Most twenty-first century historians think that it was originally a settlement established shortly after the Claudian invasion of Britain, on the current site of the City
of London around 47–50 AD, but some defend an older view that the city originated in a defensive enclosure constructed during the Claudian invasion in 43 AD.
“ The city’s Latin name seems to have derived from an originally Brittonic one and significant pre-Roman finds in the Thames, especially the Battersea Shield (Chelsea
Bridge, perhaps 4th-century BC) and the Wandsworth Shield (perhaps 1st-century BC), both assumed to be votive offerings deposited a couple of miles upstream of Londinium, suggest the general area was busy and significant.
The precise date of this change is unknown, and no surviving source explicitly states that Londinium was “the capital of Britain,” but there are several strong indications
of this status: 2nd-century roofing tiles have been found marked by the “Procurator” or “Publican of the Province of Britain at Londinium”, the remains of a governor’s palace and tombstones belonging to the governor’s staff have been discovered,
and the city was well defended and armed, with a new military camp erected at the beginning of the 2nd century in a fort on the north-western edge of the city, despite being far from any frontier.
The governor’s palace and old large forum seem to have fallen out of use around 300, but in general the first half of the 4th century appears to have been a prosperous
time for Britain, for the villa estates surrounding London appear to have flourished during this period.
 1st century A model of London in 85–90 AD on display in the Museum of London, depicting the first bridge over the River Thames, shown as having been of largely
wooden construction After the sack of the city by Boudica and her defeat, a large military fort covering was built at Plantation Place on Cornhill, with 3m-high banks and enclosed by 3m deep double ditches.
The Roman city ultimately covered at least the area of the City of London, whose boundaries are largely defined by its former wall.
 Following its foundation in the mid-1st century, early Roman London occupied a relatively small area, about 350 acres roughly the area of present-day Hyde Park.
The present structure of St Peter upon Cornhill was designed by Christopher Wren following the Great Fire in 1666, but it stands upon the highest point in the area of old
Londinium and medieval legends tied it to the city’s earliest Christian community.
 It sat at a key ford at the River Thames which turned the city into a road nexus and major port (which was built between 49 and 52 AD), serving as a major commercial
centre in Roman Britain until its abandonment during the 5th century.
 The possible existence of the shrine room is supported by 19th-century excavations under Gracechurch Street, immediately adjacent to the church’s eastern end.
 A model of the expanded forum at the Museum of London Stela mentioning the Londiniensi (‘Londoners’)Reconstruction drawing of Londinium, c. 120 AD During the early 2nd
century, Londinium was at its height, having recovered from the fire and again had between 45,000 and 60,000 inhabitants around 140, with many more stone houses and public buildings erected.
Following the foundation of the town in the mid-1st century, early Londinium occupied the relatively small area of 0.5 sq mi, roughly half the area of the modern City of London
and equivalent to the size of present-day Hyde Park.
Along with Hadrian’s Wall and the road network, the London Wall was one of the largest construction projects carried out in Roman Britain.
 Another memorial to the return of Londinium to Roman control was the construction of a new set of forum baths around 300.
The wall survived another 1,600 years and still roughly defines the City of London’s perimeter.
This community must have had some meeting place, and apart from St Peter’s no other location has yet been proposed, either in antiquity or in the modern era.
However, the east end of St Peter’s and its high altar, is also positioned above the area where some basilicas of the period had a pagan shrine room (also known as an aedes).
During the later decades of the 1st century, Londinium expanded rapidly, becoming Britannia’s largest city, and it was provided with large public buildings such as a forum
 History Founding See also: Roman conquest of Britain Unlike many cities of Roman Britain, Londinium was not placed on the site of a native settlement or oppidum.
 Most of these were constructed near the time of the city’s foundation around 47 AD.
The impressive public buildings from around this period may have been initially constructed in preparation for his visit or during the rebuilding that followed the “Hadrianic
Suetonius’s flight back to his men, the razing of Verulamium (St Albans), and the battle shortly thereafter at “a place with narrow jaws, backed by a forest”, speaks
against the tradition, and no supporting archaeological evidence has been yet discovered.
The end of imperial expansion in Britain after Hadrian’s decision to build his wall may have also damaged the city’s economy.
 Forums elsewhere typically had a civic temple constructed within the enclosed market area; British sites usually did not, instead placing a smaller shrine for Roman services
somewhere within the basilica.
A round temple has been located west of the city, although its dedication remains unclear.
The London Wall survived for another 1,600 years and broadly defined the perimeter of the old City of London.
