• Ancient models were certainly very much involved, but the style could also be regarded as a revival of the Renaissance, and especially in France as a return to the more austere
    and noble Baroque of the age of Louis XIV, for which a considerable nostalgia had developed as France’s dominant military and political position started a serious decline.

  • [37] Rococo frivolity and Baroque movement had been stripped away but many artists struggled to put anything in their place, and in the absence of ancient examples for history
    painting, other than the Greek vases used by Flaxman, Raphael tended to be used as a substitute model, as Winckelmann recommended.

  • [34] The drawings, subsequently turned into prints, of John Flaxman used very simple line drawing (thought to be the purest classical medium[35]) and figures mostly in profile
    to depict The Odyssey and other subjects, and once “fired the artistic youth of Europe” but are now “neglected”,[36] while the history paintings of Angelica Kauffman, mainly a portraitist, are described as having “an unctuous softness and
    tediousness” by Fritz Novotny.

  • According to the art historian Hugh Honour “so far from being, as is sometimes supposed, the culmination of the Neoclassical movement, the Empire marks its rapid decline and
    transformation back once more into a mere antique revival, drained of all the high-minded ideas and force of conviction that had inspired its masterpieces”.

  • The work of other artists, who could not easily be described as insipid, combined aspects of Romanticism with a generally Neoclassical style, and form part of the history
    of both movements.

  • Neoclassicism continued to be a major force in academic art through the 19th century and beyond—a constant antithesis to Romanticism or Gothic revivals —, although from the
    late 19th century on it had often been considered anti-modern, or even reactionary, in influential critical circles.[who?]

  • [40] David’s many students included Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, who saw himself as a classicist throughout his long career, despite a mature style that has an equivocal
    relationship with the main current of Neoclassicism, and many later diversions into Orientalism and the Troubadour style that are hard to distinguish from those of his unabashedly Romantic contemporaries, except by the primacy his works always
    give to drawing.

  • Whilst Neoclassicism was characterized by Greek and Roman-influenced styles, geometric lines and order, Gothic revival architecture placed an emphasis on medieval-looking
    buildings, often made to have a rustic, “romantic” appearance.

  • The German-Danish painter Asmus Jacob Carstens finished very few of the large mythological works that he planned, leaving mostly drawings and colour studies which often succeed
    in approaching Winckelmann’s prescription of “noble simplicity and calm grandeur”.

  • [citation needed] History Neoclassicism is a revival of the many styles and spirit of classic antiquity inspired directly from the classical period,[7] which coincided and
    reflected the developments in philosophy and other areas of the Age of Enlightenment, and was initially a reaction against the excesses of the preceding Rococo style.

  • Although examples of actual Greek sculpture of the “Classical Period” beginning in about 500 BC were then very few; the most highly regarded works were mostly Roman copies.

  • Between 1765 and 1830, Neoclassical proponents—writers, speakers, patrons, collectors, artists and sculptors—paid homage to an idea of the artistic generation associated with
    Phidias, but sculpture examples they actually embraced were more likely to be Roman copies of Hellenistic sculptures.

  • His books Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture (1750) and (“History of Ancient Art”, 1764) were the first to distinguish sharply between Ancient
    Greek and Roman art, and define periods within Greek art, tracing a trajectory from growth to maturity and then imitation or decadence that continues to have influence to the present day.

  • However, there was no real attempt to employ the basic forms of Roman furniture until around the turn of the century, and furniture-makers were more likely to borrow from
    ancient architecture, just as silversmiths were more likely to take from ancient pottery and stone-carving than metalwork: “Designers and craftsmen … seem to have taken an almost perverse pleasure in transferring motifs from one medium to

  • The theory was very far from new in Western art, but his emphasis on close copying of Greek models was: “The only way for us to become great or if this be possible, inimitable,
    is to imitate the ancients”.

  • The centres of several European cities, notably Saint Petersburg and Munich, came to look much like museums of Neoclassical architecture.

  • [59] An earlier phase of the style was called the Adam style in Great Britain.

  • [39] The Swiss-born Henry Fuseli spent most of his career in England, and while his fundamental style was based on Neoclassical principles, his subjects and treatment more
    often reflected the “Gothic” strain of Romanticism, and sought to evoke drama and excitement.

  • Neoclassicism was strongest in architecture, sculpture and the decorative arts, where classical models in the same medium were relatively numerous and accessible; examples
    from ancient painting that demonstrated the qualities that Winckelmann’s writing found in sculpture were and are lacking.

  • In English, the term “Neoclassicism” is used primarily of the visual arts; the similar movement in English literature, which began considerably earlier, is called Augustan

  • [21] Painting, drawing and printmaking : Capriccio (art) • Fantasy View with the Pantheon and other Monuments of Ancient Rome; by Giovanni Paolo Panini; 1737; oil on canvas;
    Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, US • The ancient Capitol ascended by approximately one hundred steps .

  • Neoclassicism, also spelled Neo-classicism, emerged as a Western cultural movement in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that drew
    inspiration from the art and culture of classical antiquity.

  • [16] With the advent of the Grand Tour, a fad of collecting antiquities began that laid the foundations of many great collections spreading a Neoclassical revival throughout

  • This, which had been dominant for several decades, was beginning to decline by the time Neoclassicism in the visual arts became fashionable.

  • [58] Château de Malmaison, 1800, room for the Empress Joséphine, on the cusp between Directoire style and Empire style From about 1800 a fresh influx of Greek architectural
    examples, seen through the medium of etchings and engravings, gave a new impetus to Neoclassicism, the Greek Revival.

  • [47] The leading Neoclassical sculptors enjoyed huge reputations in their own day, but are now less regarded, with the exception of Jean-Antoine Houdon, whose work was mainly
    portraits, very often as busts, which do not sacrifice a strong impression of the sitter’s personality to idealism.

  • [53] Like Piranesi’s Carceri, these enjoyed a great revival of interest during the age of psychoanalysis in the early 20th century.

  • [1][2][3][4] The main Neoclassical movement coincided with the 18th-century Age of Enlightenment, and continued into the early 19th century, eventually competing with Romanticism.

  • [56] Neoclassicism first gained influence in Britain and France, through a generation of French art students trained in Rome and influenced by the writings of Winckelmann,
    and it was quickly adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden, Poland.

