modern immigration to the united kingdom


  • [54] Research conducted by the Migration Policy Institute for the Equality and Human Rights Commission suggests that, between May 2004 and September 2009, 1.5 million workers
    migrated from the new EU member states to the UK, but that many have returned home, with the result that the number of nationals of the new member states in the UK increased by some 700,000 over the same period.

  • [12] The heavy numbers of migrants resulted in the establishment of a Cabinet committee in June 1950 to find “ways which might be adopted to check the immigration into this
    country of coloured people from British colonial territories”.

  • [12] Although the Committee recommended not to introduce restrictions, the Commonwealth Immigrants Act was passed in 1962 as a response to public sentiment that the new arrivals
    “should return to their own countries” and that “no more of them come to this country”.

  • [b] By 1972, with the passing of the Immigration Act, only holders of work permits, or people with parents or grandparents born in the UK could gain entry – effectively stemming
    primary immigration from Commonwealth countries.

  • [37] Foreign born population percentage over time in England and Wales from 1851 to 2021 By 1972, only holders of work permits, or people with parents or grandparents born
    in the UK could gain entry – significantly reducing primary immigration from Commonwealth countries.

  • [9] In 2008, the UK Government began phasing in a new points-based immigration system for people from outside of the European Economic Area.

  • [citation needed] British Empire and the Commonwealth Following the end of the Second World War, the British Nationality Act 1948 allowed the 800,000,000[12] subjects in the
    British Empire to live and work in the United Kingdom without needing a visa, although this was not an anticipated consequence of the Act, which “was never intended to facilitate mass migration”.

  • [41] Non-European immigration rose significantly during the period from 1997, not least because of the government’s abolition of the primary purpose rule in June 1997.

  • In 2021, since Brexit came into effect,[a] previous EU citizenship’s right to newly move to and reside in the UK on a permanent basis does not apply anymore.

  • [28][29] Indians began arriving in the UK in large numbers shortly after their country gained independence in 1947, although there were a number of people from India living
    in the UK even in the earlier years.

  • [82] At the same time the proposal opened the door to free movement of certain European workers from European Economic Community member states.

  • [102] However, critics of the UK’s asylum policy often point out the “safe third country rule” – the convention that asylum seekers must apply in the first free nation they
    reach, not go “asylum shopping” for the nation they prefer.

  • [82] The rules proposal drew criticism from Conservative Party backbenchers, because it formally implemented a limit of six months of leave to enter as a visitor for white
    “Old Commonwealth” citizens who were “non-patrial” (did not have Right of Abode under the 1971 act, generally because they did not have a parent or grandparent from the UK).

  • [42] This change made it easier for UK residents to bring foreign spouses into the country.

  • Both the Labour Party and the Conservatives have suggested policies perceived as being “tough on asylum”[96] (although the Conservatives have dropped a previous pledge to
    limit the number of people who could claim asylum in the UK, which would likely have breached the UN Refugee Convention)[97] and the tabloid media frequently print headlines about an “immigration crisis”.

  • 7.5 million people (11.9% of the population at the time) were born overseas, although the census gives no indication of their immigration status or intended length of stay.

  • [20] For the first time, the 1968 Act required migrants to have a “substantial connection with the United Kingdom”, namely to be connected by birth or ancestry to a UK national.

  • [50] Many other European Union member states exercised their right to temporary immigration control (which ended in 2011)[51] over entrants from these accession states,[52]
    but some subsequently removed these restrictions ahead of the 2011 deadline.

  • In June 2010, The newly elected Coalition government brought in a temporary cap on immigration of those entering the UK from outside the EU, with the limit set as 24,100,
    in order to stop an expected rush of applications before a permanent cap was imposed in April 2011.

  • Though immigration is a matter that is reserved to the UK Government under the legislation that established devolution for Scotland in 1999, the Scottish Government was able
    to get an agreement from the Home Office for their Fresh Talent Initiative which was designed to encourage foreign graduates of Scottish universities to stay in Scotland to look for employment.

