max weber

 

  • Weber was put in charge of the study and wrote a large part of the final report, which generated considerable attention and controversy, marking the beginning of his renown
    as a social scientist.

  • [30] Early work and breakdown[edit] In the years between the completion of his dissertation and habilitation, Weber took an interest in contemporary social policy.

  • [58] Weber used the trip to learn more about America and this experience played a role in the development of the Protestant work ethic.

  • [47] Weber published some of his most seminal works in this journal, including his book The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, which became his most famous work
    and laid the foundations for his later research on the impact of religion on the development of economic systems.

  • Weber also used the trip to further his knowledge of the United States’ social and economic conditions more generally.

  • Heidelberg University; Notable work: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905), The Religion of China (1915), The Religion of India (1916), “Science as a Vocation”
    (1917), “Politics as a Vocation” (1919), Ancient Judaism (1921), The City (1921), Economy and Society (1922), General Economic History (1923); Spouse: Marianne Schnitger, (m. 1893); School: Continental philosophy, Antipositivism, Liberalism;
    Institutions: Friedrich Wilhelm University, University of Freiburg, Heidelberg University, University of Vienna, University of Munich; Theses: On the History of Commercial Partnerships in the Middle Ages, Based on Southern European Documents
    (1889), Roman Agrarian History and Its Significance for Public and Private Law (1891); Doctoral advisors: Levin Goldschmidt, Rudolf von Gneist, August Meitzen; Main interests: History, Economics, sociology, law, religion Biography Early life
    and education[edit] Maximilian Karl Emil Weber was born on 21 April 1864 in Erfurt, Province of Saxony, Prussia, but his family moved to Berlin in 1869.

  • [15] Two years later, working with the statistician August Meitzen, Weber completed his habilitation, a post-doctoral thesis, titled Roman Agrarian History and Its Significance
    for Public and Private Law.

  • [50] Benjamin Franklin’s personal ethic, as described in his “Advice to a Young Tradesman”, was used as an example of the Protestant sects’ economic ethic.

  • Since he held Ludendorff responsible for the failure of the German war effort and having sent many young Germans to die on the battlefield, Weber thought that he should surrender
    himself and become a political martyr.

  • After he spoke at the first one, he became involved in the planning for the second one, as Diederichs thought that the conferences needed someone who could serve as an oppositional
    figure.

  • As a result of these works, Weber is commonly regarded as one of the central figures in the development of the social sciences.

  • Recalling the arguments that he made regarding the Protestant work ethic, he stated that the path forward in scholarship required the scholar to understand the potential for
    a lack of success and be methodical in their research.

  • [59] After returning, Weber felt that he was unable to resume regular teaching at that time and remained a private scholar, helped by an inheritance in 1907.

  • [87] Ultimately, Weber thought that the political issues of his day required consistent effort to resolve, rather than the quick solutions that the students preferred.

  • During the First World War, he initially supported Germany’s war effort but became critical of it and supported democratisation.

  • Throughout the late 1880s, Weber continued to study law and history.

  • [67] Early on, he supported the war effort, though with some hesitation, viewing the war as a necessity to fulfill German duty as a leading state power.

  • [110] He was open to the idea that social phenomena could have several different causes and placed importance on social actors’ interpretations of their actions.

  • [14] Under the tutelage of Levin Goldschmidt and Rudolf von Gneist, Weber earned his law doctorate in 1889 by writing a dissertation on legal history titled Development of
    the Principle of Joint Liability and a Separate Fund of the General Partnership out of the Household Communities and Commercial Associations in Italian Cities.

  • [100] While this was occurring, Weber began to believe that own life had reached its end.

  • In the post-war era, organised scholarship began to appear, led by Talcott Parsons, who used Weber’s works to support his idea of structural functionalism.

  • Afterwards, the students did not feel that they had an answer to the question of what should be done to resolve the issues that Germany faced after the end of the First World
    War.

  • [89] This debate also shifted to other subjects, such as who was culpable for the failure of the German war effort.

  • It was a part of a longer work, On the History of Commercial Partnerships in the Middle Ages, Based on Southern European Documents, which he published in the same year.

  • [109] Verstehen[edit] Main article: Verstehen In terms of methodology, Weber was primarily concerned with the question of objectivity and subjectivity, going on to distinguish
    social action from social behavior, noting that social action must be understood through the subjective relationships between individuals.

  • Two years later, also during Christmastime, he wrote another historical essay, “Observations on the Ethnic Character, Development, and History of the Indo-European Nations”.

  • The young Max Weber and his brother Alfred, who also became a sociologist, passed their formative years in this intellectual atmosphere.

  • [105] She later published a biography of her late husband in 1926, which became one of the central historical accounts of his life.