  • [50] All these, and Flaxman, were still active in the 1820s, and Romanticism was slow to impact sculpture, where versions of Neoclassicism remained the dominant style for
    most of the 19th century.

  • Unlike the Classicism of Louis XIV, which transformed ornaments into symbols, Louis XVI style represents them as realistic and natural as possible, i.e.

  • [18] Anton Raphael Mengs; Judgement of Paris; circa 1757; oil on canvas; height: 226 cm, width: 295 cm, bought by Catherine the Great from the studio; Hermitage Museum, Saint
    Petersburg, Russia The term “Neoclassical” was not invented until the mid-19th century, and at the time the style was described by such terms as “the true style”, “reformed” and “revival”; what was regarded as being revived varying considerably.

  • Gothic revival architecture (often linked with the Romantic cultural movement), a style originating in the 18th century which grew in popularity throughout the 19th century,
    contrasted Neoclassicism.

  • The Rococo style remained popular in Italy until the Napoleonic regimes brought the new archaeological classicism, which was embraced as a political statement by young, progressive,
    urban Italians with republican leanings.

  • Winckelmann believed that art should aim at “noble simplicity and calm grandeur”,[13] and praised the idealism of Greek art, in which he said we find “not only nature at its
    most beautiful but also something beyond nature, namely certain ideal forms of its beauty, which, as an ancient interpreter of Plato teaches us, come from images created by the mind alone”.

  • In music, the period saw the rise of classical music, and “Neoclassicism” is used of 20th-century developments.

  • Especially in architecture, but also in other fields, Neoclassicism remained a force long after the early 19th century, with periodic waves of revivalism into the 20th and
    even the 21st centuries, especially in the United States.

  • [8] While the movement is often described as the opposed counterpart of Romanticism, this is a great over-simplification that tends not to be sustainable when specific artists
    or works are considered.

  • His style became more classical as his long career continued, and represents a rather smooth progression from Rococo charm to classical dignity.

  • Since prior to the 1830s the United States did not have a sculpture tradition of its own, save in the areas of tombstones, weathervanes and ship figureheads,[54] the European
    Neoclassical manner was adopted there, and it was to hold sway for decades and is exemplified in the sculptures of Horatio Greenough, Harriet Hosmer, Hiram Powers, Randolph Rogers and William Henry Rinehart.

  • [51] John Flaxman was also, or mainly, a sculptor, mostly producing severely classical reliefs that are comparable in style to his prints; he also designed and modelled Neoclassical
    ceramics for Josiah Wedgwood for several years.

  • The antiquities of Herculaneum showed that even the most classicizing interiors of the Baroque, or the most “Roman” rooms of William Kent were based on basilica and temple
    exterior architecture turned outside in, hence their often bombastic appearance to modern eyes: pedimented window frames turned into gilded mirrors, fireplaces topped with temple fronts.

  • The late Baroque Austrian sculptor Franz Xaver Messerschmidt turned to Neoclassicism in mid-career, shortly before he appears to have suffered some kind of mental crisis,
    after which he retired to the country and devoted himself to the highly distinctive “character heads” of bald figures pulling extreme facial expressions.

  • ; by Giovanni Battista Piranesi; c.1750; etching; size of the entire sheet: Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City • A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery; by Joseph Wright
    of Derby; c.1766; oil on canvas; Derby Museum and Art Gallery, Derby, England[22] • The Attributes of the Arts; by Anne Vallayer-Coster; 1769; oil on canvas; Louvre[23] • Ariadne Abandoned; by Angelica Kauffmann; before 1782; oil on canvas;
    Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden, Germany[24] • Oath of the Horatii; by Jacques-Louis David; 1784; oil on canvas; Louvre[25] • Self-Portrait with a Harp; by Rose-Adélaïde Ducreux; 1791; oil on canvas; Metropolitan Museum of Art • Achilles
    mourning Patrocles; after John Flaxman; 1795; engraving after a drawing; unknown size; unknown location • Portrait of Citizen Belley, Ex-Representative of the Colonies; by Anne-Louis Girodet; 1796–1797; oil on canvas; Palace of Versailles,
    France[26] • Cupid and Psyche; by François Gérard; 1798; oil on canvas; Louvre[27] • Julie Lebrun as Flora; by Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun; c.1799; oil on canvas; Museum of Fine Arts (St. Petersburg, Florida), US • Portrait of a Black Woman, by
    Marie-Guillemine Benoist; 1800; oil on canvas; Louvre[28] • Melancholy; by Constance Marie Charpentier; 1801; oil on canvas; Musée de Picardie, Amiens, France[29] • Portrait of Charlotte du Val d’Ognes; by Marie-Denise Villers; 1801; oil on
    canvas; Metropolitan Museum of Art[30] • Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa; by Antoine-Jean Gros; 1804; oil on canvas; Louvre[31] • Portrait of Empress Joséphine; by Pierre-Paul Prud’hon; 1805; oil on canvas; Louvre[32] • Napoleon
    I on His Imperial Throne; by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres; 1806; oil on canvas; Army Museum (Paris)[25] • Tantalus and Sisyphus in Hades; by August Theodor Kaselowsky; c.1850; wall painting; unknown dimensions; on a wall of the Room of the
    Niobids, Neues Museum, Berlin It is hard to recapture the radical and exciting nature of early Neoclassical painting for contemporary audiences; it now strikes even those writers favourably inclined to it as “insipid” and “almost entirely
    uninteresting to us”—some of Kenneth Clark’s comments on Anton Raphael Mengs’ ambitious Parnassus at the Villa Albani,[33] by the artist whom his friend Winckelmann described as “the greatest artist of his own, and perhaps of later times”.

  • Mainly based on Imperial Roman styles, it originated in, and took its name from, the rule of Napoleon in the First French Empire, where it was intended to idealize Napoleon’s
    leadership and the French state.

  • They ignored both Archaic Greek art and the works of late antiquity.

  • With Greece largely unexplored and considered a dangerous territory of the Ottoman Empire, Neoclassicists’ appreciation of Greek architecture was predominantly mediated through
    drawings and engravings which were subtly smoothed and regularized, “corrected” and “restored” monuments of Greece, not always consciously.

  • Winckelmann was involved in the dissemination of knowledge of the first large Roman paintings to be discovered, at Pompeii and Herculaneum and, like most contemporaries except
    for Gavin Hamilton, was unimpressed by them, citing Pliny the Younger’s comments on the decline of painting in his period.