  • [60] In February 2011, the Leader of the Labour Party, Ed Miliband, stated that he thought that the Labour government’s decision to permit the unlimited immigration of eastern
    European migrants had been a mistake, arguing that they had underestimated the potential number of migrants and that the scale of migration had had a negative impact on wages.

  • [49] Immigrants from the European Union[edit] Foreign born population pyramid in 2021 One of the Four Freedoms of the European Union, of which the United Kingdom is a former
    member, is the right to the free movement of workers as codified in the Directive 2004/38/EC and the EEA Regulations (UK).

  • Shortly afterwards, refugees from Kenya and Uganda, fearing discrimination from their own national governments, began to arrive in Britain; as they had retained their British
    nationality granted by the 1948 Act, they were not subject to the later controls.

  • [26] Post-war immigration (1945–1983) Following the end of the Second World War, substantial groups of people from Soviet-controlled territories settled in the UK, particularly
    Poles and Ukrainians.

  • [61][62] A report by the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) entitled International Migration and Rural Economies, suggests that intra-EU migration since
    enlargement has resulted in migrants settling in rural locations without a prior history of immigration.

  • The UK recruited displaced people as so-called European Volunteer Workers in order to provide labour to industries that were required in order to aid economic recovery after
    the war.

  • [1] In January 2021, analysis by the Economic Statistics Centre of Excellence suggested that there had been an “unprecedented exodus” of almost 1.3 million foreign-born people
    from the UK between July 2019 and September 2020, in part due to the burden of job losses resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic falling disproportionately on foreign-born workers.

  • [108] Official figures for numbers of people claiming asylum in the UK were at a 13-year low by March 2006.

  • In April 2006, changes to the managed migration system were proposed that would create one points-based immigration system for the UK in place of all other schemes.

  • [104] In February 2003, Prime Minister Tony Blair promised on television to reduce the number of asylum seekers by half within 7 months,[105] apparently catching unawares
    the members of his own government with responsibility for immigration policy.

  • [85][86] A points-based system is composed of five tiers was first described by the UK Border Agency as follows: • Tier 1 – for highly skilled individuals, who can contribute
    to growth and productivity; • Tier 2 – for skilled workers with a job offer, to fill gaps in the United Kingdom workforce; • Tier 3 – for limited numbers of low-skilled workers needed to fill temporary labour shortages; • Tier 4 – for students;
    • Tier 5 – for temporary workers and young people covered by the Youth Mobility Scheme, who are allowed to work in the United Kingdom for a limited time to satisfy primarily non-economic objectives.

  • [2] Since the accession of the UK to the European Communities in the 1970s and the creation of the EU in the early 1990s, immigrants relocated from member states of the European
    Union, exercising one of the European Union’s Four Freedoms.

  • [43][44] Public salience on immigration over time The Immigration Rules, under the Immigration Act 1971, were updated in 2012 (Appendix FM) to create a strict minimum income
    threshold for non-EU spouses and children to be given leave to remain in the UK.

  • [101] However, in July 2010 the government was accused of back-tracking on this promise after the Immigration Minister Damian Green announced that the plan was to minimise,
    rather than end, child detention.

  • [18] Introducing the legislation to the House of Commons, the Conservative Home Secretary Rab Butler stated that: The justification for the control which is included in this
    Bill, which I shall describe in more detail in a few moments, is that a sizeable part of the entire population of the Earth is at present legally entitled to come and stay in this already densely populated country.

  • [19] — Rab Butler MP, 16 November 1961 The new Act required migrants to have a job before they arrived, to possess special skills or who would meet the “labour needs” of the
    national economy.

  • [83] Managed migration “Managed migration” is the term for all legal labour and student migration from outside of the European Union and this accounts for a substantial percentage
    of overall immigration figures for the UK.

