• Recreational use of opium elsewhere in the world remained rare into late in the 19th century, as indicated by ambivalent reports of opium usage.

  • [61][62] Prohibition and conflict in China[edit] Main articles: Destruction of opium at Humen, Opium Wars, and History of opium in China See also: Japanese opium policy in
    Taiwan (1895–1945) Destruction of opium at Humen, June 1839 A large scale opium prohibition attempt began in 1729, when the Qing Yongzheng Emperor, disturbed by madak smoking at court and carrying out the government’s role of upholding Confucian
    virtues, officially prohibited the sale of opium, except for a small amount for medicinal purposes.

  • Widespread medical use of unprocessed opium continued through the American Civil War before giving way to morphine and its successors, which could be injected at a precisely
    controlled dosage.

  • [50][51] Prohibitions in China[edit] Opium prohibition in China began in 1729, yet was followed by nearly two centuries of increasing opium use.

  • Faced with the problem that many Chinese associated Christianity with opium, partly due to the arrival of early Protestant missionaries on opium clippers, at the 1890 Shanghai
    Missionary Conference, they agreed to establish the Permanent Committee for the Promotion of Anti-Opium Societies in an attempt to overcome this problem and to arouse public opinion against the opium trade.

  • [7] • Source: Papaver somniferum; Part(s) of plant: Latex; Geographic origin: Uncertain, possibly Asia Minor,[1] or Spain, southern France and northwestern Africa[2] ; Active
    ingredients: Morphine, codeine, noscapine, papaverine, thebaine; Main producers: Afghanistan (primary), Myanmar, Colombia, Laos, Mexico, India, Pakistan, Thailand, Turkey, China, Australia; Main consumers: Worldwide (#1: Europe)[3] ; Legal
    status: AU: S8 (Controlled drug), CA: Schedule I, DE: Anlage III (Special prescription form required), UK: Class A, US: Schedule II, UN: Narcotic Schedule I History The Mediterranean region contains the earliest archeological evidence of human
    use; the oldest known seeds date back to more than 5000 BC in the Neolithic age[8] with purposes such as food, anaesthetics, and ritual.

  • Map showing the amount of opium produced in China in 1908: The quote “We English, by the policy we have pursued, are morally responsible for every acre of land in China which
    is withdrawn from the cultivation of grain and devoted to that of the poppy; so that the fact of the growth of the drug in China ought only to increase our sense of responsibility.”

  • [65] The illegal sale of opium became one of the world’s most valuable single commodity trades and has been called “the most long continued and systematic international crime
    of modern times”.

  • [67] In response to the ever-growing number of Chinese people becoming addicted to opium, the Qing Daoguang Emperor took strong action to halt the smuggling of opium, including
    the seizure of cargo.

  • The earliest clear description of the use of opium as a recreational drug in China came from Xu Boling, who wrote in 1483 that opium was “mainly used to aid masculinity, strengthen
    sperm and regain vigor”, and that it “enhances the art of alchemists, sex and court ladies”.

  • In England, the home director of the China Inland Mission, Benjamin Broomhall, was an active opponent of the opium trade, writing two books to promote the banning of opium
    smoking: The Truth about Opium Smoking and The Chinese Opium Smoker.

  • [37] The standard medical use of opium persisted well into the 19th century.

  • [51] The cover page of the book of The Truth about Opium Smoking Scientific evidence of the pernicious nature of opium use was largely undocumented in the 1890s, when Protestant
    missionaries in China decided to strengthen their opposition to the trade by compiling data which would demonstrate the harm the drug did.

  • Official Chinese resistance to opium was renewed on September 20, 1906, with an antiopium initiative intended to eliminate the drug problem within 10 years.

  • [1] During this time of popularity, users called opium “God’s Own Medicine”.

  • “[22] Fueled in part by the 1729 ban on madak, which at first effectively exempted pure opium as a potentially medicinal product, the smoking of pure opium became more popular
    in the 18th century.

  • However, by 1861, Wang Tao wrote that opium was used even by rich peasants, and even a small village without a rice store would have a shop where opium was sold.

  • [49] It is important to note that “recreational use” of opium was part of a civilized and mannered ritual, akin to an East Asian tea ceremony, prior to the extensive prohibitions
    that came later.

  • This association of opium with sex continued in China until the end of the 19th century.