  • 46, Paris, unknown architect, unknown date • Astronomical clock; by Philippe-Jacques Corniquet; c.1794; gilt bronze and enamel face; unknown dimensions; Musée des Arts décoratifs,
    Paris[73] • Fan; by Charles Percier, Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine and Antoine Denis Chaudet; c.1797-1799; paper, wood, and bone; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City) • Armchair of the salon of Juliette Récamier; attributed to Jacob
    Frères; c.1798; various types of wood; Louvre[74] Empire style (1804–1815)[edit] Main article: Empire style • Coffeepot; 1797–1809; silver gilt; height: 33.3 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City • Empress Joséphine’s Bedroom in Château
    de Malmaison, Rueil-Malmaison, France, by Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine, 1800-1802 • Washstand (athénienne or lavabo); 1800–1814; legs, base and shelf of yew wood, gilt-bronze mounts, iron plate beneath shelf; height:
    92.4 cm, width: 49.5 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art • Portico of the Palais Bourbon, Paris, by Bernard Poyet, 1806-1808 • La Madeleine, Paris, by Pierre-Alexandre Vignon, 1807-1842 • Vase; 1809; hard-paste porcelain and gilded bronze handles;
    height: 74.9 cm, diameter: 35.6 cm; Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut, US[77] • Egyptian Revival coin cabinet; by François-Honoré-Georges Jacob-Desmalter; 1809–1819; mahogany (probably Swietenia mahagoni), with applied and inlaid silver;
    Metropolitan Museum of Art • Clock with Mars and Venus; c. 1810; gilded bronze and patina; height: 90 cm; Louvre • King of Rome’s Cradle; by Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, Henri Victor Roguier, Jean-Baptiste-Claude Odiot and Pierre-Philippe Thomire;
    1811; wood, silver gilt, mother-of-pearl, sheets of copper covered with velvet, silk and tulle, decorated with silver and gold thread; height: 216 cm; Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria[78] • Carpet; 1814–1830; Metropolitan Museum of
    Art Neoclassicism was representative for the new French society that exited the revolution, setting the tone in all life fields, including art.

  • Interior decor also honored this taste for rigor, with the result that flat surfaces and right angles returned to fashion.

  • The central perspective is perpendicular to the picture plane, made more emphatic by the dim arcade behind, against which the heroic figures are disposed as in a frieze, with
    a hint of the artificial lighting and staging of opera, and the classical colouring of Nicolas Poussin.

  • In the decorative arts, Neoclassicism is exemplified in Empire furniture made in Paris, London, New York, Berlin; in Biedermeier furniture made in Austria; in Karl Friedrich
    Schinkel’s museums in Berlin, Sir John Soane’s Bank of England in London and the newly built “United States Capitol” in Washington, D.C.; and in Josiah Wedgwood’s bas reliefs and “black basaltes” vases.

  • At the same time the Empire style was a more grandiose wave of Neoclassicism in architecture and the decorative arts.

  • Its popularity expanded throughout Europe as a generation of European art students finished their Grand Tour and returned from Italy to their home countries with newly rediscovered
    Greco-Roman ideals.

  • These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved a wide audience in the 1760s,[57] with the first luxurious volumes of tightly controlled distribution of (The Antiquities
    of Herculaneum).

  • Rococo architecture emphasizes grace, ornamentation and asymmetry; Neoclassical architecture is based on the principles of simplicity and symmetry, which were seen as virtues
    of the arts of Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece, and drawn directly from 16th-century Renaissance Classicism.

  • The Empire style, a second phase of Neoclassicism in architecture and the decorative arts, had its cultural centre in Paris in the Napoleonic era.

  • Though terms differ, the situation in French literature was similar.

  • One of the main decorative principles is symmetry.

  • The case of the supposed main champion of late Neoclassicism, Ingres, demonstrates this especially well.

  • In France, the first phase of Neoclassicism was expressed in the “Louis XVI style”, and the second in the styles called “Directoire” and Empire.

  • His main subject matter was the buildings and ruins of Rome, and he was more stimulated by the ancient than the modern.

  • He portrayed most of the notable figures of the Enlightenment, and travelled to America to produce a statue of George Washington, as well as busts of Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin
    Franklin and other founders of the new republic.

  • A fierce, but often very badly informed, dispute raged for decades over the relative merits of Greek and Roman art, with Winckelmann and his fellow Hellenists generally being
    on the winning side.

  • Neoclassicism in painting gained a new sense of direction with the sensational success of Jacques-Louis David’s Oath of the Horatii at the Paris Salon of 1785.

  • [48][49] Antonio Canova and the Dane Bertel Thorvaldsen were both based in Rome, and as well as portraits produced many ambitious life-size figures and groups; both represented
    the strongly idealizing tendency in Neoclassical sculpture.

  • The neo-Louis XVI style was really popular in France and Romania in the years before WW1, around 1910, and it heavily influenced multiple early Art Deco designs and buildings.

  • The use of historic styles as sources of inspiration for Art Deco starts as far back as the years before WW1, through the efforts of decorators like Maurice Dufrêne, Paul
    Follot, Paul Iribe, André Groult, Léon Jallot or Émile-Jacques Ruhlmann, who relate to the prestigious French artistic and handicraft tradition of the late 18th and early 19th centuries (the Louis XVI, Directoire and Louis Philippe), and who
    want to bring a new approach to these styles.

  • Hitler’s war on Modern art mostly consisted of an exhibition that tried to discredit Modern artists, called the ‘Degenerate Art exhibition’ (German).

  • The Palais Garnier in Paris is a good example of this, since despite being predominantly Neoclassical, it features elements and ornaments taken from Baroque and Renaissance

  • When it come to fine art, the Nazis created the term ‘Degenerate art’ for Modern art, a kind of art which to them was ‘un-German’, ‘Jewish’ or ‘Communist’.

  • 53, Paris, by Charles Abella, 1939 Although it started to be seen as ‘dated’ after WW1, principles, proportions and other Neoclassical elements were not abandoned yet.

  • When it comes to state buildings in Italy and Romania, architects attempted to fuse a modern sensibility with abstract classical forms.

  • The result of this situation is the early Art Deco style, which uses both new and old elements.

