“ Domestic collection Further information: Mass surveillance in the United States NSA’s mission, as set forth in Executive Order 12333 in 1981, is to collect information
that constitutes “foreign intelligence or counterintelligence” while not “acquiring information concerning the domestic activities of United States persons”.
Between then and the end of the Cold War, it became the largest of the U.S. intelligence organizations in terms of personnel and budget, but information available as of 2013
indicates that the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) pulled ahead in this regard, with a budget of $14.7 billion.
 The NSA, alongside the CIA, maintains a physical presence in many countries across the globe; the CIA/NSA joint Special Collection Service (a highly classified intelligence
team) inserts eavesdropping devices in high value targets (such as presidential palaces or embassies).
 NSA/CSS, in combination with the equivalent agencies in the United Kingdom (Government Communications Headquarters), Canada (Communications Security Establishment), Australia
(Australian Signals Directorate), and New Zealand (Government Communications Security Bureau), otherwise known as the UKUSA group, was reported to be in command of the operation of the so-called ECHELON system.
 According to the Foreign Policy magazine, “… the Office of Tailored Access Operations, or TAO, has successfully penetrated Chinese computer and telecommunications
systems for almost 15 years, generating some of the best and most reliable intelligence information about what is going on inside the People’s Republic of China.
 According to Neal Koblitz and Alfred Menezes, the period when the NSA was a trusted partner with academia and industry in the development of cryptographic standards started
to come to an end when, as part of the change in the NSA in the post-September 11 era, Snow was replaced as Technical Director, Jacobs retired, and IAD could no longer effectively oppose proposed actions by the offensive arm of the NSA.
 NSA’s United States Signals Intelligence Directive 18 (USSID 18) strictly prohibited the interception or collection of information about “… U.S. persons, entities,
corporations or organizations….” without explicit written legal permission from the United States Attorney General when the subject is located abroad, or the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court when within U.S. borders.
 As part of the National Security Presidential Directive 54/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 23 (NSPD 54), signed on January 8, 2008, by President Bush, the NSA
became the lead agency to monitor and protect all of the federal government’s computer networks from cyber-terrorism.
 Protesters against NSA data mining in Berlin wearing Chelsea Manning and Edward Snowden masks Other SIGINT operations overseas The NSA was also involved in planning
to blackmail people with “SEXINT”, intelligence gained about a potential target’s sexual activity and preferences.
 The Real Time Regional Gateway is a data collection program introduced in 2005 in Iraq by NSA during the Iraq War that consisted of gathering all electronic communication,
storing it, then searching and otherwise analyzing it.
 On March 11, 2004, President Bush signed a new authorization for mass surveillance of Internet records, in addition to the surveillance of phone records.
 The actual establishment of the NSA was done by a November 4 memo by Robert A. Lovett, the Secretary of Defense, changing the name of the AFSA to the NSA, and making
the new agency responsible for all communications intelligence.
 On November 3, 1999, the BBC reported that they had confirmation from the Australian Government of the existence of a powerful “global spying network” code-named Echelon,
that could “eavesdrop on every single phone call, fax or e-mail, anywhere on the planet” with Britain and the United States as the chief protagonists.
Initially, it was reported that some of these data reflected eavesdropping on citizens in countries like Germany, Spain and France, but later on, it became clear that
those data were collected by European agencies during military missions abroad and were subsequently shared with NSA.
World War I ended on November 11, 1918, and the army cryptographic section of Military Intelligence (MI-8) moved to New York City on May 20, 1919, where it continued intelligence
activities as the Code Compilation Company under the direction of Yardley.
 Operations Operations by the National Security Agency can be divided into three types: • Collection overseas, which falls under the responsibility of the Global Access
Operations (GAO) division.
 War on Terror In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the NSA created new IT systems to deal with the flood of information from new technologies like the
Internet and cellphones.
Research at the University of Toronto has suggested that approximately 25% of Canadian domestic traffic may be subject to NSA surveillance activities as a result of the boomerang
routing of Canadian Internet service providers.
 The specific requirements for domestic surveillance operations are contained in the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA), which does not extend protection
to non-U.S. citizens located outside of U.S.
 Organizational structure The NSA is led by the Director of the National Security Agency (DIRNSA), who also serves as Chief of the Central Security Service (CHCSS) and
Commander of the United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) and is the highest-ranking military official of these organizations.
To further ensure streamlined communication between the signals intelligence community divisions, the NSA Director simultaneously serves as the Commander of the United States
Cyber Command and as Chief of the Central Security Service.
 In 1999, a multi-year investigation by the European Parliament highlighted the NSA’s role in economic espionage in a report entitled ‘Development of Surveillance
Technology and Risk of Abuse of Economic Information’.
“ Because of its listening task, NSA/CSS has been heavily involved in cryptanalytic research, continuing the work of predecessor agencies which had broken many World War
II codes and ciphers (see, for instance, Purple, Venona project, and JN-25).
 Global surveillance disclosures Main article: Global surveillance disclosures (2013–present) The massive extent of the NSA’s spying, both foreign and domestic,
was revealed to the public in a series of detailed disclosures of internal NSA documents beginning in June 2013.
 As part of these responsibilities, the agency has a co-located organization called the Central Security Service (CSS), which facilitates cooperation between the NSA and
other U.S. defense cryptanalysis components.
 President’s Surveillance Program See also: NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07) George W. Bush, president during the 9/11 terrorist attacks, approved the Patriot
Act shortly after the attacks to take anti-terrorist security measures.