  • From April 2013 to April 2014, a total of 560,000 immigrants were estimated to have arrived in the UK, including 81,000 British citizens and 214,000 from other parts of the

  • An estimated 317,000 people left, including 131,000 British citizens and 83,000 other EU citizens.

  • [82] Minutes from a Cabinet meeting the next day conclude that “anti-European sentiment” among backbenchers, who instead preferred “Old Commonwealth” migration to the UK,
    was at the core of the result.

  • [76] Immigration Rules and prior statutory instruments and controls on aliens In 1914, Parliament enacted “panic legislation”, The Alien Restrictions Act, 1914,[77] during
    the onset of World War I to place limits on the entry into, and stay in, the UK of foreign nationals.

  • Citizens by descent cannot automatically pass on British nationality to a child born outside the United Kingdom or its Overseas Territories (though in some situations the
    child can be registered as a citizen).

  • [92][93] Refugees and asylum seekers The UK is a signatory to the UN 1951 Refugee Convention as well as the 1967 Protocol and has therefore a responsibility to offer protection
    to people who seek asylum and fall into the legal definition of a “refugee”, and moreover not to return (or refoule) any displaced person to places where they would otherwise face persecution.

  • [7] In comparison, migration to and from Central and Eastern Europe has increased since 2004 with the accession to the European Union of eight Central and Eastern European
    states, since there is free movement of labour within the EU.

  • Immigrants with the right to stay in the UK are denied housing and cannot be released.

  • [36] Until the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, all Commonwealth citizens could enter and stay in the UK without any restriction.

  • [58] Research commissioned by the Regeneration and Economic Development Analysis Expert Panel suggested migrant workers leaving the UK due to the recession are likely to return
    in the future and cited evidence of “strong links between initial temporary migration and intended permanent migration”.

  • The former government adviser Andrew Neather in the Evening Standard stated that the deliberate policy of ministers from late-2000 until early-2008 was to open up the UK to
    mass migration.

  • Foreign born population of the United Kingdom by country of birth and nationality[1] Since 1945, immigration to the United Kingdom, controlled by British immigration law and
    to an extent by British nationality law, has been significant, in particular from the Republic of Ireland and from the former British Empire, especially India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, and Hong

  • The Act made Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies (CUKCs), whose passports were not directly issued by the UK Government (i.e., passports issued by the Governor of
    a colony or by the Commander of a British protectorate), subject to immigration control.

  • [14][15][16][17] Commonwealth immigration, made up largely of economic migrants, rose from 3,000 per year in 1953 to 46,800 in 1956 and 136,400 in 1961.

  • [48] Office for National Statistics migration estimates published in November 2021 suggest that the number of EU nationals leaving the UK exceeded the number arriving by around
    94,000, compared to net inward migration from the EU to the UK of 32,000 in 2019.

  • [citation needed] The Ireland Act 1949 has the unusual status of recognising the Republic of Ireland, but affirming that its citizens are not citizens of a foreign country
    for the purposes of any law in the United Kingdom.

  • [103] Research conducted by the Refugee Council suggests that most asylum seekers in the UK had their destination chosen for them by external parties or agents, rather than
    choosing the UK themselves.

  • [78] By the early 1950s, roughly 20 Orders in Council had been passed to flesh out the details for immigration control.

  • This can mean refugees being returned to a country where they face certain death.

  • Concern is also raised about the treatment of those held in detention and the practice of dawn raiding families, and holding young children in immigration detention centres
    for long periods of time.

  • [57] In 2009, for the first time since the enlargement, more nationals of the eight Central and Eastern European states that joined the EU in 2004 left the UK than arrived.

  • EU migrants were noted to be less likely to become British citizens than non-EU migrants.

  • [109] Human rights organisations such as Amnesty International have argued that the government’s new policies, particularly those concerning detention centres, have detrimental
    effects on asylum applicants[110] and their children,[111] and those facilities have seen a number of hunger strikes and suicides.