  • 1890–1917; its last manifestation was in Beaux-Arts architecture, and its final large public projects were the Lincoln Memorial (highly criticized at the time), the National
    Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. (also heavily criticized by the architectural community as being backward thinking and old fashioned in its design), and the American Museum of Natural History’s Roosevelt Memorial.

  • A particular individual work that represents this style well is Prokofiev’s Classical Symphony No.

  • A good example of secular architecture is the Știrbei Palace on Calea Victoriei (Bucharest), built around the year 1835, after the plans of French architect Michel Sanjouand.

  • In interwar France and England, the spirit of the public and much architectural criticism could not conceive a style totally deprived of ornament, like the International style.

  • Neoclassical fashion for men was far more problematic, and never really took off other than for hair, where it played an important role in the shorter styles that finally
    despatched the use of wigs, and then white hair-powder, for younger men.

  • Without the contribution of the Beaux-Arts trained architects, Art Deco architecture would have remained, with the exception of residential buildings, a collection of decorative
    objects magnified to an urban scale, like the pavilions of the International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts from 1925, controversial at their time.

  • Albert Speer was set as Adolf Hitler’s architectural advisor in 1934, and he tried to create an architecture that would both reflect the perceived unity of the German people
    and act as backdrop to the Nazis’ expressions of power.

  • A style of its own, the Federal style, has developed completely in the 18th and early 19th centuries, which has flourished being influenced by Britannic taste.

  • Most of the architects that built during the beginning of the century were foreigners because Romanians did not have yet the instruction needed for designing buildings that
    were very different compared to the Romanian tradition.

  • Classically inspired male hairstyles included the Bedford Crop, arguably the precursor of most plain modern male styles, which was invented by the radical politician Francis
    Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford as a protest against a tax on hair powder; he encouraged his friends to adopt it by betting them they would not.

  • Even when David designed a new French “national costume” at the request of the government during the height of the Revolutionary enthusiasm for changing everything in 1792,
    it included fairly tight leggings under a coat that stopped above the knee.

  • However the Americans Copley and Benjamin West led the artists who successfully showed that trousers could be used in heroic scenes, with works like West’s The Death of General
    Wolfe (1770) and Copley’s The Death of Major Peirson, 6 January 1781 (1783), although the trouser was still being carefully avoided in The Raft of the Medusa, completed in 1819.

  • The trouser-problem had been recognised by artists as a barrier to creating contemporary history paintings; like other elements of contemporary dress they were seen as irredeemably
    ugly and unheroic by many artists and critics.

  • (The early 20th century had not yet distinguished the Baroque period in music, on which Neoclassical composers mainly drew, from what we now call the Classical period.)

  • Although the practice of borrowing musical styles from the past has not been uncommon throughout musical history, art musics have gone through periods where musicians used
    modern techniques coupled with older forms or harmonies to create new kinds of works.

  • Stylized elements from repertoire of Beaux-Arts, Neoclassicism, or of cultures distant in time and space (Ancient Egypt, Pre-Columbian Americas, or Sub-Saharian African art)
    are put together with references to Modernist avant-guard artists of the early 20th century (Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani or Constantin Brâncuși).

  • The Nazis’ approach to architecture was riffled with contradictions: while Hitler and Speer’s plans for reordering Berlin aspired to imitate imperial Rome, in rural contexts
    Nazi buildings took inspiration from local vernaculars, trying to channel an ‘authentic’ German spirit.

  • Another influential style (or group of styles) was named by the French “coiffure à la Titus” after Titus Junius Brutus (not in fact the Roman Emperor Titus as often assumed),
    with hair short and layered but somewhat piled up on the crown, often with restrained quiffs or locks hanging down; variants are familiar from the hair of both Napoleon and George IV of the United Kingdom.

  • Art Deco was the dominant style during the interwar period, and it corresponds with the taste of a bourgeois elite for high class French styles of the past, including the
    Louis XVI, Directoire and Empire (the period styles of French Neoclassicism).

  • A high proportion of well-to-do young men spent much of the key period in military service because of the French Revolutionary Wars, and military uniform, which began to emphasize
    jackets that were short at the front, giving a full view of tight-fitting trousers, was often worn when not on duty, and influenced civilian male styles.

  • With a similar atitude, the regime closed in 1931 the Bauhaus, an avant-garde art school in Dessau that was extremely influential post-war.

  • 107), Bucharest, by Michel Sanjouand, c.1835; with a new level with caryatids added in 1882 by Joseph Hartmann[82] • The old building of the University of Bucharest, designed
    by Alexandru Orăscu and decorated with sculptures by Karl Storck, 1857–1864, bombarded in April or May 1944 during WW2 and partially destroyed, partially rebuilt during the late 1960s • Romanian Athenaeum on Calea Victoriei, Bucharest, by
    Albert Galleron, 1886–1895 • Upper part of a tiled stove in the principals’ house of the Central Girls’ School, Bucharest, unknown designer, 1890 • Arabesque on a corner of Strada General H.M. Berthelot no.

  • In the interior decoration made after Robert Adam’s drawings, the walls, ceilings, doors, and any other surface, are divided into big panels: rectangular, round, square, with
    stuccos and Greco-Roman motifs at the edges.

  • [122] In Romania, towards the late 1930s, influenced by the Autocratic tendency of King Carol II, multiple state buildings were erected.

  • They were Neoclassical, many very similar with what was popular in the same years in Fascist Italy.

  • Later Neoclassicism and continuations • Beaux-Arts – Exterior of the Palais Garnier, Paris, by Charles Garnier, 1860–1875] • Beaux-Arts – Grand stairs of the Palais Garnier,
    by Charles Garnier, 1860–1875 • Beaux-Arts – Grand Central Terminal, New York City, by Reed and Stem and Warren and Wetmore, 1903 • Beaux-Arts – Hôtel Roxoroid de Belfort, Paris, 1911, by André Arfvidson • Late Neoclassical – The West building
    of the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., US, by John Russell Pope, 1941 After the middle of the 19th century, Neoclassicism starts to no longer be the main style, being replaced by Eclecticism of Classical styles.

  • Pablo Picasso experimented with classicizing motifs in the years immediately following World War I.

  • The shape is now often known as the Empire silhouette although it predates the First French Empire of Napoleon, but his first Empress Joséphine de Beauharnais was influential
    in spreading it around Europe.

  • He tried to include in his own buildings qualities that he described as ‘inclusion, inconsistency, compromise, accommodation, adaptation, superadjacency, equivalence, multiple
    focus, juxtaposition, or good and bad space.

