The Restoration period also saw the opening in 1824 of the Galerie d’Angoulême, a section of largely French sculptures on the ground floor of the Northwestern side of the
Cour Carrée, many of whose artefacts came from the Palace of Versailles and from Alexandre Lenoir’s Musée des Monuments Français following its closure in 1816.
New galleries of early modern French paintings on the 2nd floor of the Cour Carrée, for which the planning had started before the Grand Louvre, also opened in 1989.
 Separately, Louis-Philippe had his Spanish gallery displayed in the Louvre from 7 January 1838, in five rooms on the first floor of the Cour Carrée’s East (Colonnade)
Wing, but the collection remained his personal property.
Louis-Philippe did, however, sponsor the creation of the musée assyrien to host the monumental Assyrian sculpture works brought to Paris by Paul-Émile Botta, in the ground-floor
gallery north of the eastern entrance of the Cour Carrée.
 Grand Louvre Main article: Grand Louvre In 1981, French President François Mitterrand proposed, as one of his Grands Projets, the Grand Louvre plan to relocate
the Finance Ministry, until then housed in the North Wing of the Louvre, and thus devote almost the entire Louvre building (except its northwestern tip, which houses the separate Musée des Arts Décoratifs) to the museum which would be correspondingly
Decorative arts exhibits were expanded in the first floor of the North Wing of the Cour Carrée, including some of France’s first period room displays.
As the Musée de Marine was increasingly constrained to display its core naval-themed collections in the limited space it had in the second-floor attic of the northern half
of the Cour Carrée, many of its significant holdings of non-Western artefacts were transferred in 1905 to the Trocadéro ethnography museum, the National Antiquities Museum in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, and the Chinese Museum in the Palace of Fontainebleau.
 Following the end of the monarchy, several spaces in the Louvre’s South Wing went to the museum.
• Established: 10 August 1793; 229 years ago; Location: Musée du Louvre, 75001 Paris, France ; Type: Art museum and historic site; Collection size: 615,797 in 2019 (35,000
on display); ; Visitors: 2.8 million (2021) , Ranked 1st nationally, Ranked 1st globally in 2021 ; Director: Laurence des Cars; Curator: Marie-Laure de Rochebrune; Public transit: Palais Royal–Musée du Louvre, Louvre–Rivoli Location
and visit The Louvre museum is located inside the Louvre Palace, in the center of Paris, adjacent to the Tuileries Gardens.
 The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace.
: 32 Main article: Louvre Palace The Louvre Palace, which houses the museum, was begun by King Philip II in the late 12th century to protect the city from the attack
from the West, as the Kingdom of England still held Normandy at the time.
 The comte d’Angiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed to convert the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which at that time contained the plans-reliefs or 3D
models of key fortified sites in and around France – into the “French Museum”.
 • Entrance to a section of the Musée Napoléon III from the salle des séances, then a double-height space • Galerie Daru, part of the New Louvre building
program under Napoleon III • Salle Daru above the galerie Daru, also created under Napoleon III • Escalier Mollien in the New Louvre • Salle des Empereurs From 1870 to 1981 Memorial plaques honoring the Louvre’s defenders in May 1871
The Louvre narrowly escaped serious damage during the suppression of the Paris Commune.
 • The Pavillon des Sessions’s display of non-Western art from the Musée du Quai Branly, opened in 2000 • The Cour Visconti’s ground floor covered to host the new Islamic
Art Department in 2012 • Islamic art display in the covered Cour Visconti, 2012 • Underground display of the Islamic Art Department, 2012 Collections The Musée du Louvre owns 615,797 objects of which 482,943 are accessible online since
24 March 2021 and displays 35,000 works of art in eight curatorial departments.
Following the July Revolution, King Louis Philippe focused his interest on the repurposing of the Palace of Versailles into a Museum of French History conceived as a project
of national reconciliation, and the Louvre was kept in comparative neglect.
The main other initiative in the aftermath of the Grand Louvre project was Chirac’s decision to create a new department of Islamic Art, by executive order of 1 August 2003,
and to move the corresponding collections from their prior underground location in the Richelieu Wing to a more prominent site in the Denon Wing.
