This typically requires a small aperture (a high f-stop, usually between 11 and 13 is best for clarity and depth of field), which creates only a small hole for the light to
come into the camera from the lens, ensuring that as much of the field of view is in focus as possible (see: depth of field).
 However, if there is movement in the scene, and the scene is in lower light—as with cloudy days, twilight, night, or in shaded areas—a higher ISO (up to the limits
of the film or camera sensor, depending upon the shortage of light) may be desirable, to ensure that fast shutter speeds can be used to “freeze” the motion.
 Lighting and flash Ocean at night – 383 second exposure Normally, landscape photography—being focused primarily on natural beauty—tends to be done with only
naturally occurring ambient light.
 Subjects Farm landscape, in this case a rapeseed field in France Landscape photography commonly involves daylight photography of natural features of land, sky and
waters, at a distance—though some landscapes may involve subjects in a scenic setting nearby, even close-up, and sometimes at night.
Telephoto lenses can also facilitate limited ranges of focus, to enable the photographer to emphasize a specific area, at a fairly specific distance, in sharp focus, with
the foreground and background blurred (see: depth of field).
 However, a larger-format camera yields a more limited depth of field (range of the scene that is in focus) for a given aperture value, requiring greater
care in focusing (see: “Shutter Speed and Aperture”, below).
 In some cases, a slow shutter speed is desired to show movement of the subjects, particularly moving water or the effects of wind.
Photographers use these filters to lower natural contrasts by reducing light transmission from the brightest portion of the subject landscape, while letting light from the
darker portion of the landscape enter the lens unobstructed.
However, given the broad expanses of open space that tend to dominate in landscape photography, artificial lighting is typically ineffective, or even destructive (causing
the foreground to be wildly over-lit, and the background to become overly dark).
However, landscape photography often overlaps the activity of wildlife photography and the two terms are used somewhat interchangeably; both wildlife and landscapes may be
elements of the same picture or body of work.
Methods (technical) Landscape photography typically requires relatively simple photographic equipment, though more sophisticated equipment can give a wider range of possibilities
to the art.
However, higher ISO settings (“fast film”) can result in grainy pictures and poor capture of details, especially at a distance.
: reflectors) for “fill” in shadowy areas is often used in close-up landscape photography (e.g.
 Many landscape photographs show little or no human activity and are created in the pursuit of a pure, unsullied depiction of nature, devoid of human influence—instead
featuring subjects such as strongly defined landforms, weather, and ambient light.
Landscape photographs typically capture the presence of nature but can also focus on man-made features or disturbances of landscapes.
While variable-range zoom lenses are widely used, some landscape photographers prefer fixed-range prime lenses to provide higher clarity and quality in the image.
 Further, landscape photography is typically of relatively stationary subjects—arguably a form of “still life.”
Some modern, high-quality cameras also provide image stabilization, which compensates for vibration by moving inner workings of the camera, or electronically correcting the
 Medium: film or digital sensor The sensitivity to light, of the medium—the film or the digital camera sensor—is important in landscape photography,
especially where great detail is required.
However, medium-range to telephoto lenses can achieve satisfying imagery, as well, and can enable the capture of detailed scenery of smaller areas at greater distances.
 Shutter speed and aperture Moving water – shutter speed 1/4 second With cameras that allow a variety of shutter speeds and lens apertures, landscape
photographers tend to prefer settings that allow all of the viewed area to be in sharp focus.
Landscape photography shows the spaces within the world, sometimes vast and unending, but other times microscopic.
 However, any firm surface unaffected by vibration, wind or human contact may offer similar benefits.
In bright daylight, a “slow film” (low-ISO film), or low-ISO digital camera sensor sensitivity setting (typically ISO 100, or perhaps 200), is generally preferred, allowing
maximum precision and evenness of image.
To some extent, a higher-ISO film or digital camera setting can compensate without the need to alter shutter speed or aperture.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jimoliverphotography/4702438868/’]