic Realms, 2010. Web
c. Barber, Malcolm (1994). The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-42041-9.
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