p.g. wodehouse


  • Most of Wodehouse’s fiction is set in his native United Kingdom, although he spent much of his life in the US and used New York and Hollywood as settings for some of his novels
    and short stories.

  • [87] The contract started in May 1930, but the studio found little for Wodehouse to do, and he had spare time to write a novel and nine short stories.

  • [46] Although it made little impact on its first publication, the 1906 novel Love Among the Chickens contained what French calls the author’s first original comic creation:
    Stanley Featherstonehaugh Ukridge.

  • [23] Reluctant banker; budding writer: 1900–1908[edit] Cover of Wodehouse’s first published novel, 1902 Wodehouse expected to follow Armine to the University of Oxford, but
    the family’s finances took a turn for the worse at the crucial moment.

  • [48][n 7] Wodehouse would return to the character in short stories over the next six decades.

  • [56] In May 1909 Wodehouse made his second visit to New York, where he sold two short stories to Cosmopolitan and Collier’s for a total of $500, a much higher fee than he
    had commanded previously.

  • “[37] This prediction proved correct: few British writers had first-hand experience of the US, and his articles about life in New York brought him higher than usual fees.

  • — The Times on Wodehouse’s honorary doctorate, June 1939[104] In 1935 Wodehouse created the last of his regular cast of principal characters, Lord Ickenham, otherwise known
    as Uncle Fred, who, in Usborne’s words, “leads the dance in four novels and a short story … a whirring dynamo of misrule”.

  • [49] It was Wodehouse’s first farcical novel; it was also his first best-seller, and although his later books included some gentler, lightly sentimental stories, it was as
    a farceur that he became known.

  • [71] Nonetheless, Donaldson adds, the book and lyrics for the Princess Theatre shows made the collaborators an enormous fortune and played an important part in the development
    of the American musical.

  • [61] In the same year The Saturday Evening Post paid $3,500 to serialise Something New, the first of what became a series of novels set at Blandings Castle.

  • He later wrote a humorous account of his experiences at the bank,[26] but at the time he longed for the end of each working day, when he could return to his rented lodgings
    in Chelsea and write.

  • [29] Wodehouse in 1904, aged 23 In 1901, with the help of a former Dulwich master, William Beach Thomas, Wodehouse secured an appointment—at first temporary and later permanent—writing
    for The Globe’s popular “By the Way” column.

  • [44] His lyric for Hall, “Put Me in My Little Cell”, was a Gilbertian number for a trio of comic crooks, with music by Frederick Rosse;[45] it was well received and launched
    Wodehouse on a career as a theatre writer that spanned three decades.

  • [105] His other books from the decade include Right Ho, Jeeves, which Donaldson judged his best work, Uncle Fred in the Springtime, which the writer Bernard Levin considered
    the best, and Blandings Castle, which contains “Lord Emsworth and the Girl Friend”, which Rudyard Kipling thought “one of the most perfect short stories I have ever read”.

  • He wrote a series of Broadway musical comedies during and after the First World War, together with Guy Bolton and Jerome Kern, that played an important part in the development
    of the American musical.

  • [38] He later recalled that “in 1904 anyone in the London writing world who had been to America was regarded with awe and looked upon as an authority on that terra incognita.

  • After leaving school he was employed by a bank but disliked the work and turned to writing in his spare time.

  • [30] At around the same time his first novel was published—a school story called The Pothunters, serialised incomplete in Public School Magazine in early 1902, and issued
    in full in hardback in September.

  • [n 14] Wodehouse’s signature, undated The Wodehouses returned to England, where they had a house in London for some years, but Wodehouse continued to cross the Atlantic frequently,
    spending substantial periods in New York.

  • In Sproat’s phrase, she “took charge of Wodehouse’s life and made certain that he had the peace and quiet he needed to write”.

  • Early in his career Wodehouse would produce a novel in about three months, but he slowed in old age to around six months.

  • [28] A new magazine for boys, The Captain, provided further well-paid opportunities, and during his two years at the bank, Wodehouse had eighty pieces published in a total
    of nine magazines.