  • There are restrictions on the benefits that members of eight of these accession countries (‘A8’ nationals) can claim, which are covered by the Worker Registration Scheme.

  • Enoch Powell gave the famous “Rivers of Blood” speech on 20 April 1968 in which he warned his audience of what he believed would be the consequences of continued unchecked
    immigration from the Commonwealth to Britain.

  • There were immigration caps on the number who could enter and, subsequently, some applicants were turned away.

  • • Someone who changes their country of usual residence for a period of at least a year, so that the country of destination effectively becomes the country of usual residence.

  • Grants of settlement are made on the basis of various factors, including employment, family formation and reunification, and asylum (including to deal with backlogs of asylum

  • [30] Following the independence of Pakistan, Pakistani immigration to the United Kingdom increased, especially during the 1950s and 1960s.

  • [13] This migration was initially encouraged to help fill gaps in the UK labour market for both skilled and unskilled jobs, including in public services such as the newly
    created National Health Service and London Transport.

  • [99][100] The policy of detaining asylum-seeking children was to be abandoned as part of the coalition agreement between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats, who formed
    a government in May 2010.

  • [107] There is also a Public Performance Target to remove more asylum seekers who have been judged not to be refugees under the international definition than new anticipated
    unfounded applications.

  • [83] During the period of the introduction of the “hostile environment” policy under Prime Minister Theresa May, more than 1,300 changes were made to the Rules in 2012 alone.