  • Another design of Adam mirrors is shaped like a Venetian window, with a big central mirror between two other thinner and longer ones.

  • The Royal Palace, whose interiors are mostly done in a neo-Adam style, stands out by being more decorated, a little closer to the architecture before World War I. Postmodernism[edit]
    • J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California, US, by the partnership of Langdon and Wilson with Edward Genter as the project architect and archaeological advice from Dr Norman Neuerberg, 1970-1975 • Interior courtyard of Les Arcades du Lac,
    Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France, by Ricardo Bofill, 1975-1981 • Piazza d’Italia (New Orleans), US, by Charles Moore, 1978 • Sheraton chair with applied decoration; by Robert Venturi for Knoll; 1978–1984, bent laminated wood; unknown dimensions;
    Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, USA • Apartment buildings on Bulevardul Unirii, Bucharest, Romania, unknown architects, 1980s • Louis XVI, lowboy; by Robert Venturi for Arc International; c.1985; laminated wood; unknown dimensions; Indianapolis
    Museum of Art, Indianapolis, USA • Sainsbury Wing, National Gallery, London, by Robert Venturi, 1987-1991 • Pumping Station, Isle of Dogs, London, John Outram, 1988 • 77 West Wacker Drive, Chicago, US, by Ricardo Bofill, 1990-1992 • Harold
    Washington Library, Chicago, by Hammond, Beeby & Babka, 1991 • Entrance era of the Harold Washington Library, by Hammond, Beeby & Babka, 1991 • M2 Building, Tokyo, Japan, by Kengo Kuma, 1991 • Antigone, Montpellier, France, by Ricardo Bofill,
    completed in 1992 • Children’s Museum of Houston, Houston, US, by Robert Venturi, 1992 • Forum Shops in Caesars Palace, Las Vegas, US, by Marnell Corrao Associates, 1992 • Exterior of the Trafford Centre, Manchester, UK, designed by Chapman
    Taylor and Leach Rhodes Walker, with sculptures by Colin Spofforth, 1998 • Interior of the Trafford Centre, by Chapman Taylor and Leach Rhodes Walker, 1998 • Louis Ghost, a simplified reinterpretation of armchairs in the Louis XVI style; by
    Philippe Starck; 2009; polycarbonate; height: 94 cm; various locations[134] An early text questioning Modernism was by architect Robert Venturi, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966), in which he recommended a revival of the
    ‘presence of the past’ in architectural design.

  • The movement was a reaction in the first part of the 20th century to the disintegrating chromaticism of late-Romanticism and Impressionism, emerging in parallel with musical
    Modernism, which sought to abandon key tonality altogether.

  • The J. Paul Getty Museum is far closer to 19th century Neoclassicism, like the Pompejanum in Aschaffenburg, Germany, than to Post-Modern Classicism of the 1980s.

  • This practice was frequent in late 19th and early 20th century architecture, before World War I.

  • It received a new level in 1882, designed by Austrian architect Joseph Hartmann[85][86] The United Kingdom[edit] Main articles: Adam style and Wedgwood • Kedleston Hall, Kedleston,
    Derbyshire, England, by Robert Adam, 1760–1770 • Eating Room, Osterley Park, London, by Robert Adam, 1761 • Syon House, Middlesex, England, by Robert Adam, 1762 • The Hall, Osterley Park, by Robert Adam, 1767 • Carpet; by Robert Adam; 1770–1780;
    knotted wool; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City • Apotheosis of Virgil; by John Flaxman; c.1776; jasperware; diameter: 41 cm; Harris Museum, Preston, Lancashire, UK[91] • Somerset House, London, by William Chambers, 1776-1801 • Urn
    on pedestal; c.1780 with latter additions; by Robert Adam; inlaid mahogany; height: 49.8 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art • Side table with many acanthus leafs and two bucrania; by Robert Adam; c.1780 with later addition; mahogany; overall:
    Metropolitan Museum of Art • Covered Wedgwood urn; c.1800; jasper ware with relief decoration; overall: 19.7 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, Ohio, US[93] The Adam style was created by two brothers, Adam and James, who published in
    1777 a volume of etchings with interior ornamentation.

  • Classical architecture was also an influence, echoing Benito Mussolini’s far cruder attempts to create links between his Fascist regime and ancient Rome.

  • Neoclassical ballet as innovated by George Balanchine de-cluttered the Russian Imperial style in terms of costume, steps and narrative, while also introducing technical innovations.

  • There was an entire 20th-century movement in the non-visual arts which was also called Neoclassicism.

  • One example is Alexandru Orăscu, one of the representatives of Neoclassicism in Romania.

  • Another reason for the swinging between historical elements and modernism was consumer culture.

  • The 17th–18th century dance suite had had a minor revival before World War I but the Neoclassicists were not altogether happy with unmodified diatonicism, and tended to emphasise
    the bright dissonance of suspensions and ornaments, the angular qualities of 17th-century modal harmony and the energetic lines of countrapuntal part-writing.

  • [106] In American architecture, Neoclassicism was one expression of the American Renaissance movement, ca.

  • The French taste has highly marked its presence in the southern states (after the French Revolution some emigrants have moved here, and in Canada a big part of the population
    has French origins).

  • Usually using Classicism, they started building together with Romanian artisans, usually prepared in foreign schools or academies.

  • The practical spirit and the material situation of the Americans at that time gave the interiors a typic atmosphere.

  • Although ornaments are not used here, the facade being decorated only with reliefs, the way columns are present here is a strong reminiscence of Neoclassicism.

  • The links are clearly seen in the work of Alexander Pope.

  • Classical costumes had long been worn by fashionable ladies posing as some figure from Greek or Roman myth in a portrait (in particular there was a rash of such portraits
    of the young model Emma, Lady Hamilton from the 1780s), but such costumes were only worn for the portrait sitting and masquerade balls until the Revolutionary period, and perhaps, like other exotic styles, as undress at home.

  • [103] Music Neoclassicism in music is a 20th-century movement; in this case it is the Classical and Baroque musical styles of the 17th and 18th centuries, with their fondness
    for Greek and Roman themes, that were being revived, not the music of the ancient world itself.

