perspective (graphical)


  • The most important figures are often shown as the highest in a composition, also from hieratic motives, leading to the so-called “vertical perspective”, common in the art
    of Ancient Egypt, where a group of “nearer” figures are shown below the larger figure or figures; simple overlapping was also employed to relate distance.

  • [18] Renaissance[edit] Detail of Masolino da Panicale’s St. Peter Healing a Cripple and the Raising of Tabitha (c. 1423), the earliest extant artwork known to use a consistent
    vanishing point[19] It is generally accepted that Filippo Brunelleschi conducted a series of experiments between 1415 and 1420, which included making drawings of various Florentine buildings in correct perspective.

  • [40] Leonardo applied one-point perspective as well as shallow focus to some of his works.

  • [11][a] By the later periods of antiquity, artists, especially those in less popular traditions, were well aware that distant objects could be shown smaller than those close
    at hand for increased realism, but whether this convention was actually used in a work depended on many factors.

  • Not only was perspective a way of showing depth, it was also a new method of creating a composition.

  • Visual art could now depict a single, unified scene, rather than a combination of several.

  • [17] Medieval artists in Europe, like those in the Islamic world and China, were aware of the general principle of varying the relative size of elements according to distance,
    but even more than classical art were perfectly ready to override it for other reasons.

  • Byzantine art was also aware of these principles, but also used the reverse perspective convention for the setting of principal figures.

  • Artists may choose to “correct” perspective distortions, for example by drawing all spheres as perfect circles, or by drawing figures as if centered on the direction of view.

  • [5] History Chauvet cave, spatially effective grading of a group of animals through overlap (c. 31.000 BC) Fresco from an Egyptian grave, c. 1500 BC • Fresco from the Villa
    of Publius Fannius Synistor in Boscoreale near Pompeii, 1st ct. BC[6] • A Song dynasty watercolor painting of a mill in an oblique projection, 12th century • The floor tiles in Lorenzetti’s Annunciation (1344) strongly anticipate modern perspective
    Early history[edit] The earliest art paintings and drawings typically sized many objects and characters hierarchically according to their spiritual or thematic importance, not their distance from the viewer, and did not use foreshortening.

  • In order for the resulting image to appear identical to the original scene, a viewer must view the image from the exact vantage point used in the calculations relative to
    the image.

  • [8] Systematic attempts to evolve a system of perspective are usually considered to have begun around the fifth century BC in the art of ancient Greece, as part of a developing
    interest in illusionism allied to theatrical scenery.

  • [16] The roof beams in rooms in the Vatican Virgil, from about 400 AD, are shown converging, more or less, on a common vanishing point, but this is not systematically related
    to the rest of the composition.

  • A passage in Philostratus suggests that classical artists and theorists thought in terms of “circles” at equal distance from the viewer, like a classical semi-circular theatre
    seen from the stage.

  • Della Francesca also started the now common practice of using illustrated figures to explain the mathematical concepts, making his treatise easier to understand than Alberti’s.

  • [21] Brunelleschi applied the new system of perspective to his paintings around 1425.

  • When Brunelleschi lifted a mirror in front of the viewer, it reflected his painting of the buildings which had been seen previously, so that the vanishing point was centered
    from the perspective of the participant.

  • Instead, he formulated the theory based on planar projections, or how the rays of light, passing from the viewer’s eye to the landscape, would strike the picture plane (the

  • In practice, unless the viewer observes the image from an extreme angle, like standing far to the side of a painting, the perspective normally looks more or less correct.

  • [31] This overall story is based on qualitative judgments, and would need to be faced against the material evaluations that have been conducted on Renaissance perspective

  • [42] Limitations Perspective images are created with reference to a particular center of vision for the picture plane.

  • [10] In the first-century BC frescoes of the Villa of P. Fannius Synistor, multiple vanishing points are used in a systematic but not fully consistent manner.

  • [34][35] As shown by the quick proliferation of accurate perspective paintings in Florence, Brunelleschi likely understood (with help from his friend the mathematician Toscanelli),[36]
    but did not publish, the mathematics behind perspective.