Works Cited

[‘The Brexit came into force by the end of the transition period provisionally from 1 January 2021, and formally into force on 1 May 2021 after completion of the ratification processes by both parties (the EU and the UK).[3]
2. ^ The Act received Royal
Assent on 1 March;[22] the speech was delivered on 20 April.[23]
3. “Migrants in the UK: An Overview”. Migration Observatory at the University of Oxford. Retrieved 24 July 2020.
4. ^ Randall Hansen (2000). Citizenship and Immigration in Postwar
Britain. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191583018.
5. ^ “EU-UK trade and cooperation agreement: Council adopts decision on conclusion”. 29 April 2021.
6. ^ “Immigration Patterns of Non-UK Born Populations in England
and Wales in 2011” (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 17 December 2013. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
7. ^ “Migration Statistics Quarterly Report, May 201”. Office for National Statistics. 22 May 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
8. ^ “BBC News
– Immigration points-based systems compared”. BBC News. June 2016.
9. ^ Jump up to:a b Blinder, Scott (27 March 2015). “Naturalisation as a British Citizen: Concepts and Trends” (PDF). The Migration Observatory, University of Oxford. Retrieved 6
November 2016.
10. ^ Blinder, Scott (11 June 2014). “Settlement in the UK”. The Migration Observatory, University of Oxford. Archived from the original on 24 May 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
11. ^ See Treaty on the Functioning of the European
12. ^ “UK net migration hits record high of 606,000”. BBC News. BBC. 25 May 2023. Retrieved 25 May 2023.
13. ^ “Migration Statistics – Commons Library briefing – UK Parliament”. 24 August 2018. Retrieved
24 September 2018.
14. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Immigration (Hansard, 19 March 2003)”.
15. ^ Hansen, Randall (2000). Citizenship and Immigration in Post-war Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 9780199240548.
16. ^
“Windrush settlers”. The National Archives. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
17. ^ Glennie, Alex; Chappell, Laura (16 June 2010). “Jamaica: From Diverse Beginning to Diaspora in the Developed World”. Migration Information Source. Migration Policy Institute.
Retrieved 27 May 2015.
18. ^ Snow, Stephanie; Jones, Emma (8 March 2011). “Immigration and the National Health Service: putting history to the forefront”. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
19. ^ Cavendish, Richard (6 June 1998). “Arrival of SS Empire Windrush”.
History Today. 48 (6). Retrieved 27 May 2015.
20. ^ “Immigrants to United Kingdom (Hansard, 9 February 1965)”.
21. ^ “COMMONWEALTH IMMIGRANTS BILL (Hansard, 16 November 1961)”.
22. ^
Jump up to:a b Archives, The National. “Commonwealth Immigration control and legislation”.
23. ^ “COMMONWEALTH IMMIGRANTS BILL (Hansard, 29 February 1968)”.
24. ^ “Commonwealth Immigrants
Act 1968” (PDF).
25. ^ “Enoch Powell’s Rivers of Blood: The speech that divided a nation”. Sky News. 24 April 2018.
26. ^ Jump up to:a b Brah, Avtar (1996). Cartographies of Diaspora: Contesting Identities. London: Routledge.
p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-12126-2.
27. ^ “Ireland Act 1949”. Office of Public Sector Information. 2 June 1949. Retrieved 20 August 2010.
28. ^ Layton-Henry, Zig (2001). “Patterns of privilege: Citizenship rights in Britain”. In Kondo, Atsushi (ed.).
Citizenship in a Global World: Comparing Citizenship Rights for Aliens. Basingstoke: Palgrave. pp. 116–135. ISBN 0-333-80265-9.
29. ^ Kay, Diana; Miles, Robert (1998). “Refugees or migrant workers? The case of the European Volunteer Workers in Britain
(1946–1951)”. Journal of Refugee Studies. 1 (3–4): 214–236. doi:10.1093/jrs/1.3-4.214.
30. ^ Colin Holmes (1988) John Bull’s Island: Immigration and British Society 1871–1971, Basingstoke: Macmillan
31. ^ Kathy Burrell (2002) Migrant memories,
migrant lives: Polish national identity in Leicester since 1945, Transactions of the Leicestershire Archaeological and Historical Society 76, pp. 59–77
32. ^ “1972: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda”. BBC On This Day. 7 August 1972. Retrieved
17 May 2008.
33. ^ “The Pakistani Community”. BBC. 24 September 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
34. ^ Satter, Raphael G. (13 May 2008). “Pakistan rejoins Commonwealth – World Politics, World”. The Independent. London. Archived from the original
on 15 May 2022. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
35. ^ Robin Richardson; Angela Wood. “The Achievement of British Pakistani Learners” (PDF). Trentham Books. pp. 2, 1–17.
36. ^ Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R.; Skoggard, Ian (2005). Encyclopedia of Diasporas:
Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Volume I: Overviews and Topics; Volume II: Diaspora Communities, Volume 1. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780306483219.