  • He wrote or adapted four plays for the West End; Leave it to Psmith (1930), which he adapted in collaboration with Ian Hay, was the only one to have a long run.

  • [18] He was entirely at home there; Donaldson comments that Dulwich gave him, for the first time, “some continuity and a stable and ordered life”.

  • Bertie and Jeeves, Lord Emsworth and his circle, and Ukridge appeared in novels and short stories;[n 12] Psmith made his fourth and last appearance;[n 13] two new characters
    were the Oldest Member, narrating his series of golfing stories,[78] and Mr Mulliner, telling his particularly tall tales to fellow patrons of the bar at the Angler’s Rest.

  • The team produced several more successes, including Leave It to Jane (1917), Oh, Boy!

  • [13] Another biographer, Frances Donaldson, writes, “Deprived so early, not merely of maternal love, but of home life and even a stable background, Wodehouse consoled himself
    from the youngest age in an imaginary world of his own.

  • In a 2005 study of Wodehouse in Hollywood, Brian Taves writes that Those Three French Girls (1930) was “as close to a success as Wodehouse was to have at MGM.

  • [41][n 6] Wodehouse had loved theatre since his first visit, aged thirteen, when Gilbert and Sullivan’s Patience had made him “drunk with ecstasy”.

  • The critic R. D. B. French writes that, of Wodehouse’s work from this period, almost all that deserves to survive is the school fiction.

  • These were the families of Canadian prisoners of war, and the news from Wodehouse was the first indication that their sons were alive and well.

  • During the 1920s he collaborated on nine musical comedies produced on Broadway or in the West End, including the long-running Sally (1920, New York), The Cabaret Girl (1922,
    London) and Rosalie (1928, New York).

  • Born in Guildford, the third son of a British magistrate based in Hong Kong, Wodehouse spent happy teenage years at Dulwich College, to which he remained devoted all his life.

  • [79] Various other young men-about-town appeared in short stories about members of the Drones Club.

  • [n 10] These stories introduced two sets of characters about whom Wodehouse wrote for the rest of his life.

  • [111] Second World War: internment and broadcasts[edit] At the start of the Second World War Wodehouse and his wife remained at their Le Touquet house, where, during the Phoney
    War, he worked on Joy in the Morning.

  • Throughout his time in Tost, he sent postcards to his US literary agent asking for $5 to be sent to various people in Canada, mentioning his name.

  • [122] On 21 June 1941, while he was in the middle of playing a game of cricket, Wodehouse received a visit from two members of the Gestapo.

  • [70] Donaldson suggests that this is the reason why his lyrics have largely been overlooked in recent years: they fit the music perfectly, but do not stand on their own in
    verse form as Gilbert’s do.

  • In the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Iain Sproat counts twenty aunts and considers that they played an important part not only in Wodehouse’s early life, but, thinly
    disguised, in his mature novels, as the formidable aunts who dominate the action in the Wooster, Blandings, and other stories.

  • [50] In early 1906 the actor-manager Seymour Hicks invited Wodehouse to become resident lyricist at the Aldwych Theatre, to add topical verses to newly imported or long-running

  • He would take up to two years to build a plot and write a scenario of about thirty thousand words.

  • Wodehouse a doctor of letters the University has done the right and popular thing.

  • [120][n 22] Wodehouse’s family and friends had not had any news of his location after the fall of France, but an article from an Associated Press reporter who had visited
    Tost in December 1940 led to pressure on the German authorities to release the novelist.

  • The two collaborated between 1907 and 1913 on two books, two music hall sketches, and a play, Brother Alfred.

  • He stayed there at his own expense; royalties from the German editions of his books had been put into a special frozen bank account at the outset of the war, and Wodehouse
    was permitted to draw upon this money he had earned while staying in Berlin.

  • The show was successful, but they thought the song lyrics weak and invited Wodehouse to join them on its successor.

  • [32][n 5] Between the publication of The Pothunters 1902 and that of Mike in 1909, Wodehouse wrote eight novels and co-wrote another two.

  • They cannot be got into a play and they are at least half the fun of the novels.