  • Ambrogio Lorenzetti painted a floor with convergent lines in his Presentation at the Temple (1342), though the rest of the painting lacks perspective elements.

  • [4] Examples of curvilinear perspective[edit] Main article: Curvilinear perspective Additionally, a central vanishing point can be used (just as with one-point perspective)
    to indicate frontal (foreshortened) depth.

  • This was detailed within Aristotle’s Poetics as skenographia: using flat panels on a stage to give the illusion of depth.

  • Second, no other perspective painting or drawing by Brunelleschi is known.

  • Apart from the paintings of Piero della Francesca, which are a model of the genre, the majority of 15th century works show serious errors in their geometric construction.


Works Cited

[‘ In the 18th century, Chinese artists began to combine oblique perspective with regular diminution of size of people and objects with distance; no particular vantage point is chosen, but a convincing effect is achieved.[11]
1. ^ Near the end of the
15th century, Leonardo da Vinci placed the vanishing point in his Last Supper behind Christ’s other cheek.[30]
2. ^ In viewing a wall, for instance, the first triangle has a vertex at the user’s eye, and vertices at the top and bottom of the wall.
The bottom of this triangle is the distance from the viewer to the wall. The second, similar triangle, has a point at the viewer’s eye, and has a length equal to the viewer’s eye from the painting. The height of the second triangle can then be determined
through a simple ratio, as proven by Euclid.
3. “Linear Perspective: Brunelleschi’s Experiment”. Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Archived from the original on 24 May 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
4. ^ “How One-Point Linear Perspective Works”. Smarthistory
at Khan Academy. Archived from the original on 13 July 2013. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
5. ^ “Empire of the Eye: The Magic of Illusion: The Trinity-Masaccio, Part 2”. National Gallery of Art at ArtBabble. Archived from the original on 1 May 2013. Retrieved
12 May 2013.
6. ^ D’Amelio, Joseph (2003). Perspective Drawing Handbook. Dover. p. 19. ISBN 9780486432083.
7. ^ “The Beginner’s Guide to Perspective Drawing”. The Curiously Creative. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
8. ^ Jump up to:a b Hurt, Carla
(9 August 2013). “Romans paint better perspective than Renaissance artists”. Found in Antiquity. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
9. ^ Calvert, Amy. “Egyptian Art (article)”. Khan Academy. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
10. ^ Regoli, Gigetta Dalli; Gioseffi,
Decio; Mellini, Gian Lorenzo; Salvini, Roberto (1968). Vatican Museums: Rome. Italy: Newsweek. p. 22.
11. ^ “Skenographia in Fifth Century”. CUNY. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2007.
12. ^ Smith, A. Mark
(1999). Ptolemy and the Foundations of Ancient Mathematical Optics: A Source Based Guided Study. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-87169-893-3.
13. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cucker, Felipe (2013). Manifold Mirrors: The Crossing
Paths of the Arts and Mathematics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 269–278. ISBN 978-0-521-72876-8. Dubery and Willats (1983:33) write that ‘Oblique projection seems to have arrived in China from Rome by way of India round about the first or second
century AD.’ Figure 10.9 [Wen-Chi returns home, anon, China, 12th century] shows an archetype of the classical use of oblique perspective in Chinese painting.
14. ^ “Seeing History: Is perspective learned or natural?”. Eclectic Light. 10 January
2018. Over the same period, the development of sophisticated and highly-detailed visual art in Asia arrived at a slightly different solution, now known as the oblique projection. Whereas Roman and subsequent European visual art effectively had multiple