  • [76] Storage of opium at a British East India Company warehouse, c. 1850 Following China’s defeat in the Second Opium War in 1858, China was forced to legalize opium and began
    massive domestic production.

  • [50] The image of seedy underground, destitute smokers were often generated by anti-opium narratives and became a more accurate image of opium use following the effects of
    large scale opium prohibition in the 1880s.

  • [40] In 1573, for instance, a Venetian visitor to the Ottoman Empire observed many of the Turkish natives of Constantinople regularly drank a “certain black water made with
    opium” that makes them feel good, but to which they become so addicted, if they try to go without, they will “quickly die”.

  • The total lack of photographic evidence of opium smoking in Britain, as opposed to the relative abundance of historical photos depicting opium smoking in North America and
    France, indicates the infamous Limehouse opium-smoking scene was little more than fantasy on the part of British writers of the day, who were intent on scandalizing their readers while drumming up the threat of the “yellow peril”.

  • [52] From 1880 to the beginning of the Communist era, the British attempted to discourage the use of opium in China, but this effectively promoted the use of morphine, heroin,
    and cocaine, further exacerbating the problem of addiction.

  • French sailors provided another major group of opium smokers, having gotten the habit while in French Indochina, where the drug was promoted and monopolized by the colonial
    government as a source of revenue.

  • Therefore, the British tried to encourage Chinese opium use to enhance their balance, and they delivered it from Indian provinces under British control.

  • Accordingly, the missionaries first organized the Anti-Opium League in China among their colleagues in every mission station in China.

  • A century later, Li Shizhen listed standard medical uses of opium in his renowned Compendium of Materia Medica (1578), but also wrote that “lay people use it for the art of
    sex,” in particular the ability to “arrest seminal emission”.

  • Portuguese traders also brought opium from the independent Malwa states of western India, although by 1820, the British were able to restrict this trade by charging “pass
    duty” on the opium when it was forced to pass through Bombay to reach an entrepot.

  • The program relied on the turning of public sentiment against opium, with mass meetings at which opium paraphernalia were publicly burned, as well as coercive legal action
    and the granting of police powers to organizations such as the Fujian Anti-Opium Society.

  • [52] British assault on Canton during the First Opium War, May 1841 Some competition came from the newly independent United States, which began to compete in Guangzhou, selling
    Turkish opium in the 1820s.

  • [54] Because of the low social status of immigrant workers, contemporary writers and media had little trouble portraying opium dens as seats of vice, white slavery, gambling,
    knife- and revolver-fights, and a source for drugs causing deadly overdoses, with the potential to addict and corrupt the white population.

  • Tobacco mixed with opium was called madak (or madat) and became popular throughout China and its seafaring trade partners (such as Taiwan, Java, and the Philippines) in the
    17th century.

  • In the book, it is not Ottoman, nor Chinese, addicts about whom he writes, but English opium users: “I question whether any Turk, of all that ever entered the paradise of
    opium-eaters, can have had half the pleasure I had.

  • [21] Opium is said to have been used for recreational purposes from the 14th century onwards in Muslim societies.

  • Chinese emigrants to cities such as San Francisco, London, and New York City brought with them the Chinese manner of opium smoking, and the social traditions of the opium

  • [66] Opium smuggling provided 15 to 20 percent of the British Empire’s revenue and simultaneously caused scarcity of silver in China.

  • The word meconium (derived from the Greek for “opium-like”, but now used to refer to newborn stools) historically referred to related, weaker preparations made from other
    parts of the opium poppy or different species of poppies.

  • The English traders had been purchasing small amounts of opium from India for trade since Ralph Fitch first visited in the mid-16th century.

  • [1] From the earliest finds, opium has appeared to have ritual significance, and anthropologists have speculated ancient priests may have used the drug as a proof of healing

  • Due to the growing British demand for Chinese tea and the Chinese Emperor’s lack of interest in British commodities other than silver, British traders resorted to trade in
    opium as a high-value commodity for which China was not self-sufficient.

  • [30] Laudanum (“worthy of praise”) was originally the 16th-century term for a medicine associated with a particular physician that was widely well-regarded, but became standardized
    as “tincture of opium”, a solution of opium in ethanol, which Paracelsus has been credited with developing.