  • [20][n 3] Wodehouse’s six years at Dulwich were among the happiest of his life: “To me the years between 1894 and 1900 were like heaven.

  • [127] The day after Wodehouse recorded his final programme, Ethel joined him in Berlin, having sold most of her jewellery to pay for the journey.

  • [107][n 20] Wodehouse was never sure that his books had literary merit as well as popular appeal, and, Donaldson suggests, must have been overwhelmed when the University of
    Oxford conferred an honorary doctorate of letters on him in June 1939.

  • [7][n 2] When he was two, the brothers were brought to England, where they were placed under the care of an English nanny in a house adjoining that of Eleanor’s father and

  • [51] Psmith, Blandings, Wooster and Jeeves: 1908–1915[edit] Psmith, drawn by T. M. R. Whitwell for first edition of Mike (1909) Wodehouse’s early period as a writer came to
    an end in 1908 with the serialisation of The Lost Lambs, published the following year in book form as the second half of the novel Mike.

  • He sold many more stories, but none of the American publications offered a permanent relationship and guaranteed income.

  • The interview was reprinted in The New York Times, and there was much editorial comment about the state of the film industry.

  • [128] A front-page article in The Daily Mirror stated that Wodehouse “lived luxuriously because Britain laughed with him, but when the laughter was out of his country’s heart,
    … [he] was not ready to share her suffering.

  • [27] At first he concentrated, with some success, on serious articles about school sports for Public School Magazine.

  • Ethel was taken with both the financial and social aspects of Hollywood life, and she negotiated a contract with MGM on her husband’s behalf under which he would be paid $2,000
    a week.

  • “[21] In addition to his sporting achievements he was a good singer and enjoyed taking part in school concerts; his literary leanings found an outlet in editing the school
    magazine, The Alleynian.

  • [124] Shortly afterwards Wodehouse was, in the words of Phelps, “cleverly trapped” into making five broadcasts to the US via German radio, with the Berlin-based correspondent
    of the Columbia Broadcasting System.

  • “[87] Even when the studio found a project for him to work on, the interventions of committees and constant rewriting by numerous contract authors meant that his ideas were
    rarely used.

  • Wodehouse had made any real assault on the intelligence of the song-listening public.

  • [2] In a study of Wodehouse’s works, Richard Usborne argues that “only a writer who was himself a scholar and had had his face ground into Latin and Greek (especially Thucydides)
    as a boy” could sustain the complex sequences of subordinate clauses sometimes found in Wodehouse’s comic prose.

  • Although his captors refused to release him, Wodehouse was provided with a typewriter and, to pass the time, he wrote Money in the Bank.

  • His early novels were mostly school stories, but he later switched to comic fiction.

  • [52] The work begins as a conventional school story, but Wodehouse introduces a new and strikingly original character, Psmith,[53] whose creation both Evelyn Waugh and George
    Orwell regarded as a watershed in Wodehouse’s development.

  • He commented, “It’s odd how soon one comes to look on every minute as wasted that is given to earning one’s salary.

  • [22] For the rest of his life he remained devoted to the school.

  • Some critics of Wodehouse have considered his work flippant, but among his fans are former British prime ministers and many of his fellow writers.

  • “[96] In 1934 Wodehouse collaborated with Bolton on the book for Cole Porter’s Anything Goes (Porter wrote his own lyrics), but at the last minute their version was almost
    entirely rewritten by others at the instigation of the producer, who disliked the original script.

  • He noted in his diary: “In New York gathering experience.

  • After his release he made six broadcasts from German radio in Berlin to the US, which had not yet entered the war.