37. ^ Fox, Susan (2015). The New Cockney: New Ethnicities and Adolescent
Speech in the Traditional East End of London. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781137503992.
38. ^ UNHCR (2006) ‘A matter of the heart’: How the Hungarian crisis changed the world of refugees, Refugees 114(3), pp. 4–11
39. ^ Jump up to:a b “British
Conservative Sees Foreign Influx as Threat”. Eugene Register-Guard. 22 December 1968. p. 4A.
40. ^ “”We back Enoch” march by dockers; He is being victimised, they say”, Evening Times, p. 1, 23 April 1968
41. ^ “More Call For Britain To Shut Out
Nonwhites”. Schenectady Gazette. 25 April 1968. p. 1.
42. ^ Immigration staff can ask Muslim women to remove veils Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine, 26 October 2006
43. ^ “Post-Conflict Identities: Practices and Affiliations
of Somali Refugee Children – Briefing Notes” (PDF). The University of Sheffield. August 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 March 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010.
44. ^ “BBC Politics 97”.
45. ^ Neather, Andrew (23 October
2009). “Don’t listen to the whingers – London needs immigrants”. Evening Standard. London. Archived from the original on 2 December 2009. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
46. ^ Whitehead, Tom (23 October 2009). “Labour wanted mass immigration to make
UK more multicultural, says former adviser”. Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 27 October 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009.
47. ^ Travis, Alan (22 February 2017). “Supreme court backs minimum income rule for non-European spouses”.
The Guardian. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
48. ^ The impact on children of the Family Migration Rules (PDF) (Report). Children’s Commissioner for England. August 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
49. ^
Child, David (15 January 2021). “‘Unprecedented exodus’: Why are migrant workers leaving the UK?”. Al Jazeera. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
50. ^ Freeman, David (23 March 2021). “Coronavirus and the impact on payroll employment: experimental analysis”.
Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 23 March 2021.
51. ^ Romei, Valentina (25 November 2021). “Net migration of EU nationals to UK turned negative in 2020”. Financial Times. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
52. ^ The Worker Registration Scheme
Archived 2 May 2006 at the Wayback Machine Home Office
53. ^ Freedom of movement for workers after enlargement Archived 18 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine Europa
54. ^ Barriers still exist in larger EU, BBC News, 1 May 2005
55. ^ EU free movement
of labour map, BBC News, 4 January 2007. Retrieved 26 August 2007
56. ^ “EU migration to UK ‘underestimated'”. 21 August 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2019.
57. ^ Sumption, Madeleine; Somerville, Will (January 2010). The UK’s new Europeans: Progress
and challenges five years after accession (PDF). Equality and Human Rights Commission Policy Report. Equality and Human Rights Commission. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-84206-252-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
58. ^
Doward, Jamie; Rogers, Sam (17 January 2010). “Young, self-reliant, educated: portrait of UK’s eastern European migrants”. The Observer. London. Retrieved 17 January 2010.
59. ^ “Migrants to UK ‘returning home'”. BBC News. 8 September 2009. Retrieved
8 September 2009.
60. ^ “UK sees shift in migration trend”. BBC News. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 28 May 2010.
61. ^ Anne E. Green (March 2011). “Impact of Economic Downturn and Immigration” (PDF). Institute for Employment Research, University of Warwick.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
62. ^ Reid outlines new EU work curbs, BBC News, 24 October 2006. Retrieved 24 October 2006.
63. ^ “Labour accused of covering up warnings about immigration”. The Daily
Telegraph. 1 March 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
64. ^ “Video: Miliband – ‘Immigration hit wages'”. The Independent. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 15 May 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
65. ^ Experian Plc (March 2011). “International
Migration and Rural Economies” (PDF). Department for Communities and Local Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 December 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
66. ^ Dustmann, Christian; Frattini, Tommaso; Halls, Caroline (July 2009). “Assessing
the fiscal costs and benefits of A8 migration to the UK” (PDF). CReAM Discussion Paper. Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration, Department of Economics, University College London. Retrieved 8 November 2009.
67. ^ Doyle, Jack (24 July 2009).