  • 73, Craiova, unknown architect, c.1900 During the 19th century, the predominant style in Wallachia and Moldavia, later the Kingdom of Romania, was Classicism which lasted
    for a long time, until the 20th century, although it coexisted in some short periods with other styles.

  • In 1799 a Parisian fashion magazine reported that even bald men were adopting Titus wigs,[102] and the style was also worn by women, the Journal de Paris reporting in 1802
    that “more than half of elegant women were wearing their hair or wig à la Titus.

  • During the 1980s and 1990s, some Postmodern architects found a refuge in a sort of Neo-Neoclassicism.

  • At the same time, the French elite was equally capable of appreciating Modern art, like the works of Pablo Picasso or Amedeo Modigliani.

  • The furniture in this style has a similar structure to Louis XVI furniture.

  • This exhibition was displayed next to the Great Exhibition of German Art, which consisted of artworks that the Nazis approved of.

  • Besides Neoclassicism, the Beaux-Arts de Paris well known for this eclecticism of Classical styles.

  • ‘[135] Robert Venturi’s work reflected the broader counter-cultural mood of the 1960s which saw younger generations begin to question and challenge the political, social and
    racial realities with which they found themselves confronted.

  • All the American furniture, carpets, tableware, ceramic, and silverware, with all the European influences, and sometimes Islamic, Turkish or Asian, were made in conformity
    with the American norms, taste, and functional requirements.

  • Ottorino Respighi’s Ancient Airs and Dances (1917) led the way for the sort of sound to which the Neoclassicists aspired.

  • Conservative modernist architects such as Auguste Perret in France kept the rhythms and spacing of columnar architecture even in factory buildings.

  • A few gallery items found here.


