The fruit is a nut called an acorn or oak nut borne in a cup-like structure known as a cupule; each acorn contains one seed (rarely two or three) and takes 6–18 months to
mature, depending on their species.
 Large groups of very old oak trees are rare[why?].
The associated species of pine forest may cross frontiers and become new elements of the oak forests.
 Of the North American red oaks, the northern red oak is one of the most prized for lumber, and is marketed as red oak regardless of species.
Other dangers include wood-boring beetles, as well as root rot in older trees which may not be apparent on the outside, often being discovered only when the trees come down
in a strong gale.
 In addition, the generation of RAD-seq loci for hundreds of oak species has allowed for the construction of the most highly detailed oak phylogeny to date, although the
high signal of introgression across the tree poses difficulties for deriving an unambiguous, unitary history of oaks.
 Hybridization Interspecific hybridization is quite common among oaks, but usually between species within the same section only, and most common in the white oak group.
Taxonomy Linnaeus described only five species of oak from eastern North America, based on general leaf form.
Every four to ten years, certain oak populations will synchronize to produce almost no acorns at all, only to rain them down excessively the following year, known as a mast
The eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) is native in North America and an invasive species across Europe where they are known to strip bark off of a variety of large
trees, including oaks.
Oak wilt, caused by the fungus Bretziella fagacearum is also a lethal disease of some oaks, particularly the red oaks (the white oaks can be infected but generally live longer).
 However, it has also been suggested that oaks as generally light-demanding trees with a relatively high tolerance for mechanic disturbances might depend on grazers like
bison and the clearances they create in order to regenerate successfully, thus missing them since they were extirpated in most regions following the European colonization.
• The Wye Oak in Maryland was the United States’ largest white oak tree before it blew down in a storm in 2002, at an estimated age of 460 years.
For example, oak trees are important components of hardwood forests, and certain species are particularly known to grow in associations with members of the Ericaceae in oak–heath
 The live oaks are distinguished for being evergreen, but are not actually a distinct group and instead are dispersed across the genus.
 The European pied flycatcher is an example of an animal species that often depends upon oak trees.
The second greatest area of oak diversity is China, with approximately 100 species.
There has even been a study that shows that oaks are more likely to be struck by lightning than any other tree of the same height.
 A number of kinds of truffles, including the two well known varieties, the black Périgord truffle and the white Piedmont truffle, have symbiotic relationships
with oak trees.
 History Several oak trees, such as the Royal Oak in Britain and the Charter Oak in the United States, are of great historical or cultural importance.
[better source needed] This is necessary to the survival of any given oak species, as only one in 10,000 acorns results in an eventual tree.
 A new and yet little understood disease of mature oaks, acute oak decline, has been reported in parts of the UK since 2009.
 National The oak is a common symbol of strength and endurance and has been chosen as the national tree of many countries.
 In the US, entire oak ecosystems have declined due to a combination of factors still imperfectly known, but thought to include fire suppression, increased consumption
of acorns by growing mammal populations, herbivory of seedlings, and introduced pests.
 As the capacity for sampling across wider swaths of oak species rose, so has resolution at the section and species level across the oak tree.
The exception is the domestic pig, which may be fed entirely on acorns in the right conditions, and has traditionally been pastured in oak woodlands (such as the Spanish dehesa
and the English system of pannage).
 • The Seven Sisters Oak is the largest certified southern live oak tree.
 These techniques have proved highly useful in resolving fine-scale relationships among 2–5 oak species, particularly groups known to hybridize, but until recently the
larger emphasis on this narrow approach prevented systematists from making large-scale determinations about oak history.
• The Treaty Oak in Austin, Texas, is a Texas live oak, and the last surviving member of the Council Oaks, a grove of 14 trees that served as a sacred meeting place for Comanche
and Tonkawa tribes prior to European settlement of the area.
 The oak processionary moth (Thaumetopoea processionea) has become a serious threat in the UK since 2006.
Oak galls were used for centuries as a main ingredient in iron gall ink for manuscripts, harvested at a specific time of year.
White oak is often used to make wine barrels.
Cherrybark oak is another type of red oak that provides excellent timber.