“EU migrants ‘good for UK economy'”. The Independent. London. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
68. ^ Alleyne, Richard (19 July 2012). “A fifth of murder and rape suspects are immigrants”. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 22 July 2012.
Retrieved 20 July 2012.
69. ^ “Foreign criminals deported ‘at earliest opportunity'”. BBC News. 18 December 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
70. ^ Jump up to:a b c Hill, Amelia (6 May 2018). “At least 1,000 highly skilled migrants wrongly face
deportation, experts reveal”. Guardian News & Media Limited.
71. ^ “Parliament set to debate the controversy over paragraph 322(5) of the Immigration Rules –”.
72. ^ Hill, Amelia (6 May 2018). “‘Credible and honest’:
the company director facing deportation to Pakistan”. Guardian News & Media Limited.
73. ^ Wilding, Jo (16 May 2018). “Paragraph 322(5): what the Home Office uses to refuse highly skilled migrants leave to remain in Britain”. The Conversation.
74. ^
Jump up to:a b Hill, Amelia (23 November 2018). “Home Office ‘wrongly tried to deport 300 skilled migrants'”. Guardian News & Media Limited.
75. ^ March, Polly (21 June 2018). “Family in immigration row £15k in debt”. BBC.
76. ^ “30,000 sign
petition in support of Indian professionals denied UK visas”. The Economic Times. 17 May 2018.
77. ^ Hill, Amelia (2 February 2019). “Home Office ‘wrecked my life’ with misuse of immigration law”. Guardian News & Media Limited.
78. ^ “Bahrain
made me stateless, now my young daughter is facing a similar fate in the UK”. The Guardian. 20 May 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
79. ^ Jump up to:a b “Aliens Restriction Act, 1914”,, The National Archives, 5 August 1914, 1914 c.
12, retrieved 6 October 2022
80. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e HC Deb, 20 November 1956 vol 560 cc1611-54
81. ^ “Aliens Restriction (Amendment) Act, 1919”,, The National Archives, 23 December 1919, 1919 c. 12, retrieved 6 October 2022
82. ^
Statutory Instruments 1953. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office. 1954. Retrieved 6 October 2022.
83. ^ “Immigration Act 1971: Section 1”,, The National Archives, 28 October 1971, 1971 c. 77 (s. 1), retrieved 6 October 2022
84. ^
Jump up to:a b c d e f Partos, Rebecca (2019). The Making of the Conservative Party’s Immigration Policy (electronic ed.). Routledge. pp. PT81–PT82. ISBN 9781351010634.
85. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Bozic, Martha; Barr, Caelainn; McIntyre, Niamh (27
August 2018). “Revealed: immigration rules in UK more than double in length”. The Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2022.
86. ^ “Migration Statistics Quarterly Report, August 2014”. Office for National Statistics. 28 August 2014.
87. ^ “The points-based
system”. Border & Immigration Agency. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
88. ^ “Timetable for PBS launch”. Border & Immigration Agency. Archived from the original on 20 July 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
89. ^ “How
the points-based system works”. UK Border Agency. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
90. ^ Boxell, James (28 June 2010). “Tories begin consultation on cap for migrants”. The Financial Times. Retrieved 7 October
91. ^ “Vince Cable: Migrant cap is hurting economy”. The Guardian. Press Association. 17 September 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
92. ^ “Nobel laureates urge rethink over immigration cap”. The Guardian. Press Association. 7 October 2010.
Retrieved 7 October 2010.
93. ^ New Scots: Attracting Fresh Talent to meet the Challenge of Growth Retrieved 4 November 2008
94. ^ “Fresh Talent: Working in Scotland”. UK Border Agency. Archived from the original on 8 January
2009. Retrieved 6 February 2010.
95. ^ “Browse: Work in the UK – GOV.UK”. Archived from the original on 6 January 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
96. ^ “Table as_01: Asylum applications and initial decisions for main applicants, by country of nationality”.
Home Office. 27 August 2015. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
97. ^ Lack of legal aid puts asylum seekers’ lives at risk, charity warns The Guardian, 19 July 2018
98. ^ Tom Bentley Please, not again! openDemocracy, 11 February 2005
99. ^ Q&A: Conservatives
and Immigration, BBC News, 9 November 2006. Retrieved 13 December 2007
100. ^ Roy Greenslade Seeking scapegoats: The coverage of asylum in the UK press (PDF) Archived 3 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, Institute for Public Policy Research, May
101. ^ “Nicol Stephen condemns dawn raids”. BBC News. 1 February 2007. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
102. ^ “Migrant children held ‘too long’ in detention, MPs say”. BBC News. 29 November 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
103. ^ “Detention
of asylum-seeker children to be scrapped”. The Times. London. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 17 May 2010.