  • [83] Max Weber in 1918 On 28 January 1919, after his electoral defeat, Weber delivered a lecture titled “Politics as a Vocation”, which commented on what he saw as the inherent
    violence and dishonesty among politicians.

  • In his view, scholars and students needed to avoid using their position to promote political values in the classroom.

  • [10] For Christmas in 1877, a thirteen-year-old Max Weber gifted his parents two historical essays, entitled “About the Course of German history, with Special Reference to
    the Positions of the Emperor and the Pope” and “About the Roman Imperial Period from Constantine to the Migration Period”.

  • [98] The audience was primarily young Germans of different political perspectives, including communists.

  • [113] Weber noted that the importance of subjectivity in the social sciences made the creation of fool-proof, universal laws much more difficult than in the natural sciences
    and that the amount of objective knowledge that social sciences were able to create was limited.

  • Weber thought that the high command had failed, while Ludendorff regarded Weber as a supporter of democracy who was partially responsible for the revolution.

  • He looked for social and theological conditions that could contribute to his thesis.

  • [55] Also in 1904, Max Weber was invited to participate in the Congress of Arts and Sciences held in connection with the World’s fair (Louisiana Purchase Exposition) in St.
    Louis, alongside his wife, Werner Sombart, Ernst Troeltsch, and other German scholars.

  • Instead, Weber believed that many countries were guilty of starting it, not just Germany.

  • In time, however, Weber became one of the most prominent critics of both German expansionism and the Kaiser’s war policies.

  • [111] According to him, the study of social action through interpretive means or verstehen (“to understand”) needed to be based upon understanding the subjective meaning and
    purpose that individuals attached to their actions.

  • [34] From 1893 to 1899, Weber was a member of the Pan-German League (Alldeutscher Verband), an organisation that campaigned against the influx of Polish workers; the degree
    of his support for the Germanisation of Poles and similar nationalist policies continues to be debated by modern scholars.

  • [81] In making this case, Weber argued that Russia was the only great power that actually desired the war.

  • [74] In this lecture, he described an inner calling as having been necessary for one to enter scholarship.

  • “[85] His lecture was prompted by the political turmoil of the early Weimar Republic and was requested by the Free Student Youth.

  • These two concepts were sharply divided, but it was possible for them to be present in a single individual, particularly the ideal politician.

  • It facilitated his reintroduction to academia and became one of the most prominent social science journals as a result of his efforts.

  • [73] In November, shortly after the second conference, Weber was invited by the Free Student Youth, a student organisation, to give a lecture in Munich, resulting in “Science
    as a Vocation”.

  • In the first chapter of Economy and Society, he argued that only individuals “can be treated as agents in a course of subjectively understandable action”.

  • [91] In Vienna, Weber filled a previously vacant chair in political economy that he had been in consideration for since October 1917.

  • [36] During his tenure there, in 1895, he gave a provocative lecture titled “The Nation State and Economic Policy”, where he criticised the immigration of Poles and blamed
    the Junkers for perpetuating Slavic immigration to serve their selfish interests.

  • [88] Shortly before he left to join the delegation in Versailles on 13 May 1919, Max Weber used his connections with the deputies of the German National People’s Party to
    meet with Erich Ludendorff.

  • Else von Richthofen, who was present by his deathbed alongside his wife, thought that he could have survived his illness if he had been given better treatment.

  • [124] This debate was held between 1909 and 1914 on the subject of value-judgements in the social sciences.

  • Weber thought that only a particular type of person was able to have a career in academia.

  • [79] His opposition to it may have prevented Friedrich Ebert, the new president of Germany and a member of the Social Democratic Party, from appointing Weber as a minister
    or ambassador.

  • … An “objective” analysis of cultural events, which proceeds according to the thesis that the ideal of science is the reduction of empirical reality to “laws”, is meaningless
    [because] the knowledge of social laws is not knowledge of social reality but is rather one of the various aids used by our minds for attaining this end.

  • In terms of government, Weber argued that states were defined by their monopoly on violence and categorised social authority into three distinct forms: charismatic, traditional,
    and rational-legal.

  • Compared to Marx, who argued for the primacy of the material world over the world of ideas, Weber valued ideas as motivating actions of individuals.

  • [53] It also caused Western society to be caught in the stahlhartes Gehäuse (“iron cage” or “steel-hard casing”) that was the modern capitalist economic order.

  • Weber made a variety of other contributions to economic sociology, political sociology, and the sociology of religion.

  • Weber argued that scholarship could provide certainty through its starting presumptions, despite its inability to give absolute answers.

  • [95] In early 1920, Max Weber gave a seminar that contained a discussion of Oswald Spengler’s The Decline of the West.

  • [65] First World War[edit] After the outbreak of the First World War, Weber, aged 50, volunteered for service and was appointed as a reserve officer in charge of organising
    the army hospitals in Heidelberg, a role he fulfilled until the end of 1915.