There is a long-standing folklore belief that this battle took place at King’s Cross, simply because as a mediaeval village it was known as Battle Bridge.
The London Stone may originally have been part of the palace’s main entrance.
 It had almost certainly been granted colony (colonia) status prior to the complete replanning of the city’s street plan attending the erection of the great second forum
around the year 120.
Substantial suburbs existed at St Martin-in-the-Fields in Westminster and around the southern end of the Thames bridge in Southwark, where excavations in 1988] and 2021 have
revealed an elaborate building with fine mosaics and frescoed walls dating from 72 AD.
A large building discovered near Cannon Street Station has had its foundation dated to this era and is assumed to have been the governor’s palace.
(It was customary elsewhere to name roads after the emperor during whose principate they were completed, but the number and vicinity of routes completed during the time of
Claudius would seem to have made this impractical in Britain’s case.)
Another site dating to this era is the bathhouse (thermae) at Huggin Hill, which remained in use prior to its demolition around the year 200.
Archaeologists have uncovered numerous goods imported from across the Roman Empire in this period, suggesting that early Roman London was a highly cosmopolitan community of
merchants from across the empire and that local markets existed for such objects.
 If St Peter’s was built in the roman era, it would make the church contemporaneous to the potential Romano-British church at Silchester, similarly built adjacent to
the Roman Basilica and most likely pre-Constantine in age.
 By the turn of the century, Londinium was perhaps as large as 60,000 people and had replaced Camulodunum (Colchester) as the provincial capital.
Wheeler proposed that a Christian church might have been established on its site and that this accounted for the later medieval legends.
 Fire destroyed substantial areas of the city in the area north of the Thames but does not seem to have damaged many major public buildings.
Excavations have discovered evidence of a major fire that destroyed much of the city shortly thereafter, but the city was again rebuilt.
 Its three-storey basilica was probably visible across the city and was the largest in the empire north of the Alps; the marketplace rivalled those in Rome and
was the largest in the north before Augusta Treverorum (Trier, Germany) became an imperial capital.
 Port A diagram of the Roman structures from the port of Londinium (c. AD 100) excavated along the north bank of the Thames, with warehouses at right A large port
complex on both banks near London Bridge was discovered during the 1980s.
 The remains of a massive pier base for such a bridge were found in 1981 close by the modern London Bridge.
 The governor’s palace was rebuilt, and an expanded forum was built around the earlier one over a period of 30 years from around 90 to 120 into a square measuring
168 m × 167 m (551 ft × 548 ft).
The wall partially utilised the army’s existing fort, strengthening its outer wall with a second course of stone to match the rest of the course.
The city was eventually rebuilt as a planned Roman town, its streets generally adhering to a grid skewed by major roads passing from the bridgehead and by changes in alignment
produced by crossings over the local streams.
Londinium expanded around the point on the River Thames narrow enough for the construction of a Roman bridge but still deep enough to handle the era’s seagoing ships.
Londinium is universally supposed to have been the capital of one of them, but it remains unclear where the new provinces were, whether there were initially three or four
in total, and whether Valentia represented a fifth province or a renaming of an older one.
Some time between 190 and 225, the Romans built the London Wall, a defensive ragstone wall around the landward side of the city.
The so-called fire is not mentioned in any historical sources but has been inferred by evidence of large-scale burning identified by archaeologists on several excavation sites
around the City of London.
Several major building projects at this time such as roads, a new quay and a water lifting machine indicate the army had a key role in reconstruction.
Although Londinium remained important for the rest of the Roman period, no further expansion occurred.
Some time between 190 and 225, the Romans built a defensive wall around the landward side of the city.
The first forum in Londinium seems to have had a full temple, but placed outside just west of the forum.
 There was probably a ford in that part of the river; other Roman and Celtic finds suggest this was perhaps where the opposed crossing Julius Caesar describes in 54 BC
It is possible that the town was preceded by a short-lived Roman military camp, but the evidence is limited and this topic remains a matter of debate.
 Prior to the arrival of the Roman legions, the area was almost certainly lightly rolling open countryside traversed by numerous streams now underground.
Current research suggests it was very rare for early English Christian churches to be founded in pagan temples and that when temples were turned into churches, this occurred
later, in the late 6th century and onwards.
Although Londinium remained important for the rest of the Roman period, no further expansion resulted.
Despite the smaller administrative area, the economic stimulus provided by the wall and by Septimius Severus’s campaigns in Caledonia somewhat revived London’s fortunes in
the early 3rd century.