  • [13][14] Tablets found at Nippur, a Sumerian spiritual center south of Baghdad, described the collection of poppy juice in the morning and its use in production of opium.

  • The British queen Victoria, not willing to replace the cheap opium with costly silver, began the First Opium War in 1840, the British winning Hong Kong and trade concessions
    in the first of a series of Unequal Treaties.

  • [citation needed] Recreational use in Europe, the Middle East and the US (11th to 19th centuries)[edit] An artist’s view of an Ottoman opium seller Soldiers returning home
    from the Crusades in the 11th to 13th century brought opium with them.

  • In India, its cultivation, as well as the manufacture and traffic to China, were subject to the British East India Company (BEIC), as a strict monopoly of the British government.

  • [13] In Egypt, the use of opium was generally restricted to priests, magicians, and warriors, its invention is credited to Thoth, and it was said to have been given by Isis
    to Ra as treatment for a headache.

  • After 1860, opium use continued to increase with widespread domestic production in China.

  • [32] The Canon of Medicine, the standard medical textbook Paracelsus burned in a public bonfire three weeks after being appointed professor at the University of Basel, also
    described the use of opium, though many Latin translations were of poor quality.

  • Action against opium farmers centered upon a highly re

  • [50] In 1906, 41,000 tons were produced, but because 39,000 tons of that year’s opium were consumed in China, overall usage in the rest of the world was much lower.

  • Opium smoking began as a privilege of the elite and remained a great luxury into the early 19th century.

  • [5] The production methods have not significantly changed since ancient times.

  • Tobacco in that time was frequently mixed with other herbs (this continues with clove cigarettes to the modern day), and opium was one component in the mixture.

  • [59][60] Yet despite lurid literary accounts to the contrary, 19th-century London was not a hotbed of opium smoking.

  • [48] China[edit] Recreational use in China[edit] See also: History of opium in China and Opium den An opium den in 18th-century China.

  • [49] In 1712, Engelbert Kaempfer described addiction to madak: “No commodity throughout the Indies is retailed with greater profit by the Batavians than opium, which [its]
    users cannot do without, nor can they come by it except it be brought by the ships of the Batavians from Bengal and Coromandel.

  • [68] As a member of Parliament, Gladstone called it “most infamous and atrocious” referring to the opium trade between China and British India in particular.

  • Due to this, both the immigrant population and the social use of opium fell into decline.

  • [37] However, despite its medicinal values in these cases, it was noted that in cases of psychosis, it could cause anger or depression, and due to the drug’s euphoric effects,
    it could cause depressed patients to become more depressed after the effects wore off because they would get used to being high.

  • [69] Gladstone was fiercely against both of the Opium Wars Britain waged in China in the First Opium War initiated in 1840 and the Second Opium War initiated in 1857, denounced
    British violence against Chinese, and was ardently opposed to the British trade in opium to China.

  • [46] Thomas De Quincey’s Confessions of an English Opium-Eater (1822), one of the first and most famous literary accounts of opium addiction written from the point of view
    of an addict, details the pleasures and dangers of the drug.

  • It also refers to opium’s potential as a poison.

  • This organization, which had elected national officers and held an annual national meeting, was instrumental in gathering data from every Western-trained medical doctor in
    China, which was then published as William Hector Park compiled Opinions of Over 100 Physicians on the Use of Opium in China (Shanghai: American Presbyterian Mission Press, 1899).

  • The vast majority of these medical doctors were missionaries; the survey also included doctors who were in private practices, particularly in Shanghai and Hong Kong, as well
    as Chinese who had been trained in medical schools in Western countries.

  • “[34] Use of opium as a cure-all was reflected in the formulation of mithridatium described in the 1728 Chambers Cyclopedia, which included true opium in the mixture.

  • [42] Indeed, the Ottoman Empire supplied the West with opium long before China and India.

  • Bengal opium was highly prized, commanding twice the price of the domestic Chinese product, which was regarded as inferior in quality.

  • Britain’s All-India Opium Act of 1878 formalized ethnic restrictions on the use of opium, limiting recreational opium sales to registered Indian opium-eaters and Chinese opium-smokers
    only and prohibiting its sale to workers from Burma.

  • A massive destruction of opium by an emissary of the Chinese Daoguang Emperor in an attempt to stop opium smuggling by the British led to the First Opium War (1839–1842),
    in which Britain defeated China.


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