Works Cited

[‘1. ^ P. G. von Donop’s middle name was George. It is unclear why Grenville was chosen for Wodehouse. The academic Sophie Ratcliffe speculates that Eleanor Wodehouse chose it because of her liking for literary heroes. Sir Richard Grenville is the hero
of Tennyson’s The Revenge; among the names Eleanor gave her other sons were Peveril from Scott’s Peveril of the Peak and Lancelot from Tennyson’s Idylls of the King.[4]
2. ^ A younger brother, Richard, was born in 1892. He “hardly featured in
Wodehouse’s life”, according to the biographer Robert McCrum, living for most of his life in India and then China, and making a modest reputation as an amateur cricketer.[8]
3. ^ Usborne cites as an example a sentence from Money in the Bank (1942):
“With the feeling, which was his constant companion nowadays, for the wedding was fixed for the fifth of July and it was already the tenth of June, that if anybody cared to describe him as some wild thing taken in a trap, which sees the trapper coming
through the woods, it would be all right with him, he threw a moody banana skin at the loudest of the sparrows, and went back into the room.”[20]
4. ^ McCrum finds Ernest Wodehouse’s decision inconsistent with the financial facts: he calculates
that Ernest’s income, currency fluctuations notwithstanding, would comfortably have allowed him to send two sons to Oxford.[25]
5. ^ Wodehouse primarily wrote under the name P.G. Wodehouse, but occasionally used other names, including P. Brooke-Haven,
Melrose Grainger, Pelham Grenville, J. Plum, J. Walker Williams, C.P. West, Henry William-Jones and Basil Windham.[33]
6. ^ The piece had been running at the Strand Theatre since June;[42] it was common practice for musical comedies to be refreshed
with new material during their runs.[43]
7. ^ The two books were Not George Washington (1907) and The Globe By the Way Book (1908).[49]
8. ^ In the opinion of Carte’s daughter, Dame Bridget D’Oyly Carte, the schoolboy described to Wodehouse
was not her father, who was shy and taciturn, but his more outgoing elder brother Lucas.[55]
9. ^ Leonora took Wodehouse’s surname until she married Peter Cazalet in 1932.[60]
10. ^ In this story Bertie’s surname is evidently not Wooster but
Mannering-Phipps, and Jeeves is not yet the omniscient deus ex machina he was soon to become in subsequent stories.[64]
11. ^ The shows by the trio at the Princess and other New York theatres had runs varying from 475 performances for Oh, Boy! to
48 for Miss 1917.[68]
12. ^ In The Inimitable Jeeves (1923) and Carry on Jeeves (1925); Leave it to Psmith (1923, a Blandings novel despite its title); and Ukridge (1924).[76]
13. ^ In Leave it to Psmith (1923).[77]
14. ^ Among the members of
this fictional Mayfair club are Psmith, Bertie Wooster, two of Mr Mulliner’s nephews and Lord Emsworth’s younger son, Freddie Threepwood. Fifty other young male Wodehouse characters are also identified as members.[80] Wodehouse published two collections
of short stories about the escapades of various Drones: Young Men in Spats (1936) and Eggs, Beans and Crumpets (1940). Members of the club feature in other collections, including A Few Quick Ones (1959) and Plum Pie (1966).[80]
15. ^ They included
the feature films Uneasy Money (1918), A Damsel in Distress (1919), The Prince and Betty (1919), Piccadilly Jim (1920), Their Mutual Child (1920, from the novel published in the UK as The Coming of Bill), and The Small Bachelor (1927).[84]
16. ^
It ran for 156 performances; Who’s Who co-written with Bolton ran for 19 performances; Good Morning. Bill for 78; and The Inside Stand for 50.[95]
