lower paleolithic


  • Formerly associated with the emergence of Homo habilis, some 2.8 million years ago, this date has been pushed back significantly by finds of the early 2000s,[5] the Oldowan
    or Mode 1 horizon, long considered the oldest type of lithic industry, is now considered to have developed from about 2.6 million years ago, with the beginning Gelasian (Lower Pleistocene), possibly first used by australopithecine forbears
    of the genus Homo (such as Australopithecus garhi).

  • [1] The early members of the genus Homo produced primitive tools, summarized under the Oldowan industry, which remained dominant for nearly a million years, from about 2.5
    to 1.7 million years ago.

  • [11] Lower Paleolithic era by region India Guy Ellcock Pilgrim, a British geologist and palaeontologist, discovered 1.5 million-year-old prehistoric human teeth and part of
    a jaw indicating that ancient people, intelligent hominins dating as far back as 1,500,000 ybp Acheulean period,[12] lived in the Pinjore region near Chandigarh.

  • It spans the time from around 3 million years ago when the first evidence for stone tool production and use by hominins appears in the current archaeological record,[1] until
    around 300,000 years ago, spanning the Oldowan (“mode 1”) and Acheulean (“mode 2”) lithics industries.

  • Transition to the Middle Paleolithic From about 300,000 years ago, technology, social structures and behaviour appear to grow more complex, with prepared-core technique lithics,
    earliest instances of burial and changes to hunting-gathering patterns of subsistence.

  • In African archaeology, the time period roughly corresponds to the Early Stone Age, the earliest finds dating back to 3.3 million years ago, with Lomekwian stone tool technology,
    spanning Mode 1 stone tool technology, which begins roughly 2.6 million years ago and ends between 400,000 and 250,000 years ago, with Mode 2 technology.

  • However, even older tools were later discovered at the single site of Lomekwi 3 in Kenya, in 2015, dated to as early as 3.3 million years ago.

  • The intermediate may have been Homo heidelbergensis, held responsible for the manufacture of improved Mode 2 Acheulean tool types, in Africa, after 600,000 years ago.

  • The biological pre-adaptations of the great apes and earlier primates allowed the brain to expand threefold within just 2 to 2.3 million years of the Pleistocene, in response
    to increasingly complex societies and changing habitats.

  • Whether the earliest control of fire by hominins dates to the Lower or to the Middle Paleolithic remains an open question.

  • The unlocking of the new niche of hunting-gathering subsistence drove a number of further behavioral and physiological changes leading to the appearance of Homo heidelbergensis
    by some 800,000-600,000 years ago.

  • Whether control of fire and earliest burials date to this period or only appear during the Middle Paleolithic is an open question.

  • The axe tradition, however, spread to a different range in the east.

  • Derek Bickerton (2009) has designated to this period the move from simple animal communication systems found in all great apes to the earliest form of symbolic communication
    systems capable of displacement (referring to items not currently within sensory perception) and motivated by the need to “recruit” group members for scavenging large carcasses.

  • [4] Gelasian The Lower Paleolithic began with the appearance of the first stone tools in the world.

  • [1][2][3] The Middle Paleolithic followed the Lower Paleolithic and recorded the appearance of the more advanced prepared-core tool-making technologies such as the Mousterian.


Works Cited

[‘Harmand, Sonia; et al. (21 May 2015). “3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya”. Nature. 521 (7552): 310–315. Bibcode:2015Natur.521..310H. doi:10.1038/nature14464. PMID 25993961. S2CID 1207285.
2. ^ “Early Stone Age Tools”.
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pp. 16. ISBN 978-0-521-61265-4.
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(2003). “2.6-Million-year-old stone tools and associated bones from OGS-6 and OGS-7, Gona, Afar, Ethiopia”. Journal of Human Evolution. 45 (2): 169–177. doi:10.1016/S0047-2484(03)00093-9. PMID 14529651.
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How Humans Made Language, How Language Made Humans. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-1-4299-3029-1.[page needed]
7. ^ “Malaysian scientists find stone tools “oldest in Southeast Asia””. Tehran Times. AFP. 1 February 2009.
8. ^ Despriée, Jackie;
Voinchet, Pierre; Tissoux, Hélène; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Falguères, Christophe; Courcimault, Gilles; Dépont, Jean; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Robin, Sophie; Arzarello, Marta; Sala, Robert; Marquer, Laurent; Messager, Erwan; Puaud, Simon; Abdessadok, Salah
(June 2011). “Lower and Middle Pleistocene human settlements recorded in fluvial deposits of the middle Loire River Basin, Centre Region, France”. Quaternary Science Reviews. 30 (11–12): 1474–1485. Bibcode:2011QSRv…30.1474D. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2011.02.011.
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Bretas, Rafael Vieira; Yamazaki, Yumiko; Iriki, Atsushi (December 2020). “Phase transitions of brain evolution that produced human language and beyond”. Neuroscience Research. 161: 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.neures.2019.11.010. PMID 31785329. S2CID 208303849.
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Henke-von der Malsburg, Johanna; Kappeler, Peter M.; Fichtel, Claudia (December 2020). “Linking ecology and cognition: does ecological specialisation predict cognitive test performance?”. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 74 (12): 154. doi:10.1007/s00265-020-02923-z.
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11. ^ Gibbons, Ann (9 June 2017). “Oldest members of our species discovered in Morocco”. Science. 356 (6342): 993–994. doi:10.1126/science.356.6342.993. PMID 28596316.
12. ^ Pappu, Shanti; Gunnell, Yanni; Akhilesh, Kumar; Braucher,
Régis; Taieb, Maurice; Demory, François; Thouveny, Nicolas (25 March 2011). “Early Pleistocene Presence of Acheulian Hominins in South India”. Science. 331 (6024): 1596–1599. Bibcode:2011Sci…331.1596P. doi:10.1126/science.1200183. PMID 21436450.
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13. ^ Pilgrim, Guy E. (1915). New Siwalik Primates and Their Bearing on the Question of the Evolution of Man and the Anthropoidea. pp. 2–61. ISBN 978-0-404-16675-5.
14. ^ (PDF) https://web.archive.org/web/20190108145555/http://revenueharyana.gov.in/Portals/0/hr-gaz-ch-5.pdf.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 January 2019. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)[full citation needed]
15. ^ Frederick Everard Zeuner (1950). Stone Age and Pleistocene Chronology in Gujarat. Deccan College, Postgraduate and Research
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jronaldlee/4164845062/’]