Works Cited

[‘Stevenson, Angus (2010-08-19). Oxford Dictionary of English. ISBN 9780199571123.
2. ^ Kohle, Hubertu. (August 7, 2006). “The road from Rome to Paris. The birth of a modern Neoclassicism”. Jacques Louis David. New perspectives.
3. ^ Baldick, Chris
(2015). “Neoclassicism”. The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (Online Version) (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780191783234.
4. ^ Greene, Roland; et al., eds. (2012). “Neoclassical poetics”. The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and
Poetics (4th rev. ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-15491-6.
5. ^ “Neoclassical architecture | Definition, Characteristics, Examples, & Facts | Britannica”. 2023-06-01. Retrieved 2023-07-30.
6. ^
“Classical / Classical Revival / Neo-Classical: an architectural style guide”. Retrieved 2023-07-30.
7. ^ Irwin, David G. (1997). Neoclassicism A&I (Art and Ideas). Phaidon Press. ISBN 978-0-7148-3369-9.
8. ^ Honour, 17–25;
Novotny, 21
9. ^ A recurring theme in Clark: 19–23, 58–62, 69, 97–98 (on Ingres); Honour, 187–190; Novotny, 86–87
10. ^ Lingo, Estelle Cecile (2007). François Duquesnoy and the Greek ideal. Yale University Press; First Edition. pp. 161. ISBN 978-0-300-12483-5.
11. ^
Talbott, Page (1995). Classical Savannah: fine & decorative arts, 1800-1840. University of Georgia Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8203-1793-9.
12. ^ Cunningham, Reich, Lawrence S., John J. (2009). Culture and values: a survey of the humanities. Wadsworth
Publishing; 7 edition. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-495-56877-3.
13. ^ Honour, 57–62, 61 quoted
14. ^ Both quotes from the first pages of “Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture”
15. ^ “Industrial History of European Countries”.
European Route of Industrial Heritage. Council of Europe. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
16. ^ North, Douglass C.; Thomas, Robert Paul (May 1977). “The First Economic Revolution”. The Economic History Review. 30 (2). Wiley on behalf of the Economic History
Society: 229–230. doi:10.2307/2595144. JSTOR 2595144. Retrieved 6 June 2022.
17. ^ Dyson, Stephen L. (2006). In Pursuit of Ancient Pasts: A History of Classical Archaeology in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Yale University Press. pp. xii.
ISBN 978-0-300-11097-5.
18. ^ Honour, 21
19. ^ Honour, 11, 23–25
20. ^ Honour, 44–46; Novotny, 21
21. ^ Honour, 43–62
22. ^ Fortenberry 2017, p. 275.
23. ^ Morrill, Rebecca (2019). Great Women Artists. Phaidon. p. 413. ISBN 978-0-7148-7877-5.
24. ^
Morrill, Rebecca (2019). Great Women Artists. Phaidon. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-7148-7877-5.
25. ^ Jump up to:a b Fortenberry 2017, p. 276.
26. ^ Robertson, Hutton (2022). The History of Art – From Prehistory to Presentday – A Global View. Thames &
Hudson. p. 993. ISBN 978-0-500-02236-8.
27. ^ Andrew, Graham-Dixon (2023). art – The Definitive Visual History. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-2416-2903-1.
28. ^ Morrill, Rebecca (2019). Great Women Artists. Phaidon. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-7148-7877-5.
29. ^
Morrill, Rebecca (2019). Great Women Artists. Phaidon. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-7148-7877-5.
30. ^ Morrill, Rebecca (2019). Great Women Artists. Phaidon. p. 419. ISBN 978-0-7148-7877-5.
31. ^ Andrew, Graham-Dixon (2023). art – The Definitive Visual
History. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-2416-2903-1.
32. ^ Andrew, Graham-Dixon (2023). art – The Definitive Visual History. p. 298. ISBN 978-0-2416-2903-1.
33. ^ Clark, 20 (quoted); Honour, 14; image of the painting (in fairness, other works by Mengs are
more successful)
34. ^ Honour, 31–32 (31 quoted)
35. ^ Honour, 113–114
36. ^ Honour, 14
37. ^ Novotny, 62
38. ^ Novotny, 51–54
39. ^ Clark, 45–58 (47–48 quoted); Honour, 50–57
40. ^ Honour, 34–37; Clark, 21–26; Novotny, 19–22
41. ^
Novotny, 39–47; Clark, 97–145; Honour, 187–190
42. ^ ART ● Architecture ● Painting ● Sculpture ● Graphics ● Design. 2011. p. 313. ISBN 978-1-4454-5585-3.
43. ^ Jump up to:a b c Andrew, Graham-Dixon (2023). art – The Definitive Visual History.
p. 273. ISBN 978-0-2416-2903-1.
44. ^ Laneyrie-Dagen, Nadeije (2021). Historie de l’art pour tous (in French). Hazan. p. 264. ISBN 978-2-7541-1230-7.
45. ^ Laneyrie-Dagen, Nadeije (2021). Historie de l’art pour tous (in French). Hazan. p. 265.
ISBN 978-2-7541-1230-7.
46. ^ Fortenberry 2017, p. 278.
47. ^ Novotny, 378
48. ^ Novotny, 378–379
49. ^ Chinard, Gilbert, ed., Houdon in America Arno PressNy, 1979, a reprint of a book published by Johns Hopkins University, 1930
50. ^ Novotny,
51. ^ Novotny, 384–385
52. ^ Novotny, 388–389
53. ^ Novotny, 390–392
54. ^ Gerdts, William H., American Neo-Classic Sculpture: The Marble Resurrection, Viking Press, New York, 1973 p. 11
55. ^ Larbodière, Jean-Marc (2015). L’Architecture
de Paris des Origins à Aujourd’hui (in French). Massin. p. 106. ISBN 978-2-7072-0915-3.
56. ^ Palmer, Alisson Lee. Historical dictionary of neoclassical art and architecture. p. 1.
57. ^ Jump up to:a b Gontar
58. ^ Honour, 110–111, 110 quoted
59. ^
Honour, 171–184, 171 quoted
60. ^ de Martin 1925, p. 11.
61. ^ Jones 2014, p. 276.
62. ^ de Martin 1925, p. 13.
63. ^ Jump up to:a b c Jones 2014, p. 273.
64. ^ Jacquemart, Albert (2012). Decorative Art. Parkstone. p. 65. ISBN 978-1-84484-899-7.
65. ^
Larbodière, Jean-Marc (2015). L’Architecture de Paris des Origins à Aujourd’hui (in French). Massin. p. 105. ISBN 978-2-7072-0915-3.
66. ^ de Martin 1925, p. 17.
67. ^ “Corner Cabinet – The Art Institute of Chicago”.
68. ^ de Martin 1925,
p. 61.
69. ^ Jump up to:a b Jacquemart, Albert (2012). Decorative Art. Parkstone. p. 61. ISBN 978-1-84484-899-7.
70. ^ Graur, Neaga (1970). Stiluri în arta decorativă (in Romanian). Cerces. pp. 200, 201 & 202.
71. ^ Sylvie, Chadenet (2001).
French Furniture • From Louis XIII to Art Deco. Little, Brown and Company. p. 71.
72. ^ Sylvie, Chadenet (2001). French Furniture • From Louis XIII to Art Deco. Little, Brown and Company. p. 72.
73. ^ “ASTRONOMICAL CLOCK”. Retrieved
23 May 2021.
74. ^ “Bergère du salon de Madame Récamier (OA 11384 à 11391), d’une paire avec OA 11386”. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
75. ^ Jones 2014, p. 275.
76. ^ Jump up to:a b Hopkins 2014, p. 111.
77. ^ Odile, Nouvel-Kammerer
(2007). Symbols of Power • Napoleon and the Art of the Empire Style • 1800-1815. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-8109-9345-7.
78. ^ Odile, Nouvel-Kammerer (2007). Symbols of Power • Napoleon and the Art of the Empire Style • 1800-1815. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-8109-9345-7.
79. ^
Graur, Neaga (1970). Stiluri în arta decorativă (in Romanian). Cerces. pp. 217, 219, 220 & 221.
80. ^ Sylvie, Chadenet (2001). French Furniture • From Louis XIII to Art Deco. Little, Brown and Company. p. 103 & 105.
81. ^ Ispir, Mihai (1984).
Clasicismul în Arta Românească (in Romanian). Editura Meridiane.
82. ^ Florea, Vasile (2016). Arta Românească de la Origini până în Prezent. Litera. pp. 296, 297. ISBN 978-606-33-1053-9.
83. ^ Oltean, Radu (2009). București 550 de ani de la prima
atestare documentată 1459-2009 (in Romanian). ArCuB. p. 113. ISBN 978-973-0-07036-1.