17. ^ Bolton and Wodehouse’s original book was set on a shipwrecked ocean liner; shortly before
the Broadway opening a shipping disaster off the coast of New Jersey caused the deaths of 138 passengers and crew members. The producer decided that the plot would seem in bad taste in the circumstances, and was evidently glad of the pretext to jettison
the original book, with which he was unhappy.[97] For the London production in 1935 Wodehouse revised the dialogue and rewrote some of Porter’s lyrics, substituting British topical references for the original American ones.[98][99]
18. ^ The average
weekly industrial wage in Britain in 1938 was equal to £180 a year.[101] Wodehouse’s income was more than 500 times as much.
19. ^ The two countries had not at that time reached the agreement that income tax is payable in one country or the other,
but not in both.[102]
20. ^ Among those to whom Wodehouse referred was Hugh Walpole. Wodehouse wrote to a friend, William Townsend, “I can’t remember if I ever told you about meeting Hugh when I was at Oxford getting my D.Litt. I was staying with
the Vice-Chancellor at Magdalen and he blew in and spent the day. It was just after Hilaire Belloc had said that I was the best living English writer. It was just a gag, of course, but it worried Hugh terribly. He said to me, ‘Did you see what Belloc
said about you?’ I said I had. ‘I wonder why he said that.’ ‘I wonder,’ I said. Long silence. ‘I can’t imagine why he said that,’ said Hugh. I said I couldn’t, either. Another long silence. ‘It seems such an extraordinary thing to say!’
‘Most extraordinary.’ Long silence again. ‘Ah, well,’ said Hugh, having apparently found the solution, ‘the old man’s getting very old.'”[108]
21. ^ The Observer suggested that Jeeves should receive an honorary MA at the same time.[110]
22. ^
Wodehouse found the local countryside monotonous, and wrote, “There is a flat dullness about the countryside which has led many a visitor to say ‘If this is Upper Silesia, what must Lower Silesia be like?’.”[120]
23. ^ A third biographer, Benny
Green, calls it “one of the most scurrilous personal attacks in the history of English journalism”,[134] while McCrum describes it as “breathtakingly intemperate, a polemic unique in the annals of the BBC”.[135]
24. ^ Mackenzie said he had “an old-fashioned
prejudice against condemning a man unheard”; he added that “I feel more disgusted by Mr Milne’s morality than by Mr Wodehouse’s irresponsibility.”[136]
25. ^ Neither Cussen’s report or Matthew’s decision was communicated to Wodehouse; they were
not released to the public until 1980.[148]
26. ^ The article was published in the July edition of Windmill magazine.[153]
27. ^ A 2013 drama produced by BBC 4 titled Wodehouse in Exile looked at the circumstances surrounding Wodehouse’s wartime
experience and the subsequent reaction.[158]
28. ^ He wrote to Bolton, “Apparently you have to write your show and get it composed and then give a series of auditions to backers, instead of having the management line up a couple of stars and then
get a show written for them.”[161]
29. ^ Respectively, A Few Quick Ones (1958), Plum Pie (1966), Performing Flea (1953), Bring on the Girls! (1954, jointly with Guy Bolton) and Over Seventy (1957).[164]
30. ^ The Wodehouses contributed $35,000
to the “Bide-a-Wee” shelter, and it would have received $300,000 in Wodehouse’s will had it not been for a change in its managerial regime of which the Wodehouses disapproved.[170]