A temple complex with two Romano-British temples was excavated at Empire Square, Long Lane, Southwark in 2002/2003.
 This was also true elsewhere in the Roman Empire; for example in Rome.
 An early historical record of London appears in Tacitus’s account of his actions upon arriving and finding the state of the 9th Legion: At first, [Paulinus] hesitated
as to whether to stand and fight there.
 Only two large warehouses are known, implying that Londinium functioned as a bustling trade centre rather than a supply depot and distribution centre like Ostia near
 From about 255 onwards, raiding by Saxon pirates led to the construction of a riverside wall as well.
Londinium remained well populated, as archaeologists have found that much of the city after this date was covered in dark earth which accumulated relatively undisturbed over
It ran roughly along the course of present-day Thames Street, which roughly formed the shoreline.
Although the reason for the wall’s construction is unknown, some historians have connected it with the Pictish invasion of the 180s.
Two hundred ill-equipped men were sent to defend the provincial capital and Roman colony at Camulodunum, probably from the garrison at Londinium.
 3rd century Ulpius Silvanus’s Tauroctony depicting Mithras killing the bull, discovered in the ruins of the London Mithraeum Septimius Severus defeated Albinus
in 197 and shortly afterwards divided the province of Britain into Upper and Lower halves, with the former controlled by a new governor in Eboracum (York).
The northern wall reached Bishopsgate and Cripplegate near the former site of the Museum of London, a course now marked by the street “London Wall”.
 Location The site guarded the Romans’ bridgehead on the north bank of the Thames and a major road nexus shortly after the invasion.
 By the 2nd century, Londinium had grown to perhaps 30,000 or 60,000 people, almost certainly replacing Camulodunum (Colchester) as the provincial capital, and by the
mid-2nd century Londinium was at its height.
(The names of all these gates are medieval, as they continued to be occasionally refurbished and replaced until their demolition in the 17th and 18th centuries to permit widening
[‘1. Note that this image includes both the garrison fort, which was demolished in the 3rd century, and the Mithraeum, which was abandoned around the same time. The identification of the “governor’s palace” remains conjectural.
2. ^ Hingley, Richard
(9 August 2018). Londinium : a biography : Roman London from its origins to the fifth century. London. pp. 27–32. ISBN 978-1-350-04730-3. OCLC 1042078915.
3. ^ Jump up to:a b c Wallace, Lacey M. (8 January 2015). The Origin of Roman London. Cambridge
University Press. ISBN 978-1-316-19483-6.
4. ^ Hingley, Richard (9 August 2018). Londinium : a biography : Roman London from its origins to the fifth century. London. pp. 27–32. ISBN 978-1-350-04730-3. OCLC 1042078915.
5. ^ Hill, Julian. and Rowsome,
Peter (2011). Roman London and the Walbrook stream crossing: excavations at 1 Poultry and vicinity, City of London. Rowsome, Peter., Museum of London Archaeology. London: Museum of London Archaeology. pp. 251–62. ISBN 978-1-907586-04-0. OCLC 778916833.
Perring, London in the Roman World, pp. 51-63
7. ^ Number 1 Poultry (ONE 94), Museum of London Archaeology, 2013. Archaeology Data Service, The University of York.
8. ^ Dunwoodie, Lesley. (2015). An early Roman fort and urban development on Londinium’s
eastern hill : excavations at Plantation Place, City of London, 1997-2003. Harward, Chiz., Pitt, Ken. London: MOLA (Museum of London Archaeology). ISBN 978-1-907586-32-3. OCLC 920542650.
9. ^ Marsden, Peter Richard Valentine. (1987). The Roman Forum
Site in London: discoveries before 1985. Museum of London. London: H.M.S.O. ISBN 0-11-290442-4. OCLC 16415134.
10. ^ Bateman, Nick. (2008). London’s Roman amphitheatre : Guildhall Yard, City of London. Cowan, Carrie., Wroe-Brown, Robin., Museum
of London. Archaeology Service. [London]: Museum of London Archaeology Service. ISBN 978-1-901992-71-7. OCLC 276334521.
11. ^ Galfredus Monemutensis [Geoffrey of Monmouth]. Historia Regnum Britanniae [History of the Kings of Britain], Vol. III,
Ch. xx. c. 1136. (in Latin)
12. ^ Geoffrey of Monmouth. Translated by J.A. Giles & al. as Geoffrey of Monmouth’s British History, Vol. III, Ch. XX, in Six Old English Chronicles of Which Two Are Now First Translated from the Monkish Latin
Originals: Ethelwerd’s Chronicle, Asser’s Life of Alfred, Geoffrey of Monmouth’s British History, Gildas, Nennius, and Richard of Cirencester. Henry G. Bohn (London), 1848. Hosted at Wikisource.
