laurus nobilis


  • Ground bay leaves, however, can be ingested safely and are often used in soups and stocks, as well as being a common addition to a Bloody Mary.

  • [30] East Asia[edit] An early Chinese etiological myth for the phases of the moon involved a great forest or tree which quickly grew and lost its leaves and flowers every

  • Worldwide, many other kinds of plants in diverse families are also called “bay” or “laurel”, generally due to similarity of foliage or aroma to Laurus nobilis.

  • [27] The sprig grew into a full-size tree which fostered an entire grove of laurel trees, which were in turn added to by subsequent Emperors when they celebrated a triumph.

  • Finland[edit] The laurel leaves in the right side of the coat of arms of Kaskinen The laurel leaves in the coat of arms of Kaskinen, Finland (Swedish: Kaskö) may have been
    meant to refer to local flowering, but its origin may also be in the name of the family Bladh (Swedish: blad; ‘leaf’); two members of the family – a father and a son – acquired both town rights and the status of staple town for the village
    at the time.

  • However, in English, it is often associated with the more well-known cassia (Cinnamomum cassia, now known in Chinese as the 肉桂 or “meat gui”) while, in modern Chinese, it
    has instead become associated with the Mediterranean laurel.

  • [8] Whole bay leaves are used almost exclusively as flavor agents during the food preparation stage.

  • The tree was originally identified as a 桂 (guì) and described in the terms of the osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans, now known in Chinese as the 桂花 or “gui flower”), whose blossoms
    are still used to flavor wine and confections for the Mid-Autumn Festival.

  • Human uses Food[edit] The plant is the source of several popular herbs and one spice used in a wide variety of recipes, particularly among Mediterranean cuisines.

  • [19] Bay laurel was used to fashion the laurel wreath of ancient Greece, a symbol of highest status.

  • However it is slow-growing and may take several years to reach the desired height.

  • [34][35] Chemical constituents[edit] The most abundant component found in laurel essential oil is 1,8-cineole, also called eucalyptol.

  • [6] The fruit is a small, shiny black berry-like drupe about 1 cm (3⁄8 in) long[6] that contains one seed.

  • [8] Whole bay leaves have a long shelf life of about one year, under normal temperature and humidity.

  • [12] One of the most important pests affecting ornamental laurels is caused by Trioza alacris (Triozidae), which induces the curling and thickening of the edge of the leaves
    for the development of the insect’s nymphs, eventually creating a necrosed gall.

  • [2] The genus Laurus includes four accepted species,[4] whose diagnostic key characters often overlap.

  • It led ancient Romans to believe the plant was inhabited by a “heavenly fire demon”, and was therefore “immune” from outer threats like fire or lightning.

  • [20] Some accounts starting in the fourth century BC describe her as shaking a laurel branch while delivering her prophecies.

  • [24][25] It is also the source of the words baccalaureate and poet laureate, as well as the expressions “assume the laurel” and “resting on one’s laurels”.

  • [27] Rome’s second Emperor Tiberius wore wreaths of laurel whenever there was stormy weather because it was widely believed that Laurel trees were immune to lightning strikes,
    affording protection to those who brandished it.

  • [18] Other versions of the myth, including that of the Roman poet Ovid, state that Daphne was transformed directly into a laurel tree.

  • Its common names include bay tree (esp.

  • It is used in topiary to create single erect stems with ball-shaped, box-shaped or twisted crowns; also for low hedges.