31. ^ On both occasions the block was at the behest of the British
ambassador to the US, Sir Patrick Dean in 1967 and his successor Lord Cromer in 1971.[173]
32. ^ Alongside Wodehouse, Connolly listed light music, Mickey Mouse, the Oxford Book of Verse and the works of Edgar Wallace and Mary Webb.[210]
33. ^
On screen he has been played by Peter Woodward in Wodehouse on Broadway (BBC, 1989);[218] and Tim Pigott-Smith in Wodehouse in Exile (BBC, 2013).[219] On radio he has been played by Benjamin Whitrow (BBC, 1999);[220] and twice by Tim McInnerny (BBC,
2008[221] and 2010).[222]
34. Jasen, p. 2; and Donaldson, pp. 39–40
35. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Donaldson, Frances. (1986) “Wodehouse, Sir Pelham Grenville” Archived 13 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
archive, Oxford University Press, retrieved 25 April 2015 (subscription or UK public library membership required)
36. ^ “Surrey’s Famous people”, Visit Surrey, retrieved 25 April 2015
37. ^ Jump up to:a b c Wodehouse and Ratcliffe, p. 30
38. ^
Wodehouse, Over Seventy, p. 46; also, slightly reworded, in author’s preface to 1969 reissue of Something Fresh, p. 2
39. ^ McCrum, p. 9
40. ^ McCrum, p. 14
41. ^ McCrum, pp. 23–24; and “Richard Wodehouse” Archived 10 June 2015 at the Wayback
Machine, Cricinfo, retrieved 27 April 2015
42. ^ Donaldson, p. 43
43. ^ Donaldson, p. 43 (Kipling); Hart-Davis, p. 20 (Walpole); and Usborne, p. 43 (Thackeray and Saki)
44. ^ Jasen, p. 5
45. ^ Jump up to:a b Wodehouse, Over Seventy, p. 16
46. ^
McCrum, pp. 16–17
47. ^ Wodehouse, quoted in Jasen, p. 8
48. ^ Jaggard (1967), p. 104
49. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Sproat, Iain. (2010) “Wodehouse, Sir Pelham Grenville (1881–1975)”, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University
Press, retrieved 24 April 2015 (subscription or UK public library membership required)
50. ^ Donaldson, p. 52
51. ^ McCrum, p. 24
52. ^ Jasen, p. 17
53. ^ Jump up to:a b Usborne, p. 26
54. ^ Wodehouse, Performing Flea, Letter of 7 March
1946, p. 135
55. ^ Jasen, p. 18
56. ^ Phelps, p. 63
57. ^ Wodehouse, Over Seventy, p. 19
58. ^ McCrum, p. 37
59. ^ Wodehouse, Over Seventy, pp. 19–21, and 24–27
60. ^ Donaldson, p. 57
61. ^ Jasen, pp. 22–23
62. ^ Jasen, p. 25
63. ^
Jump up to:a b Jasen, p. 45
64. ^ McCrum, pp. 52–53
65. ^ McCrum, p. 47
66. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g “P(elham) G(renville) Wodehouse”, Contemporary Authors, Gale, retrieved 6 May 2015 (subscription required)
67. ^ French, p. 18
68. ^ Wodehouse,
Performing Flea, Letter of 27 August 1946, p. 138
69. ^ McCrum, p. 68
70. ^ Quoted in Jasen, p. 32
71. ^ Jasen, pp. 32–33
72. ^ Wodehouse, Over Seventy, p. 38
73. ^ McIlvaine, p. 267
74. ^ Jason, p. 34; Green (1981), p. 98; and McCrum,
p. 70
75. ^ Gaye, p. 1538; and “Strand Theatre”, The Times, 15 June 1904, p. 7
76. ^ Napper, p. 38
77. ^ McCrum, p. 30
78. ^ McCrum, p. 70; and Wodehouse and Ratcliffe, p. 55
79. ^ Jasen, p. 36; and Green (1981), p. 247
80. ^ French, p.
81. ^ French, p. 32; Jasen, pp. 42–43, 274 and 278; and “Savoy Theatre”, The Times, 9 April 1913, p. 10
82. ^ Jump up to:a b McCrum, p. 504
83. ^ Usborne, p. 96
84. ^ Jasen, p. 36
85. ^ Jump up to:a b McCrum, p. 83
86. ^ French, p.
87. ^ Jump up to:a b Wodehouse, The World of Psmith, p. v
88. ^ Donaldson, p. 85
89. ^ Usborne, p. 237
90. ^ Jasen, pp. 44–45
91. ^ Donaldson, p. 92
92. ^ Jasen, p. 56
93. ^ McCrum, p. 213
94. ^ McCrum, p. 91
95. ^ Wodehouse and
Ratcliffe, p. 94
96. ^ Usborne, p. 17