 On 18 November 1993, Mitterrand inaugurated the next major phase of the Grand Louvre plan: the renovated North (Richelieu) Wing in the former Finance Ministry
site, the museum’s largest single expansion in its entire history, designed by Pei, his French associate Michel Macary, and Jean-Michel Wilmotte.
For its display, he created another new section within the Louvre named Musée Napoléon III, occupying a number of rooms in various parts of the building.
 Revolutionary opening The Louvre finally became a public museum during the French Revolution.
In 1682, Louis XIV chose the Palace of Versailles for his household, leaving the Louvre primarily as a place to display the royal collection, including, from 1692, a collection
of ancient Greek and Roman sculpture.
A new entrance at the porte des Lions opened in 1998, leading on the first floor to new rooms of Spanish paintings.
 In 1794, France’s revolutionary armies began bringing pieces from Northern Europe, augmented after the Treaty of Tolentino (1797) by works from the Vatican, such as the
Laocoön and Apollo Belvedere, to establish the Louvre as a museum and as a “sign of popular sovereignty”.
In 1850 under the leadership of curator Adrien de Longpérier, the musée mexicain opened within the Louvre as the first European museum dedicated to pre-Columbian art.
The expansion of the museum and its collections slowed after World War I, however, despite some prominent acquisitions such as Georges de La Tour’s Saint Thomas and Baron
Edmond de Rothschild’s 1935 donation of 4,000 prints, 3,000 drawings, and 500 illustrated books.
New exhibition spaces of sculptures (ground floor) and paintings (first floor) opened there later in the 1960s, on a design by government architect Olivier Lahalle.
The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, the majority of the works being royal and confiscated church property.
The royal move away from Paris resulted in the Louvre being used as a residence for artists, under Royal patronage.
The room’s floor and walls were redesigned in 2021 by Louvre architect Michel Goutal to revert the changes made by his predecessor Albert Ferran in the late 1930s, triggering
protests from the Cy Twombly Foundation on grounds that the then-deceased painter’s work had been created to fit with the room’s prior decoration.
In the 1850s architects Louis Visconti and Hector Lefuel created massive new spaces around what is now called the Cour Napoléon, some of which (in the South Wing, now Aile
Denon) went to the museum.
 In the 7th century, Burgundofara (also known as Saint Fare), abbess in Meaux, is said to have gifted part of her “Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris”
to a monastery, even though it is doubtful that this land corresponded exactly to the present site of the Louvre.
When war was formally declared a year later, most of the museum’s paintings were sent there as well.
Nevertheless, the Louvre’s first gallery of Islamic art opened in 1922.
Whereas the most iconic collection remained that of paintings in the Grande Galerie, a number of other initiatives mushroomed in the vast building, named as if they were separate
museums even though they were generally managed under the same administrative umbrella.
 Edomond Guillaume also decorated the first-floor room at the northwest corner of the Cour Carrée, on the ceiling of which he placed in 1890 a monumental painting
by Carolus-Duran, The Triumph of Marie de’ Medici originally created in 1879 for the Luxembourg Palace.
Meanwhile, the Louvre’s gallery of Antiquity sculpture (musée des Antiques), with artefacts brought from Florence and the Vatican, had opened in November 1800 in Anne of Austria’s
former summer apartment, located on the ground floor just below the Galerie d’Apollon.
: 52 In 1848, the Naval Museum in the Cour Carrée’s attic was brought under the common Louvre Museum management, a change which was again reversed in 1920.
Many design proposals were offered for the Louvre’s renovation into a museum, without a final decision being made on them.
 On 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection in the Louvre became national property.
In 1681, after the court moved to Versailles, 26 of the paintings were transferred there, somewhat diminishing the collection, but it is mentioned in Paris guide books from
1684 on, and was shown to ambassadors from Siam in 1686.
From the late 19th century, the Louvre gradually veered away from its mid-century ambition of universality to become a more focused museum of French, Western and Near Eastern
art, covering a space ranging from Iran to the Atlantic.
21st century Ceiling by Cy Twombly installed in 2010 in the Salle des Bronzes, before the room’s redesign in 2021 President Jacques Chirac, who had succeeded Mitterrand
in 1995, insisted on the return of non-Western art to the Louvre, upon a recommendation from his friend the art collector and dealer Jacques Kerchache [fr].