  • He opposed Erich Mühsam’s involvement due to Mühsam’s support for anarchism, arguing that the case needed to be dealt with by bourgeois reformers who were not “derailed”.

  • [49] They had a religious calling to work that caused them to systematically obtain wealth.

  • It was the earliest part in his broader consideration of the world religions, as he later examined the religions of China, India, and ancient Judaism.

  • It originated with a debate between the supporters of the idea that ethics was an important consideration in the field of economics and those who opposed that in the Verein
    für Socialpolitik.

  • Maximilian Karl Emil Weber (/ˈveɪbər/; German: [ˈveːbɐ]; 21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, historian, jurist, and political economist who was one of
    the central figures in the development of sociology and the social sciences more generally.

  • [80] Weber was also critical of the Treaty of Versailles, which he believed unjustly assigned war guilt to Germany.

  • [66] Weber’s views on the war and the expansion of the German Empire changed during the course of the conflict.

 

Works Cited

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180. ^ Bendix & Roth
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181. ^ Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 90, 198–199; Schluchter 2018, p. 98.
182. ^ Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 198–199; Schluchter 2018, pp. 96–97; Kalberg 2017, p. 237.
183. ^ Jump up to:a b Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 200–201.
184. ^
Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 200–201; Kaesler 1988, p. 127.
185. ^ Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 204–205.
186. ^ Kaesler 1988, p. 127; Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 200–201; Radkau 2009, pp. 444–446.
187. ^ Kaesler 1988, pp. 127–130; Bendix & Roth 1977, p. 225.
188. ^
Adair-Toteff 2013, pp. 87–90; Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 348–349; Christiano, Swatos & Kivisto 2008, pp. 128–130.
189. ^ Adair-Toteff 2013, pp. 87–90.
190. ^ Adair-Toteff 2013, pp. 88–89; Turner 1996, p. 149.
191. ^ Adair-Toteff 2013, pp.
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192. ^ Adair-Toteff 2013, pp. 94–97; Turner 1996, pp. 147–148.
193. ^ Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 348–349; Christiano, Swatos & Kivisto 2008, pp. 142–143; Plye & Davidson 1998, pp. 498–499.
194. ^ Christiano, Swatos
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195. ^ Plye & Davidson 1998, pp. 498–499; Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 348–349.
196. ^ Weber 2004, p. 34; Warner 1991, pp. 9–10; Palonen 2011, pp. 104–105.
197. ^ Warner 1991, pp. 9–10.
198. ^ Weber 2004, p. xli;
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199. ^ Radkau 2009, pp. 515–516; Marlin 2002, pp. 155–156.
200. ^ Weber 2004, p. 34; Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 294–296; Macionis 2012, p. 88.
201. ^ Bendix & Roth 1977, p. 296.
202. ^ Ritzer 2009,
pp. 37–41.
203. ^ Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 303–305.
204. ^ Ritzer 2009, pp. 38–42.
205. ^ Jump up to:a b Ritzer 2009, pp. 38–42; Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 18–21.
206. ^ Sashkin & Sashkin 2003, p. 52.
207. ^ Hooghe 2001, p. 40.
208. ^
Jump up to:a b Allan 2005, pp. 172–176.
209. ^ Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 18–21; Allan 2005, pp. 172–176.
210. ^ Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 18–21; Ritzer 2005, p. 55.
211. ^ Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 18–21.
212. ^ Jump up to:a b Weber
2015b, pp. 37–40; Parkin 2013, p. 90.
213. ^ Weber 2015b, pp. 37–40.
214. ^ Weber 2015b, pp. 37–40; Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 85–87; Parkin 2013, pp. 96–97.
215. ^ Parkin 2013, pp. 91–96.
216. ^ Weber 2015b, pp. 37–58; Parkin 2013, pp. 92–93,
98; Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 85–87.