Works Cited

[‘1. Khela, S.; Wilson, B. (2018). “Laurus nobilis”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T203351A119996864. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T203351A119996864.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b c Stace, C. A. (2010). New Flora
of the British Isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521707725.
3. ^ Brown, R.W. (1956). Composition of scientific words: A manual of methods and a lexicon of materials for the practice of logotechnics. Washington,
D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
4. ^ “The Plant List:Laurus”. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
5. ^ Mabberley, The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants, Cambridge University
Press, 19 Jun 1997
6. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Vaughan, John Griffith; Geissler, Catherine (2009). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-19-954946-7. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
7. ^ Konstantinidou, E.;
Takos, I.; Merou, T. (2008). “Desiccation and storage behavior of bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) seeds”. European Journal of Forest Research. 127 (2): 125–131. doi:10.1007/s10342-007-0189-z. S2CID 28898196.
8. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Green, Aliza (2006).
Field Guide to Herbs & Spices. Philadelphia: Quirk Books. ISBN 978-1-59474-082-4. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
9. ^ Brickell, Christopher, ed. (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley.
p. 614. ISBN 9781405332965.
10. ^ “Laurus nobilis ‘Aurea'”. RHS. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
11. ^ “RHS Plantfinder – Laurus nobilis f. angustifolia”. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
12. ^ “Laurus nobilis”. RHS. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
13. ^ Jump
up to:a b De Alfonso, M.; Olmeda1, A.; Rodrigo, E.; Xamaní, P.; Sánchez–Domingo, A.; Laborda, R. (2014). “Evaluación de diferentes métodos de control de plagas en cultivo de laurel ornamental e impacto en la fauna útil asociada” (PDF). VI Jornadas
Ibéricas de Horticultura Ornamental: Las buenas prácticas agrícolas en horticultura ornamental. pp. 50–51. ISBN 978-84-617-3020-9.
14. ^ Nayak, S; Nalabothu, P; Sandiford, S; Bhogadi, V; Adogwa, A (2006). “Evaluation of wound healing activity of
Allamanda cathartica. L. and Laurus nobilis. L. extracts on rats”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 6: 12. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-12. PMC 1456996. PMID 16597335..
15. ^ Encyclopedia of Herbs. “Bay Laurel: Laurus nobilis”.
Archived from the original on 19 November 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
16. ^ Wood, Jamie; Steinke, Lisa (2010). The Faerie’s Guide to Green Magick from the Garden. New York: Random House. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-58761-354-8. Retrieved 2010-12-31.
17. ^
Pliny the Elder. Natural History. p. XXIII.43.
18. ^ Robert Graves (1955). The Greek Myths: Part 1. Penguin Books. p. 21.k-21.L.
19. ^ “The Metamorphoses”. Archived from the original on April 19, 2005. Retrieved 2017-11-17. Translation by A. S.
Kline, 2000.
20. ^ Scott, Michael (2014). Delphi. Princeton University Press. p. 20.
21. ^ J.O. Swahn (1991). The Lore of Spices. Random House. p. 40.
22. ^ De Cleene, Marcel; Lejeune, Marie Claire (2003). Compendium of symbolic and ritual plants
in Europe, Volume 1. Man & Culture. p. 129. OCLC 482791069.
23. ^ Pliny the Elder. Natural History Book XV.39.
24. ^ Jump up to:a b Annette Giesecke (2014). The Mythology of Plants: Botanical Lore from Ancient Greece and Rome. J. Paul Getty Museum.
pp. 35–36.
25. ^ Jump up to:a b Pliny the Elder. Natural History Book XV, 35.
26. ^ Pliny the Elder. Natural History Book XV.135.
27. ^ Jump up to:a b Suetonius. Galba Book 7, 1.
28. ^ Jump up to:a b Eugene S. McCartney (1929). “Why Did Tiberius
Wear Laurel in the Form of a Crown During Thunder Storms”. Classical Philology. Classical Philology Vol. 24 No. 2. 24 (2): 201–203. doi:10.1086/361124. S2CID 162098134.
29. ^ Suetonius. Tiberius, 69.
30. ^ “Corona d’alloro fai da te” by Gabriella
Massara,, retrieved April 2018
31. ^ Brendon, Juliet & al. The Moon Year: A Record of Chinese Customs and Festivals, p. 410. Kelly & Walsh, 1927. Reprinted Routledge
(Abingdon), 2011. Accessed 13 November 2013.
32. ^ Zdic. “蟾宫折桂”. 2013. Accessed 13 November 2013. (in Chinese)
33. ^ 杜近芳 [Du Jinfang]. 《红楼梦汉英习语词典》 [“A Dictionary of Chinese Idioms in the Dream of the Red Chamber”]. 2003. Accessed 13 November 2013.
(in English) & (in Chinese)
34. ^ Suomen kunnallisvaakunat (in Finnish). Suomen Kunnallisliitto. 1982. p. 117. ISBN 951-773-085-3.
35. ^ Бойко Дм. А. Геральдика Великого Княжества Финляндского. – Запорожье, 2013. (in Russia)
36. ^ Kilic, Ayben;
Hafizoglu, Harzemsah; Kollmannsberger, Hubert; Nitz, Siegfried (2004). “Volatile Constituents and Key Odorants in Leaves, Buds, Flowers, and Fruits of Laurus nobilisL”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52 (6): 1601–6. doi:10.1021/jf0306237.
PMID 15030218.
37. ^ Panza, E; Tersigni, M; Iorizzi, M; Zollo, F; De Marino, S; Festa, C; Napolitano, M; Castello, G; et al. (2011). “Lauroside B, a megastigmane glycoside from Laurus nobilis (bay laurel) leaves, induces apoptosis in human melanoma
cell lines by inhibiting NF-κB activation”. Journal of Natural Products. 74 (2): 228–33. doi:10.1021/np100688g. PMID 21188975.
Photo credit:’]