13. ^ Jump up to:a b Haverfield, p. 145
This etymology was first suggested in 1899 by d’Arbois de Jubainville and is generally accepted, as by Haverfield.
15. ^ Jackson, Kenneth H. (1938). “Nennius and the 28 cities of Britain”. Antiquity. 12 (45): 44–55. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00013405.
16. ^ Coates, Richard (1998). “A new explanation of the name of London”. Transactions of the Philological Society. 96 (2): 203–29. doi:10.1111/1467-968X.00027.
17. ^ This is the argument made by Jackson and accepted by Coates.
Peter Schrijver, Language Contact and the Origins of the Germanic Languages (2013), p. 57.
19. ^ Jump up to:a b c Ford, David Nash. “The 28 Cities of Britain Archived 15 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine” at Britannia. 2000.
20. ^ Jump up to:a
b Nennius (attrib.). Theodor Mommsen (ed.). Historia Brittonum, VI. Composed after 830. (in Latin) Hosted at Latin Wikisource.
21. ^ Jump up to:a b Newman, John Henry & al. Lives of the English Saints: St. German, Bishop of Auxerre, Ch. X: “Britain
in 429, A. D.”, p. 92. Archived 21 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine James Toovey (London), 1844.
22. ^ Bishop Ussher, cited in Newman
23. ^ “Londinium”. Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 12 February 2023.
24. ^ Encyclopædia
Britannica, 11th edition. 1911.
25. ^ The London Archaeologist 1988 Vol 5 No. 14
26. ^ The Liberty of Southwark https://thedig.thelibertyofsouthwark.com/
27. ^ London’s largest Roman mosaic find for 50 years uncovered https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-60466187
White, Kevan (7 February 2016). “LONDINIVM AVGVSTA”. roman-britain.co.uk. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
29. ^ Jump up to:a b c Tacitus. Ab Excessu Divi Augusti Historiarum Libri [Books of History from
the Death of the Divine Augustus], Vol. XIV, Ch. XXXIII. c. AD 105. Hosted at Latin Wikisource. (in Latin)
30. ^ Latin: Londinium…, cognomento quidem coloniae non insigne, sed copia negotiatorum et commeatuum maxime celebre.
31. ^ Jump
up to:a b c Tacitus. Translated by Alfred John Church & William Jackson Brodribb. Annals of Tacitus, Translated into English, with Notes and Maps, Book XIV, § 33. Macmillan & Co., London, 1876. Reprinted by Random House, 1942. Reprinted by the Perseus
Project, c. 2011. Hosted at Wikisource.
32. ^ Jump up to:a b Merrifield, pp. 64–66.
33. ^ Jump up to:a b c Merrifield, p. 68.
34. ^ Egbert, James. Introduction to the Study of Latin Inscriptions, p. 447. American Book Co. (Cincinnati),1896.
Latin: P·P·BR·LON [Publicani Provinciae Britanniae Londinienses] & P·PR·LON [Publicani Provinciae Londinienses]
36. ^ Wacher, p. 85.
37. ^ Labbé, Philippe & Gabriel Cossart (eds.) Sacrosancta Concilia ad Regiam Editionem Exacta: quae Nunc
Quarta Parte Prodit Actior [The Sancrosanct Councils Exacted for the Royal Edition: which the Editors Now Produce in Four Parts], Vol. I: “Ab Initiis Æræ Christianæ ad Annum CCCXXIV” [“From the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Year 324”], col.
1429. The Typographical Society for Ecclesiastical Books (Paris), 1671. (in Latin)
38. ^ Thackery, Francis. Researches into the Ecclesiastical and Political State of Ancient Britain under the Roman Emperors: with Observations upon the Principal
Events and Characters Connected with the Christian Religion, during the First Five Centuries, pp. 272 ff. T. Cadell (London), 1843. (in Latin and English)
39. ^ Jump up to:a b “Nomina Episcoporum, cum Clericis Suis, Quinam, et ex Quibus Provinciis,
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40. ^ Jump up to:a b “Living in Roman London: From
Londinium to London”. London: The Museum of London. Retrieved 17 February 2015.