217. ^ Parkin 2013, pp. 104–108; Weber 2015b, pp. 37–40; Swedberg & Agevall 2016, p. 246.
218. ^ Bendix & Roth 1977.
219. ^ Waters & Waters 2016, pp. 1–2; Parkin 2013, pp. 96–97.
220. ^ Waters & Waters 2016,
pp. 1–2.
221. ^ Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 41–42, 192; Waters & Waters 2016, pp. 2–3.
222. ^ Parkin 2013, pp. 104–108.
223. ^ Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 79.
224. ^ Zubaida 2005–2006, p. 112; Kaesler 1988, pp. 42–43; Bendix & Roth 1977, pp.
70–73.
225. ^ Bendix & Roth 1977, pp. 79; Zubaida 2005–2006, pp. 112–113.
226. ^ Swedberg & Agevall 2016, p. 283.
227. ^ Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 88–89; Kaesler 1988, pp. 44–46.
228. ^ Petersen 2017, p. 29; Baehr 2002, pp. 22–23.
229. ^
Swedberg 1999, pp. 561–582.
230. ^ Beiser 2011, pp. 525–527; Maclachlan 2017, pp. 1161–1163; Radkau 2009, p. 138.
231. ^ Swedberg & Agevall 2016, p. 103.
232. ^ Whimster 2023, p. 82; Roth 2016, pp. 250–253; Hanke 2009, pp. 349–350.
233. ^
Roth 2016, pp. 250–253; Whimster 2023, p. 82.
234. ^ Roth 2016, pp. 250–253.
235. ^ Maclachlan 2017, pp. 1163–1164; Callison 2022, p. 276.
236. ^ Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 211–212; Heath 2020.
237. ^ Heath 2020; Swedberg & Agevall 2016,
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238. ^ Radkau 2009, p. 138; Schweitzer 1975, pp. 279–292; Swedberg 1999, pp. 564–568.
239. ^ Parsons 2007, pp. 236–237; Honigsheim 2017, pp. 187–188.
240. ^ Mass 2009, pp. 507–511; Swedberg 1999, p. 564; Stigler 1950, p. 377.
241. ^
Parsons 2007, pp. 235–238.
242. ^ Carruthers & Espeland 1991, pp. 31–34; Swedberg & Agevall 2016, pp. 24–25.
243. ^ Tribe 2009, pp. 157–158.
244. ^ Tribe 2009, pp. 143–147; Cat 2023.
245. ^ Tribe 2009, p. 158–159; Cat 2023.
246. ^ Callison
2022, pp. 281–282; Tribe 2009, p. 157–159.
247. ^ Tribe 2009, p. 142.
248. ^ Maclachlan 2017, p. 1166; Kolev 2020, p. 44; Callison 2022, pp. 275–276.
249. ^ Kim 2022; Barker 1980, pp. 224–225; Eliaeson 1990, pp. 17–18.
250. ^ Kim 2022; Barker
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251. ^ Frisby 2002, p. 46.
252. ^ Kim 2022; Turner 2011, pp. 85–86; Albrow 1990, pp. 47–50.
253. ^ Kim 2022; Barker 1980, pp. 224–225.
254. ^ Jump up to:a b Kim 2022.
255. ^ Weber 1964, pp. 554–555; Turner 2011, p. 77;
Radkau 2009, p. 167.
256. ^ Turner 2011, p. 77; Kent 1983, pp. 301–302; Tribe 2018, p. 134.
257. ^ Adair-Toteff 2013, pp. 99–102.
258. ^ Kent 1983, pp. 301–304; McKinnon 2010, pp. 110–112.
259. ^ McKinnon 2010, pp. 110–111; Kent 1983, p. 308.
260. ^
Scaff 1989, pp. 68; Albrow 1990, p. 70; Sahni 2001, p. 424.
261. ^ Kent 1983, pp. 301–304; Sahni 2001, pp. 423–424.
262. ^ Weber 1994, p. 288; Turner 2011, p. 77; Radkau 2009, p. 167.
263. ^ Weber 1994, p. 288; Mayer 1975, pp. 710–711.
264. ^
Löwith & Turner 1993, p. 34.
265. ^ Albrow 1990, p. 108.
266. ^ Albrow 1990, pp. 106–109; Honigsheim 2017, pp. 187–188; Löwith & Turner 1993, pp. 34–35, 62.
267. ^ Petersen 2017, p. 29; Scott 2019, pp. 183–184.
268. ^ Rhoads 2010, p. 40.
269. ^
Kim 2022; Löwy 1996, pp. 431–446.
270. ^ Löwy 1996, pp. 431–446.
271. ^ Turner 2007, p. 39.
272. ^ Scott 2019, p. 179.
273. ^ Scott 2019, pp. 179–180.
274. ^ Scott 2019, p. 180; Derman 2012, pp. 35–36.
275. ^ Scott 2019, pp. 180–182; Fish
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276. ^ Scott 2019, pp. 182–183; Fish 2017, pp. 125–127.
277. ^ Scott 2019, pp. 182–183.
278. ^ Scott 2019, pp. 183–184; Smith 2019, p. 101.
279. ^ Hanke, Hübinger & Schwentker 2012, pp.
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280. ^ Lichtblau 2022, pp. 74–76.
281. ^ Lichtblau 2022, pp. 79–81.
282. ^ Hanke, Hübinger & Schwentker 2012, pp. 77–79; Lichtblau 2022, pp. 74, 79; Adair-Toteff 2014, p. 117.
283. ^ Hanke, Hübinger & Schwentker 2012, p. 84.
284. ^
Hanke, Hübinger & Schwentker 2012, pp. 90–91; Lichtblau 2022, pp. 74–75; Adair-Toteff 2014, p. 113.
285. ^ Lichtblau 2022, pp. 74–75.
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