97. ^ Usborne, p. 103; and Wodehouse, P.G. “Extricating Young Gussie”, The Man With Two Left Feet and Other Stories (1917), Project Gutenberg, retrieved 28 April 2015
98. ^ Usborne, pp. 117–118
99. ^ Usborne,
pp. 173–175
100. ^ Hischak, Thomas. “Princess Theatre Musicals” Archived 12 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, The Oxford Companion to the American Musical, Oxford University Press, 2008 (subscription required)
101. ^ Donaldson, pp. 357–358
102. ^
Donaldson, p. 111
103. ^ Jasen, pp. 68–69
104. ^ Donaldson, pp. 111–112
105. ^ Donaldson, p. 110
106. ^ Stempel, Larry. “Wodehouse, P.G.”, The Grove Dictionary of American Music, Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, retrieved 7 May
2015 (subscription required)
107. ^ Bordman, Gerald. “Jerome David Kern: Innovator/Traditionalist”, The Musical Quarterly, 1985, Vol. 71, No. 4, pp. 468–473
108. ^ Jasen, p. 76
109. ^ Donaldson, pp. 351–352
110. ^ Usborne, p. 91
111. ^ Usborne,
p. 166
112. ^ Usborne, p. 167
113. ^ Jump up to:a b Jaggard pp. 46–49
114. ^ Donaldson, pp. 358–359
115. ^ Donaldson, p. 359
116. ^ Donaldson, p. 128
117. ^ Taves, p. 123
118. ^ Taves, p. 127
119. ^ McCrum, pp. 183, 186 and 214
120. ^
Jump up to:a b Wodehouse and Donaldson, Letter of 26 June 1930, p. 125
121. ^ Taves, p. 131
122. ^ Wind, p. 29
123. ^ Taves, p. 137
124. ^ Donaldson, p. 143
125. ^ Taves, p. 137 and Donaldson, p. 143
126. ^ Donaldson, p. xiv; McCrum, p.
305; and Phelps, p. 22
127. ^ Taves, p. 138
128. ^ Donaldson, p. 360
129. ^ “Wodehouse on the Stage”, The Manchester Guardian, 30 September 1930, p. 15
130. ^ McCrum, pp. 227–228
131. ^ Green (1980), p. 12
132. ^ “Benito Mussolini” Archived
1 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times, 21 August 1994
133. ^ Donaldson, pp. 252–253; and Usborne, p. 24
134. ^ “Industrial Wages” Archived 15 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Hansard, 21 February 1956, Vol. 549, cols. 177–179
135. ^
Donaldson, p. 153
136. ^ Jasen, p. 139
137. ^ “The Encaenia”, The Times, 22 June 1939, p. 17
138. ^ Usborne, p. 127
139. ^ Belloc, p. 5
140. ^ Hart-Davis, p. 403
141. ^ Wodehouse, Performing Flea, Letter of 1 August 1945, p. 128
142. ^
Donaldson, p. 161
143. ^ “The Universities”, The Observer, 28 May 1939, p. 15
144. ^ Green (1981), p. 247
145. ^ McCrum, pp. 267–270
146. ^ Jump up to:a b Green (1981), p. 181
147. ^ McCrum, pp. 272–273
148. ^ McCrum, pp. 276–277
149. ^
Phelps, pp. 208, 212
150. ^ Jasen, p. 174
151. ^ Connolly, p. 84
152. ^ Jasen, p. 175
153. ^ Jump up to:a b Connolly, p. 88
154. ^ Phelps, pp. 209–210; and Green (1981), pp. 182–183
155. ^ Orwell, p. 288
156. ^ McCrum, pp. 301–302
157. ^
Green (1981), p. 182
158. ^ Phelps, p. 211
159. ^ Connolly, p. 91; and Phelps, p. 211
160. ^ McCrum, p. 320
161. ^ Jump up to:a b Phelps, p. 212
162. ^ “The Price is ?”, The Mirror, 28 June 1941, p. 1
163. ^ “Mr P.G. Wodehouse (Broadcasts,
Germany)” Archived 12 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Hansard, 9 July 1941, Vol. 373, cols 145–146
164. ^ Jump up to:a b “The Government Changes”, The Times, 22 July 1941, p. 4
165. ^ Connolly, p. 92
166. ^ Phelps, pp. 212–213
167. ^ Green
(1981), p. 184
168. ^ McCrum, p. 317
169. ^ Jump up to:a b Phelps, pp. 215–216
170. ^ McCrum, p. 315
171. ^ “Letters to the Editor”, The Times, 19 July 1941, p. 5
172. ^ Donaldson, p. 242
173. ^ Jump up to:a b Connolly, p. 93
174. ^
Phelps, p. 216
175. ^ Wodehouse, Performing Flea, Letter of 11 May 1942, p. 115
176. ^ Connolly, pp. 95–96
177. ^ Connolly, p. 93; and Phelps, p. 219
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jonathanrh/3315973481/’]