• It addressed the application of permaculture design to growing in major climatic and soil conditions, to the use of renewable energy and natural building methods, and to “invisible
    structures” of human society.

  • Natural builders also regularly combine wall systems in a single building, making the best use of for example each material’s thermal or water-resistant properties.

  • [16][17] Permaculture is a philosophy of working with, rather than against nature; of protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless labor; and
    of looking at plants and animals in all their functions, rather than treating any area as a single product system.

  • A potential example of this type of guild includes placing a fibrous- or shallow-rooted plant next to a tap-rooted plant so that they draw from different levels of soil nutrients.

  • • Use small and slow solutions: Small and slow systems are easier to maintain, make better use of local resources, and produce more sustainable outcomes.

  • Yeomans introduced both an observation-based approach to land use in Australia in the 1940s and in the 1950s the Keyline Design as a way of managing the supply and distribution
    of water in semi-arid regions.

  • In this broadest understanding of wasted land, the concept is opened to reveal how our system of urban design gives rise to a ubiquitous pattern of land that, while not usually
    conceived as vacant, is in fact largely without ecological or social value.

  • Layers[edit] Suburban permaculture garden in Sheffield, UK, with different layers of vegetation Layers are a tool used to design sustainable ecosystems that directly benefit

  • [39] Zones[edit] Permaculture zones 0-5 Zones intelligently organize design elements in a human environment based on the frequency of human use and plant or animal needs.

  • [60] Natural building[edit] Small cob building with a living roof Natural building involves using a range of building systems and materials that apply permaculture principles.

  • After establishment, care and maintenance required are fairly minimal (provided mulches and similar things are used), such as watering or weed control maybe once a week.

  • Zone 1 The zone nearest to the house, the location for those elements in the system that require frequent attention, or that need to be visited often, such as salad crops,
    herb plants, soft fruit like strawberries or raspberries, greenhouse and cold frames, propagation area, worm compost bin for kitchen waste, etc.

  • Or, when looking at a “problem”, such as brushy vegetation, one considers how removing or altering it will affect soil and wildlife, and how these interacting forces would
    evolve over time and space.

  • [51][52][53] The possibilities and challenges for developing suburban or urban permaculture differ greatly as a result of how the built environment is designed and property
    is treated in particular areas of the world.

  • In raised beds, the practice “imitates natural nutrient cycling found in wood decomposition and the high water-holding capacities of organic detritus, while also improving
    bed structure and drainage properties.”

  • Natural building employs abundantly available natural materials (e.g., clay, rock, sand, straw, wood, reeds), and draws heavily on traditional architectural strategies found
    in various climates.

  • It also includes integrated water resources management, sustainable architecture, and regenerative and self-maintained habitat and agricultural systems modeled from natural

  • [9] Smith saw the world as an inter-related whole and suggested mixed systems of trees with understory crops.

  • Water collected from the ground, sometimes from areas which are specially prepared for this purpose, is called stormwater harvesting.

  • [5][6] Permaculture uses creative design processes based on whole-systems thinking, considering all materials and energies in flow that affect or are affected by proposed

  • For example, animals require much more daily attention than plants.

  • Because plants grow to different heights, a diverse community of organisms can occupy a relatively small space, each at a different layer.

  • [75][76] One variation is conservation grazing, where the primary purpose of the animals is to benefit the environment and the animals are not necessarily used for meat, milk
    or fiber.

  • George Washington Carver developed what can now be called permaculture practices, the rotation of particular crops to restore nitrogen to the soil and repair damaged Southern
    farm land, in his work at Tuskegee Institute, beginning 1896 until his death in 1947.

  • [27] Permaculture design is founded in replicating or imitating natural patterns found in ecosystems because these solutions have emerged through evolution over thousands
    of years and have proven to be effective.

  • Forests offer seven basic layers, although there can be many more, such as fungi.

  • For example, a study comparing the built environment in Jaisalmer, India, and Los Angeles, United States, concluded that the American planned city is ecologically disastrous:[50]
    the application of universal rules regarding setbacks from roads and property lines systematically creates unused and purposeless space as an integral part of the built landscape, well beyond the classic image of the vacant lot.

  • [28] Design principles derive from the science of systems ecology and the study of pre-industrial examples of sustainable land use.