41. ^ Hingley, Introduction
42. ^ Wright, Thomas (1852). The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon: A history of the early inhabitants of Britain, down to the conversion
of the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity. London: Arthur Hall, Virtue & Co. p. 95.
43. ^ Perring, Dominic (2011). “Two studies on Roman London. A: London’s military origins. B: Population decline and ritual landscapes in Antonine London”. Journal of
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44. ^ Wallace, Lacey (2013). “The Foundation of Roman London: Examining the Claudian Fort Hypothesis”. Oxford Journal of Archaeology. 32 (3): 275–291.
doi:10.1111/ojoa.12015. ISSN 1468-0092.
45. ^ Wallace, Leslie (2015). The Origin of Roman London. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-107-04757-0. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
46. ^ Hingley, start of Introduction
47. ^ Jump up to:a b
c Merrifield, p. 40.
48. ^ It may have spanned the tidal limit of the Thames at the time, with the port in tidal waters and the bridge upstream beyond its reach. This is uncertain, however: in the Middle Ages, the Thames’s tidal reach extended
to Staines and today it still reaches Teddington.
49. ^ Togodumnus (2011). “Londinivm Avgvsta: Provincial Capital”. Roman Britain. Archived from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
50. ^ Wacher, pp. 88–90.
51. ^ Number
1 Poultry (ONE 94), Museum of London Archaeology, 2013. Archaeology Data Service, The University of York.
52. ^ Antonine Itinerary. British Routes. Routes 2, 3, & 4.
53. ^ Although three of them used the same route into town.
54. ^ Jump
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55. ^ Margary, Ivan Donald (1967). Roman Roads in Britain (2nd ed.). London: John Baker. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-319-22942-2.
56. ^ Jump up
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57. ^ Fearnside, William Gray; Harral, Thomas (1838). The History of London: Illustrated by Views of London and Westminster.
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58. ^ Jump up to:a b Sheppard, Francis (1998). London: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-19-822922-3.
59. ^ Jump up to:a b Merrifield, Ralph (1983). London, City
of the Romans. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 116–119. ISBN 978-0-520-04922-2.
60. ^ Jump up to:a b Merrifield, pp. 32–33.
61. ^ Margary, cited by Perring, although he notes that this remains conjectural: the known roads
would not meet at the river if continued in a straight line, there is no evidence textual or archaeological at the moment for a ford at Westminster, and the Saxon ford was further upstream at Kingston. Against such doubts, Sheppard notes
the known routes broadly direct towards Westminster in a way “inconceivable” if they were meant to be directed towards a ferry at Londinium and Merrifield points to routes directed towards the presumed ford from Southwark. Both include maps
of the known routes around London and their proposed reconstruction of major connections now-lost.
62. ^ Tacitus, Annals, 12.31.
63. ^ H. H. Scullard, From the Gracchi to Nero, 1982, p. 90
64. ^ John Morris, Londinium: London in
the Roman Empire, 1982, pp. 107–108
65. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History 62.2
66. ^ Tacitus, Annals, 14.31
67. ^ Jump up to:a b c Merrifield, p. 53.
68. ^ “Highbury, Upper Holloway and King’s Cross”, Old and New London: Volume 2 (1878:273–279).
Date accessed: 26 December 2007.
69. ^ An early Roman fort and urban development on Londinium’s eastern hill: excavations at Plantation Place, City of London, 1997–2003, L. Dunwoodie et al. MOLA 2015. ISBN 978-1-907586-32-3
70. ^ Merrifield,
71. ^ Jump up to:a b c d “Londinium Today: Basilica and forum”. Museum of London Group. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
72. ^ Merrifield, p. 62.
73. ^ Merrifield, pp. 63–64.
74. ^ Will
Durant (7 June 2011). Caesar and Christ: The Story of Civilization. Simon and Schuster. p. 468. ISBN 978-1-4516-4760-0.
75. ^ Jump up to:a b Anne Lancashire (2002). London Civic Theatre: City Drama and Pageantry from Roman Times to 1558. Cambridge
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76. ^ Jump up to:a b c Marsden, Peter (1975). “The Excavation of a Roman Palace Site in London”. Transactions of the London and Middlesex Archaeological Society. 26: 1–102.
77. ^ Emerson, Giles
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78. ^ Jump up to:a b Milne.
79. ^ Jump up to:a b Brigham.
80. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hall & Merrifield.
81. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hingley, Richard
(9 August 2018). Londinium : a biography : Roman London from its origins to the fifth century. Unwin, Christina. London. pp. 116–120. ISBN 978-1-350-04730-3. OCLC 1042078915.