In 1984 I. M. Pei, the architect personally selected by Mitterrand, proposed a master plan including an underground entrance space accessed through a glass pyramid in the
Louvre’s central Cour Napoléon.
 During World War II, the Louvre conducted an elaborate plan of evacuation of its art collection.
 By the mid-18th century there were an increasing number of proposals to create a public gallery in the Louvre.
It compelled Italian cities to contribute pieces of art and heritage to Napoleon’s “parades of spoils” through Paris before being put into the Louvre Museum.
The collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum was renamed Musée Napoléon, but after Napoleon’s abdication, many works seized by his armies were returned to their
A smaller but significant Second Empire project was the decoration of the salle des Empereurs below the Salon carré.
Many of the king’s paintings were placed in these rooms in 1673, when it became an art gallery, accessible to certain art lovers as a kind of museum.
 On 6 June 2014, the Decorative Arts section on the first floor of the Cour Carrée’s northern wing opened after comprehensive refurbishment.
 During the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nation’s masterpieces.
 In early 1945, after the liberation of France, art began returning to the Louvre.
: 52-54 In the 1860s, Lefuel also led the creation of the pavillon des Sessions with a new Salle des Etats closer to Napoleon III’s residence in the Tuileries Palace,
with the effect of shortening the Grande Galerie by about a third of its previous length.
Meanwhile, the French Navy created an exhibition of ship models in the Louvre in December 1827, initially named musée dauphin in honor of Dauphin Louis Antoine, building
on an 18th-century initiative of Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau.
At the Palace of Fontainebleau, Francis collected art that would later be part of the Louvre’s art collections, including Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa.
This collection, renamed musée naval in 1833 and later to develop into the Musée national de la Marine, was initially located on the first floor of the Cour Carrée’s North
Wing, and in 1838 moved up one level to the 2nd-floor attic, where it remained for more than a century.
In 1819 an exhibition of manufactured products was opened in the first floor of the Cour Carrée’s southern wing and would stay there until the mid-1820s.
For most of the 19th century, from Napoleon’s time to the Second Empire, the Louvre and other national museums were managed under the monarch’s civil list and thus depended
much on the ruler’s personal involvement.
The Greek and Roman sculpture gallery on the ground floor of the southwestern side of the Cour Carrée was completed on designs by Percier and Fontaine.
 • Rooms of the Musée Charles X • First room • Room 27 • Room 29 • Salle des Colonnes • Room 35 • Room 36 • Room 38 Ceiling decorations designed by Félix Duban in the
Salon Carré (left) and Salle des Sept-Cheminées (right), late 1840s The display in the Salon Carré, painted by Giuseppe Castiglione in 1861 following its repurposing of the late 1840s Veronese’s Wedding at Cana is visible on the left, and
his Supper in the House of Simon (now at the Palace of Versailles) is on the right.
By 28 December, the museum was cleared of most works, except those that were too heavy and “unimportant paintings [that] were left in the basement”.
The collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces.
 Second Empire Main article: Napoleon III’s Louvre expansion The rule of Napoleon III was transformational for the Louvre, both the building and the
 Nonetheless, the Louvre still topped the list of most-visited art museums in the world in 2021.
Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution.
 The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built in the late 12th to 13th century under Philip II.
 Before the Grand Louvre overhaul of the late 1980s and 1990s, the Louvre had several street-level entrances, most of which are now permanently closed.
It was formed from the purchased collections of Edmé-Antoine Durand, Henry Salt and the second collection of Bernardino Drovetti (the first one having been purchased by Victor
Emmanuel I of Sardinia to form the core of the present Museo Egizio in Turin).
In May 1791, the National Constituent Assembly declared that the Louvre would be “a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences and arts”.
 The department’s origins lie in the royal collection, but it was augmented by Napoleon’s 1798 expeditionary trip with Dominique Vivant, the future director of the Louvre.
That new section opened on 22 September 2012, together with collections from the Roman-era Eastern Mediterranean, with financial support from the Al Waleed bin Talal Foundation
and on a design by Mario Bellini and Rudy Ricciotti.
: 32 Whether this was the first building on that spot is not known, and it is possible that Philip modified an existing tower.
A few gallery items found here.
[‘Rapport d’activité 2019 du musée du Louvre, p. 29, website www.louvre.fr.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/31878512@N06/4581199679/’]