nucleic acid structure


  • [3] A nucleic acid sequence is the order of nucleotides within a DNA (GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule that is determined by a series of letters.

  • It is this linear sequence of nucleotides that make up the primary structure of DNA or RNA.

  • Primary structure Primary structure consists of a linear sequence of nucleotides that are linked together by phosphodiester bond.

  • The secondary structure of RNA consists of a single polynucleotide.

  • [1] The nitrogen bases adenine and guanine are purine in structure and form a glycosidic bond between their 9 nitrogen and the 1′ -OH group of the deoxyribose.

  • The four basic elements in the secondary structure of RNA are: • Helices • Bulges • Loops • Junctions The antiparallel strands form a helical shape.

  • The nucleotides on one strand base pairs with the nucleotide on the other strand.

  • Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA.

  • [4] Nucleic acid design can be used to create nucleic acid complexes with complicated secondary structures such as this four-arm junction.

  • Nucleic acid structure is often divided into four different levels: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.

  • [11] Pseudoknots are functional elements in RNA structure having diverse function and found in most classes of RNA.

  • An example of a complementary sequence to AGCT is TCGA.

  • In DNA double helix, the two strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds.

  • [13] A linear DNA molecule having free ends can rotate, to adjust to changes of various dynamic processes in the cell, by changing how many times the two chains of its double
    helix twist around each other.

  • The linking number for circular DNA can only be changed by breaking of a covalent bond in one of the two strands.

  • The linking number (Lk) for circular DNA is defined as the number of times one strand would have to pass through the other strand to completely separate the two strands.

  • The most commonly seen form of higher-level organization of nucleic acids is seen in the form of chromatin which leads to its interactions with the small proteins histones.

  • A covalently closed, circular DNA (also known as cccDNA) is topologically constrained as the number of times the chains coiled around one other cannot change.

  • It is a higher order than the secondary structure, in which large-scale folding in a linear polymer occurs and the entire chain is folded into a specific 3-dimensional shape.

  • On the other hand, its wide, shallow minor groove makes it accessible to proteins but with lower information content than the major groove.

  • There are 4 areas in which the structural forms of DNA can differ.

  • More recently circular RNA was described as well to be a natural pervasive class of nucleic acids, expressed in many organisms (see CircRNA).

  • Difference in size between the major and minor grooves[3] The tertiary arrangement of DNA’s double helix in space includes B-DNA, A-DNA, and Z-DNA.

  • [14] In localized single strand dinucleotide contexts, RNA can also adopt the B-form without pairing to DNA.

  • Given the proper sequence and superhelical tension, it can be formed in vivo but its function is unclear.


Works Cited

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