  • [43] Trees or shrubs are intentionally used within agricultural systems, or non-timber forest products are cultured in forest settings.

  • The tragic reality is that very few sustainable systems are designed or applied by those who hold power, and the reason for this is obvious and simple: to let people arrange
    their own food, energy and shelter is to lose economic and political control over them.

  • • Catch and store energy: Develop systems that collect resources at peak abundance for use in times of need.

  • The focus is on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful, or renewable resources, as well as those that, while recycled or salvaged, produce healthy living
    environments and maintain indoor air quality.

  • Examples of this type of guild include plants that attract a particular beneficial insect or plants that restore nitrogen to the soil.

  • It includes a set of design principles derived using whole-systems thinking.

  • you want to be established in your garden) with the support of pioneer species (plants that will help the target species succeed).

  • These types of guilds are aimed at solving specific problems which may arise in a garden, such as infestations of harmful insects and poor nutrition in the soil.

  • [37] • Establishment guilds are commonly used when working to establish target species (the primary vegetables, fruits, herbs, etc.

  • Raised beds are often used in Zone 1 in urban areas.

  • [49] Transforming vacant lots in suburban and urban settings is a common practice of creating community-managed agriculture or farm sites.

  • Within a guild each species provides a unique set of diverse services that work in harmony.

  • Building compactly and minimizing the ecological footprint is common, as are on-site handling of energy acquisition, on-site water capture, alternate sewage treatment, and
    water reuse.

  • … Because these spaces are created in accordance with a general pattern, rather than responding to any local need or desire, many if not most are underutilized, unproductive,
    and generally maintained as ecologically disastrous lawns by unenthusiastic owners.

  • Forest gardens, like other permaculture designs, incorporate processes and relationships that the designers understand to be valuable in natural ecosystems.

  • Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses[64] and local institutions can make an important contribution to the availability of drinking water.

  • In practical terms it means that before, for example, modifying overland water flow, one fully considers both upstream and downstream effects in the short and long terms.

  • [38] • Resource partitioning guilds group species based on their abilities to share essential resources with one another through a process of niche differentiation.

  • Zone 3 The area where main crops are grown, both for domestic use and for trade purposes.

  • [57] The Hügelkultur technique can be implemented through building mounds on the ground as well as in raised garden beds.

  • Many studies of these systems, especially those that predate the term permaculture, consider these systems to be forms of agroforestry.

  • This idea is reflected in permacultural designs by using spirals in herb gardens, or creating ponds that have wavy undulating shorelines rather than a simple circle or oval
    (thereby increasing the amount of edge for a given area).

  • Worms are also introduced to garden beds, helping to aerate the soil and improve water retention.

  • It combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems.

  • These are often the system’s most valuable, diverse, and productive elements.

  • Zone 4 A semi-wild area, mainly used for forage and collecting wild plants as well as production of timber for construction or firewood.

  • “Care of the Earth: Provision for all life systems to continue and multiply”.

  • • Use and value renewable resources and services: Make the best use of nature’s abundance: reduce consumption and dependence on non-renewable resources.

  • It determines where these elements should be placed so they can provide maximum benefit to the local environment.

  • [37] • Community function guilds group species based on a specific function or niche that they fill in the garden.

  • [44] Forest gardening/food forests involve systems designed to mimic natural forests.

  • Frequently manipulated or harvested elements of the design are located close to the house in zones 1 and 2.

  • [2][3][4][16] In their view, industrialized methods were highly dependent on non-renewable resources, and were additionally poisoning land and water, reducing biodiversity,
    and removing billions of tons of topsoil from previously fertile landscapes.

  • Permaculture is an approach to land management and settlement design that adopts arrangements observed in flourishing natural ecosystems.

  • Here permaculture principles aim to reduce energy and water needs harnessing natural resources such as sunlight, to create a harmonious, sustainable environment in which to
    live and work.

  • Permaculture originally came from “permanent agriculture”,[1][citation needed] but was later adjusted to mean “permanent culture”, incorporating social aspects.

  • [48] Suburban permaculture sites such as one in Eugene, Oregon, include rainwater catchment, edible landscaping, removing paved driveways, turning a garage into living space,
    changing a south side patio into passive solar, aesthetic features, detached structures.


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