The northern red oak is the provincial tree of Prince Edward Island, as well as the state tree of New Jersey.
• Friendship Oak is a 500-year-old southern live oak located in Long Beach, Mississippi.
 The common name “oak” also appears in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus (stone oaks), as well as in those of unrelated species such as Grevillea
robusta (silky oaks) and the Casuarinaceae (she-oaks).
• The Bland Oak in Sydney, Australia, planted in the 1840s, was the largest tree in Australia until it was split in a storm early on New Year Day 1941.
Many deciduous species are marcescent, not dropping dead leaves until spring.
• The Ivenack Oak which is one of the largest trees in Europe is located in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, and is approximately 800 years old.
 • The Minchenden (or Chandos) Oak, in Southgate, London, is said to be the largest oak tree in England (already 8.2 m or 27 ft in girth in the nineteenth century), and
is perhaps 800 years old.
 Political The oak tree is used as a symbol by a number of political parties.
The original was a hollow shell by 1969; its young replacement then blew down in the Great Storm of 1987, and the third generation oak now stands in its place.
In 2008, the Flag of Boyacá Department was amended to include five oak leaves.
Because he was dealing with confusing leaf forms, the Q. montana and Q. rubra specimens actually included mixed foliage of more than one species.
Shumard oak, a member of the red oak subgenus, provides timber described as “mechanically superior” to northern red oak.
Acorns mature in one year for annual trees and two years for biannual trees.
Oak wood, from Quercus robur and Quercus petraea, was used in Europe for the construction of ships, especially naval men of war, until the 19th century, and was the principal
timber used in the construction of European timber-framed buildings.
In England, oaks have been a national symbol since at least the sixteenth century, often used by Shakespeare to convey heritage and power.
 Ecological stresses, especially near habitat margins, can also cause a breakdown of mate recognition as well as a reduction of male function (pollen quantity and quality)
in one parent species.
Even in modern times, cutting down zapis oaks can result in public outcry, even for projects like road building.
 Famous specimens • The Emancipation Oak is designated one of the 10 Great Trees of the World by the National Geographic Society and is part of the National Historic Landmark
district of Hampton University in Virginia.
North America has the largest number of oak species, with approximately 160 species in Mexico of which 109 are endemic and about 90 in the United States.
 Frequent hybridization among oaks has consequences for oak populations around the world; most notably, hybridization has produced large populations of hybrids with
copious amounts of introgression, and the evolution of new species.
Already an ancient Germanic symbol (in the form of the Donar Oak, for instance), certainly since the early nineteenth century, it stands for the nation of Germany and oak
branches are thus displayed on some German coins, both of the former Deutsche Mark and the current euro currency.
 Regional and state The oak is the emblem of County Londonderry in Northern Ireland, as a vast amount of the county was covered in forests of the tree until relatively
 In some traditions of Wicca, the Oak King is one of the two faces of the Sun God.
 A considerable number of galls are found on oak leaves, buds, flowers, roots, etc.
 “Tree” and drus may also be cognate with “Druid,” the Celtic priest to whom the oak was sacred.
 In Korea, oak bark is used to make shingles for traditional roof construction.
“ By this definition, many specie Diseases and pests Sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum) is a water mould that can kill oaks within just a few weeks.
In spring, a single oak tree produces both male flowers (in the form of catkins) and small female flowers, meaning that the trees are monoecious.
For example, over the past 200 years, large areas of oak forest in the highlands of Mexico, Central America and the northern Andes have been cleared for coffee plantations
and cattle ranching.
Flowers in the Quercus genera produce one flower per node, with three or six styles, as well as three or six ovaries, respectively.
One venerable group found in Poland, is about 480 years old, as assessed by dendrochronology.
The live oak is the state tree of the US state of Georgia.
French oaks (Quercus robur, Q. petraea) give greater refinement, and are chosen for the best, most expensive wines; while American oak contributes greater texture and resistance
to ageing, but produces a more powerful bouquet.
However, if the wood is treated with a preservative compound, the capillaries absorb it deeply, and treated red oak will resist rot better than cured white oak heartwood,
which has a closed cell structure.
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