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court for example held in October 2011, citing multiple Supreme Court precedents, that the Fourth Amendment prohibitions against unreasonable
searches and seizures apply to the contents of all communications, whatever the means, because “a person’s private communications are akin to personal papers.
 According to a 2010 article in The Washington Post, “[e]very day, collection systems at the National Security Agency intercept and store 1.7 billion e-mails, phone calls
and other types of communications.
 A part of NSA’s mission is to serve as a combat support agency for the Department of Defense.
 It was headquartered in Washington, D.C. and was part of the war effort under the executive branch without direct Congressional authorization.
Alleged Echelon-related activities, including its use for motives other than national security, including political and industrial espionage, received criticism from countries
outside the UKUSA alliance.
: 75 After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the NSA believed that it had public support for a dramatic expansion of its surveillance activities.
 Boomerang routing While it is assumed that foreign transmissions terminating in the U.S. (such as a non-U.S. citizen accessing a U.S. website) subject non-U.S.
citizens to NSA surveillance, recent research into boomerang routing has raised new concerns about the NSA’s ability to surveil the domestic Internet traffic of foreign countries.
 A secret operation, code-named “MINARET”, was set up by the NSA to monitor the phone communications of Senators Frank Church and Howard Baker, as well as key leaders
of the civil rights movement, including Martin Luther King Jr., and prominent U.S. journalists and athletes who criticized the Vietnam War.
 Hardware implanting Intercepted packages are opened carefully by NSA employees A “load station” implanting a beacon A document included in NSA files released with
Glenn Greenwald’s book No Place to Hide details how the agency’s Tailored Access Operations (TAO) and other NSA units gain access to hardware.
According to the leaked documents, the NSA intercepts and stores the communications of over a billion people worldwide, including United States citizens.
Its secure communications mission includes military, diplomatic, and all other sensitive, confidential or secret government communications.
 Since President Truman’s memo was a classified document, the existence of the NSA was not known to the public at that time.
NSA has declared that it relies on the FBI to collect information on foreign intelligence activities within the borders of the United States, while confining its own activities
within the United States to the embassies and missions of foreign nations.
Bypassing encryption In 2013, reporters uncovered a secret memo that claims the NSA created and pushed for the adoption of the Dual EC DRBG encryption standard that
contained built-in vulnerabilities in 2006 to the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the International Organization for Standardization (aka ISO).
In addition to this, President Bush also signed that the measures of mass surveillance were also retroactively in place.
 The AFSA was tasked to direct Department of Defense communications and electronic intelligence activities, except those of U.S. military intelligence units.
 Mission NSA’s eavesdropping mission includes radio broadcasting, both from various organizations and individuals, the Internet, telephone calls, and other intercepted
forms of communication.
 Investigative journalist Duncan Campbell reported in 1988 on the “ECHELON” surveillance program, an extension of the UKUSA Agreement on global signals intelligence SIGINT,
and detailed how the eavesdropping operations worked.
This allowed the president to be able to override laws such as the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, which protected civilians from mass surveillance.
 However, the AFSA was unable to centralize communications intelligence and failed to coordinate with civilian agencies that shared its interests such as the Department
of State, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).
 Today it is a legacy system, and several NSA stations are closing.
This strengthened the protection for users of Notes outside the US against private-sector industrial espionage, but not against spying by the US government.
The Black Chamber successfully persuaded Western Union, the largest U.S. telegram company at the time, as well as several other communications companies to illegally give
the Black Chamber access to cable traffic of foreign embassies and consulates.
 The NSA mounted a major effort to secure tactical communications among U.S. forces during the war with mixed success.
 One such surveillance program, authorized by the U.S.
 Jointly funded by the Army and the State Department, the Cipher Bureau was disguised as a New York City commercial code company; it actually produced and sold such codes
for business use.
 History Formation The origins of the National Security Agency can be traced back to April 28, 1917, three weeks after the U.S. Congress declared war on Germany
in World War I.
(Some incoming traffic was also directed instead to Britain’s GCHQ for the time being.)
This was described by an NSA manager as “some of the most productive operations in TAO because they preposition access points into hard target networks around the world.
Due to its ultra-secrecy the U.S. intelligence community referred to the NSA as “No Such Agency”.
NSA relayed telephone (including cell phone) conversations obtained from ground, airborne, and satellite monitoring stations to various U.S. Army Signal Intelligence Officers,
including the 201st Military Intelligence Battalion.
 The NSA currently conducts worldwide mass data collection and has been known to physically bug electronic systems as one method to this end.
 : Vol I, p.79 Church Committee hearings Further information: Watergate scandal and Church Committee In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal, a congressional
hearing in 1975 led by Senator Frank Church revealed that the NSA, in collaboration with Britain’s SIGINT intelligence agency Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), had routinely intercepted the international communications of
prominent anti-Vietnam war leaders such as Jane Fonda and Dr. Benjamin Spock.
Its true mission, however, was to break the communications (chiefly diplomatic) of other nations.
This was designed to limit the practice of mass surveillance in the United States.
In 2004, NSA Central Security Service and the National Cyber Security Division of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) agreed to expand the NSA Centers of Academic Excellence
in Information Assurance Education Program.
 Unlike the CIA and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), both of which specialize primarily in foreign human espionage, the NSA does not publicly conduct human-source
The NSA’s actions have been a matter of political controversy on several occasions, including its spying on anti–Vietnam War leaders and the agency’s participation in economic
 However, the project turned out to be controversial, and an internal review by the NSA concluded that its Minaret program was “disreputable if not outright illegal”.
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