84. ^ Celac, Carabela & Marcu-Lapadat 2017, p. 65.
85. ^ Florea, Vasile (2016). Arta Românească de la Origini până în Prezent. Litera. pp. 294, 296, 297. ISBN
86. ^ Lăzărescu, Cristea & Lăzărescu 1972, p. 67, 68.
87. ^ “The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture”. Retrieved 2012-02-12.
88. ^ Jump up to:a b Hopkins 2014, p. 103.
89. ^ Bailey 2012, pp. 226.
90. ^
Fortenberry 2017, p. 274.
91. ^ Farthing, Stephen (2020). ARTA Istoria Artei de la pictura rupestră la arta urbană (in Romanian). rao. p. 260. ISBN 978-606-006-392-6.
92. ^ Hopkins 2014, p. 104.
93. ^ “Covered Urn – Cleveland Museum of Art”.
30 October 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
94. ^ Graur, Neaga (1970). Stiluri în arta decorativă (in Romanian). Cerces. pp. 253, 255 & 256.
95. ^ Jump up to:a b Hodge 2019, p. 112.
96. ^ Hodge 2019, p. 31.
97. ^ Irving, Mark (2019). 1001 BUILDINGS
You Must See Before You Die. Cassel Illustrated. p. 281. ISBN 978-1-78840-176-0.
98. ^ Graur, Neaga (1970). Stiluri în arta decorativă (in Romanian). Cerces. pp. 269, 270, & 271.
99. ^ Turner, Turner (2013). British gardens: history, philosophy
and design, Chapter 6 Neoclassical gardens and landscapes 1730–1800. London: Routledge. p. 456. ISBN 978-0415518789.
100. ^ Hunt, 244
101. ^ Hunt, 244–245
102. ^ Hunt, 243
103. ^ Rifelj, 35
104. ^ Jump up to:a b Jones 2014, p. 296.
105. ^
Hopkins 2014, p. 135.
106. ^ Jump up to:a b Criticos, Mihaela (2009). Art Deco sau Modernismul Bine Temperat – Art Deco or Well-Tempered Modernism (in Romanian and English). SIMETRIA. p. 79. ISBN 978-973-1872-03-2.
107. ^ “Commode à deux vantaux,
cabinet de milieu”. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
108. ^ “A Primavera: Homenagem a Jean Goujon”. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
109. ^ Kadijevic, Aleksandar. “Arhitekt Josif Najman (1890-1951), Moment 18, Beograd 1990, 100-106”.
{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
110. ^ Criticos, Mihaela (2009). Art Deco sau Modernismul Bine Temperat – Art Deco or Well-Tempered Modernism (in Romanian and English). SIMETRIA. p. 81. ISBN 978-973-1872-03-2.
111. ^ Jump
up to:a b Criticos, Mihaela (2009). Art Deco sau Modernismul Bine Temperat – Art Deco or Well-Tempered Modernism (in Romanian and English). SIMETRIA. p. 91. ISBN 978-973-1872-03-2.
112. ^ Curl, James Stevens (2013). The Egyptian Revival: Ancient
Egypt as the Inspiration for Design Motifs in the West. Routledge. p. 412. ISBN 978-1-134-23467-7.
113. ^ Woinaroski, Cristina (2013). Istorie urbană, Lotizarea și Parcul Ioanid din București în context european (in Romanian). SIMETRIA. p. 216.
ISBN 978-973-1872-30-8.
114. ^ Criticos, Mihaela (2009). Art Deco sau Modernismul Bine Temperat – Art Deco or Well-Tempered Modernism (in Romanian and English). SIMETRIA. pp. 29, 31, 40, 79, 91. ISBN 978-973-1872-03-2.
115. ^ Watkin, David (2022).
A History of Western Architecture. Laurence King. p. 880. ISBN 978-1-52942-030-2.
116. ^ Dempsey, Amy (2018). Modern Art. Thamed & Hudson. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-500-29322-5.
117. ^ Celac, Carabela & Marcu-Lapadat 2017, p. 72.
118. ^ Hopkins 2014,
p. 175.
119. ^ Jump up to:a b Hopkins 2014, p. 176.
120. ^ Celac, Carabela & Marcu-Lapadat 2017, p. 181.
121. ^ Dempsey, Amy (2018). Modern Art. Thamed & Hudson. pp. 92, 93. ISBN 978-0-500-29322-5.
122. ^ Hopkins 2014, p. 174, 175, 176.
123. ^
Watkin, David (2022). A History of Western Architecture. Laurence King. pp. 663, 664. ISBN 978-1-52942-030-2.
124. ^ Watkin, David (2022). A History of Western Architecture. Laurence King. p. 663. ISBN 978-1-52942-030-2.
125. ^ Gura, Judith (2017).
Postmodern Design Complete. Thames & Hudson. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-500-51914-1.
126. ^ Jump up to:a b Gura, Judith (2017). Postmodern Design Complete. Thames & Hudson. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-500-51914-1.
127. ^ Watkin, David (2022). A History of Western
Architecture. Laurence King. p. 665. ISBN 978-1-52942-030-2.
128. ^ “77 West Wacker Drive Interior (1992)”. Retrieved 3 September 2023.
129. ^ Jump up to:a b Gura, Judith (2017). Postmodern Design Complete. Thames & Hudson. p. 77. ISBN
130. ^ Gura, Judith (2017). Postmodern Design Complete. Thames & Hudson. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-500-51914-1.
131. ^ Eleanor Gibson. “Seven of Robert Venturi’s best postmodern projects”. Retrieved 25 June 2023.
132. ^
“The Forum Shops at Caesars Palace (1992)”. Retrieved 3 September 2023.
133. ^ Jump up to:a b Gray, George T. (2022). An Introduction to the History of Architecture, Art & Design. Sunway University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-967-5492-24-2.
134. ^
“Philippe Starck, a pair of ‘Louis Ghost’ armchairs, Kartell. – Bukowskis”. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
135. ^ Watkin, David (2022). A History of Western Architecture. Laurence King. p. 660. ISBN 978-1-52942-030-2.
136. ^ Watkin, David
(2022). A History of Western Architecture. Laurence King. pp. 660, 661, 663. ISBN 978-1-52942-030-2.
137. ^ Watkin, David (2022). A History of Western Architecture. Laurence King. p. 673. ISBN 978-1-52942-030-2.
138. ^ “Neo-classicist Architecture.
Traditionalism. Historicism”.
139. ^ Driehaus Prize for New Classical Architecture at Notre Dame SoA Archived 2017-02-10 at the Wayback Machine – Together, the $200,000 Driehaus Prize and the $50,000 Reed Award represent the most significant recognition
for classicism in the contemporary built environment.; retained March 7, 2014
2. Celac, Mariana; Carabela, Octavian; Marcu-Lapadat, Marius (2017). Bucharest Architecture – an annotated guide. Order of Architects of Romania. ISBN 978-973-0-23884-6.
3. Clark,
Kenneth (1976). The Romantic Rebellion: Romantic versus Classic Art. Omega. ISBN 0-86007-718-7.
4. de Martin, Henry (1925). Le Style Louis XVI (in French). Flammarion.
5. Fortenberry, Diane (2017). The Art Museum (Revised ed.). London: Phaidon
Press. ISBN 978-0-7148-7502-6. Archived from the original on 2021-04-23. Retrieved 2021-04-23.
6. Gontar, Cybele (October 2003). “Neoclassicism”. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
7. Hodge, Susie (2019). The Short Story of Architecture.
Laurence King Publishing. ISBN 978-1-7862-7370-3.
8. Hopkins, Owen (2014). Architectural Styles: A Visual Guide. Laurence King. ISBN 978-178067-163-5.
9. Honour, Hugh (1968). Neo-classicism. Style and Civilisation. Penguin.. Reprinted 1977.
10. Hunt,
Lynn (1998). “Freedom of Dress in Revolutionary France”. In Melzer, Sara E.; Norberg, Kathryn (eds.). From the Royal to the Republican Body: Incorporating the Political in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century France. University of California Press.
ISBN 9780520208070.
11. Jones, Denna, ed. (2014). Architecture The Whole Story. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-29148-1.
12. Lăzărescu, Cezar; Cristea, Gabriel; Lăzărescu, Elena (1972). Arhitectura Românească în Imagini (in Romanian). Editura
13. Novotny, Fritz. Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1780–1880 (2nd (reprinted 1980) ed.).
14. Rifelj, Carol De Dobay (2010). Coiffures: Hair in Nineteenth-Century French Literature and Culture. University of Delaware Press. ISBN 9780874130997.

Photo credit:’]