82. ^ Hill, Julian and Rowsome, P. (2011). Roman London and the Walbrook
stream crossing : excavations at 1 Poultry and vicinity, City of London. Rowsome, Peter., Museum of London Archaeology. London: Museum of London Archaeology. pp. 354–7. ISBN 978-1-907586-04-0. OCLC 778916833.
83. ^ Perring, Dominic (November 2017).
“London’s Hadrianic War?”. Britannia. 48: 37–76. doi:10.1017/S0068113X17000113. ISSN 0068-113X.
84. ^ Fields, Nic (2011). Campaign 233: Boudicca’s Rebellion AD 60–61: The Britons rise up against Rome. Illustrated by Peter Dennis. Oxford: Osprey
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85. ^ Merrifield, p. 50.
86. ^ Jump up to:a b P. Marsden (1987). The Roman Forum Site in London: Discoveries before 1985. H.M. Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-11-290442-7.
87. ^ According to a recovered inscription.
The location of the Temple of Jupiter has not been discovered yet.
88. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e “Londinium Today: The fort”. Museum of London Group. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
89. ^ Jump up to:a b “Londinium Today: The amphitheatre”. Museum of
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90. ^ “Roman London Fragments, Cosmetic Cream And Bikini Bottoms”. Londonist. 10 August 2015.
91. ^ Jump up to:a b “Londinium Today: House and baths at Billingsgate”. Museum of London Group. Retrieved
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92. ^ Lepage, Jean-Denis G.G. (2012). British Fortifications through the Reign of Richard III: An Illustrated History. Jefferson: McFarland & Co. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-7864-5918-6.
93. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f “Visible Roman London:
City wall and gates”. Museum of London Group. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
94. ^ In the 1170s, William FitzStephen mentioned seven gates in London’s landward wall, but it’s not clear whether this
included a minor postern gate or another, now unknown, major gate. Moorgate was later counted as a seventh major gate after its enlargement in 1415, but in William’s time it would have been a minor postern gate.
95. ^ “Timeline of Romans in
Britain”. Channel4.com. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
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98. ^ Trench, Richard; Hillman Ellis (1985). London under London: a subterranean guide. John Murray (publishers) Ltd. pp. 27–29. ISBN 978-0-7195-4080-6.
99. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e “Londinium Today: Riverside wall”.
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100. ^ Eumenius.
101. ^ The medallion is named for its mint mark from Augusta Treverorum (Trier); it was discovered in Arras, France, in the 1920s.
102. ^ Giraldus Cambriensis [Gerald of Wales].
De Inuectionibus [On Invectives], Vol. II, Ch. I, in Y Cymmrodor: The Magazine of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Vol. XXX, pp. 130–31. George Simpson & Co. (Devizes), 1920. (in Latin)
103. ^ Gerald of Wales. Translated by W.S. Davies as
The Book of Invectives of Giraldus Cambrensis in Y Cymmrodor: The Magazine of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Vol. XXX, p. 16. George Simpson & Co. (Devizes), 1920.
104. ^ R.E.M. Wheeler, The Topography of Saxon London, p296, Antiquity ,
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105. ^ The Roman Forum Site in London, Discoveries before 1985. Peter Marsden, London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1987, p68
106. ^ A Reassessment of the Second Basilica in London, A. D. 100-400: Excavations
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107. ^ King Lucius of Britain, David Knight, 2008 p98.
108. ^ King, Anthony (1983). “The Roman Church at Silchester Reconsidered”. Oxford Journal of Archaeology. 2 (2): 225–237.
doi:10.1111/j.1468-0092.1983.tb00108.x. ISSN 1468-0092.
109. ^ Petts, David (5 October 2015). Millett, Martin; Revell, Louise; Moore, Alison (eds.). Christianity in Roman Britain. Vol. 1. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199697731.013.036.
110. ^ Tyler W Bell, The Religious Reuse of Roman Structures in Anglo-Saxon England, 2001, p105 and p109 – only 2 churches have been found that are sited on a roman temple, just 0.7% of the total, accessed 26 Sep 2022
Tyler W Bell, The Religious Reuse of Roman Structures in Anglo-Saxon England, 2001, p108, accessed 26 Sep 2022
112. ^ The Conversion of Temples in Rome, Feyo L. Schuddeboom, Journal of Late Antiquity, 22 September 2017, p175.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/aidanmorgan/3560426426/’]