104. ^ McVeigh, Karen; Taylor, Matthew (9 September 2010). “Government climbdown on detention of children in immigration centres”. The Guardian. Retrieved
10 September 2010.
105. ^ First Aid for asylum seekers
106. ^ Travis, Alan (14 January 2010). “Chance brings refugees to Britain not choice, says report”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 14 January 2010.
107. ^ Blair’s asylum
gamble BBC News 7 February 2003
108. ^ Ministers back down on asylum pledge BBC News 10 February 2003
109. ^ Blair’s asylum target met BBC News 27 November 2003
110. ^ Public performance target: removing more failed asylum seekers than new
anticipated unfounded applications Archived 29 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine Home Office
111. ^ UK asylum claims at ’13-year low’ BBC News 17 March 2006
112. ^ Seeking asylum is not a crime: Detention of people who have sought asylum
(PDF) Amnesty International, 20 June 2005
113. ^ McVeigh, Karen (31 August 2009). “Ministers under fire for locking up immigrant children”. The Guardian. London. p. 1. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
114. ^ Cooley, Laurence; Rutter, Jill (2007). “Turned
away? Towards better protection for refugees fleeing violent conflict”. Public Policy Research. 14 (3): 176–180. doi:10.1111/j.1744-540X.2007.00485.x.
115. ^ Begikhani, Nazand; Gill, Aisha; Hague, Gill; Ibraheem, Kawther (November 2010). “Final
Report: Honour-based Violence (HBV) and Honour-based Killings in Iraqi Kurdistan and in the Kurdish Diaspora in the UK” (PDF). Centre for Gender and Violence Research, University of Bristol and Roehampton University. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
116. ^ Bulman, Mary (27 May 2018). “Asylum seekers unlawfully held in removal centres for months despite courts ruling they can be released, lawyers warn”. The Independent. Archived from the original on 16
August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
117. ^ “More than 4,000 have crossed Channel to UK in small boats this year”. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2020.
118. ^ Walker, Peter (17 August 2021). “How
is UK planning to help resettle Afghan refugees?”. The Guardian. Archived from the original on 24 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
119. ^ “UK announces plan to resettle 20,000 refugees from Afghanistan”. Al Jazeera. 18 August 2021. Archived
from the original on 26 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
120. ^ “UK Refugee Resettlement: Policy Guidance” (PDF). Home Office. August 2021. p. 3. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
121. ^ “Vulnerable Persons and Vulnerable Children’s Resettlement
Schemes Factsheet, March 2021”. UK Visas and Immigration. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
122. ^ “Policy and legislative changes affecting migration to the UK: timeline”. Home Office. 26 August 2021. Retrieved 27 August 2021.
123. ^ The
thorny issue of illegal migrants BBC News, 17 May 2006.
124. ^ Irregular migration in the UK: An ippr factfile Institute for Public Policy Research, April 2006, p. 5.
125. ^ Amnesty call over illegal workers BBC News, 20 May 2006.
126. ^ Blunkett:
Immigration amnesty on cards, 14 June 2006
127. ^ Joe Boyle, Migrants find a voice in the rain, BBC News, 7 May 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2007
128. ^ “Jacqui Smith should back amnesty for illegal workers”. Institute for Public Policy
Research. 15 July 2007. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
129. ^ “Tighter immigration controls could enable an amnesty for illegal immigrants say IPPR”. Institute for Public Policy Research. 3 May 2009. Archived from
the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
130. ^ “Johnson ponders immigrant amnesty”. BBC News. 22 November 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2008.
131. ^ Richard Ford (29 February 2008). “£10,000 fines for employing illegal migrant without
check”. The Times. London. Retrieved 22 March 2008.
132. ^ Jeraj, Catrin Nye, Natalie Bloomer and Samir (14 May 2018). “Victims of serious crime face arrest”. BBC News. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
133. ^ Taylor, Diane (14 May 2018). “Victims of crime
being handed over to immigration enforcement”. The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
134. ^ Vasileva, Katya (7 July 2011). “6.5% of the EU population are foreigners and 9.4% are born abroad” (PDF). Statistics in Focus. Eurostat
(34/2011). Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
135. ^ “Tougher language requirements announced for British citizenship”. Home Office. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
136. ^ “Life in the UK Test”.
Home Office. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
137. ^ “Professor Catherine Barnard: UK will need a seasonal labour scheme as a result of Brexit”. 14 January 2022.

Photo credit:’]