and incoherent vanishing points, Asian art usually lacked any vanishing point, but aligned recession in parallel. An important factor here is the use of long scrolls, which even now make fully coherent perspective projection unsuitable.
15. ^ Martijn
de Geus (9 March 2019). “China Projections”. Arch Daily. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
16. ^ Krikke, Jan (2 January 2018). “Why the world relies on a Chinese “perspective””. About 2000 years ago, the Chinese developed dengjiao toushi (等角透視),
a graphic tool probably invented by Chinese architects. It came to be known in the West as axonometry. Axonometry was crucial in the development of the Chinese hand scroll painting, an art form that art historian George Rowley referred to as “the
supreme creation of Chinese genius”. Classic hand scroll paintings were up to ten meters in length. They are viewed by unrolling them from right to left in equal segments of about 50 cm. The painting takes the viewer through a visual story in space
and time.
17. ^ “Pompeii. House of the Vettii. Fauces and Priapus”. SUNY Buffalo. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. Retrieved 27 December 2007.
18. ^ Panofsky, Erwin (1960). Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art. Stockholm:
Almqvist & Wiksell. p. 122, note 1. ISBN 0-06-430026-9.
19. ^ Vatican Virgil image
20. ^ Heidi J. Hornik and Mikeal Carl Parsons, Illuminating Luke: The infancy narrative in Italian Renaissance painting, p. 132
21. ^ “Perspective: The Rise of
Renaissance Perspective”. WebExhibits. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
22. ^ Gärtner, Peter (1998). Brunelleschi. Cologne: Könemann. p. 23. ISBN 978-3-8290-0701-6.
23. ^ Edgerton 2009, pp. 44–46.
24. ^ Edgerton 2009, p. 40.
25. ^ Dominique Raynaud
(1998). L’Hypothèse d’Oxford. Essai sur les origines de la perspective. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. pp. 132–141.
26. ^ Raynaud, Dominique (2014). Optics and the Rise of Perspective. Oxford: Bardwell Press. pp. 1–2].
27. ^ “…and
these works (of perspective by Brunelleschi) were the means of arousing the minds of the other craftsmen, who afterwards devoted themselves to this with great zeal.”
Vasari’s Lives of the Artists, chapter on Brunelleschi.
28. ^ Jump up to:a b
Hale, John R . (1981) [1965]. Great Ages of Man: Renaissance (rev. ed.). Time-Life. p. 98.
29. ^ “The Gates of Paradise: Lorenzo Ghiberti’s Renaissance Masterpiece”. Art Institute of Chicago. 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
30. ^ Vasari, The
Lives of the Artists, “Masaccio”.
31. ^ Adams, Laurie (2001). Italian Renaissance Art. Oxford: Westview Press. p. 98. ISBN 978-0-8133-4902-2.
32. ^ White, Susan D. (2006). Draw Like Da Vinci. London: Cassell Illustrated, p. 132. ISBN 978-1-84403-444-4.
33. ^
Harness, Brenda. “Melozzo da Forli: Master of Foreshortening”. Fine Art Touch. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
34. ^ Field, J. V.; Lunardi, R.; Settle, T. B. (1989). “The perspective scheme of Masaccio’s Trinity fresco”. Nuncius. 4 (2): 31–118. doi:10.1163/182539189X00680.
INIST 11836604.
35. ^ Dominique Raynaud (1998). L’Hypothèse d’Oxford. Paris: Presses universitaires de France. pp. 72–120.
36. ^ Raynaud, Dominique (2016). “Fact and Fiction Regarding Masaccio’s Trinity Fresco”. Studies on Binocular Vision.
Archimedes. Vol. 47. pp. 53–67. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-42721-8_4. ISBN 978-3-319-42720-1.
37. ^ Raynaud, Dominique (2020). “Las fuentes ópticas de Leonardo”. In Ramón-Laca, Luis (ed.). Leonardo da Vinci. Perspectiva y visión. Alcalá de Henares: UAH.
pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-84-18254-89-5. OCLC 1243556932.
38. ^ Vasari, Giorgio (1885). Stories of the Italian Artists. Scribner & Welford. p. 53. Messer Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli, having returned from his studies, invited Filippo with other friends
to supper in a garden, and the discourse falling on mathematical subjects, Filippo formed a friendship with him and learned geometry from him.
39. ^ El-Bizri, Nader (2010). “Classical Optics and the Perspectiva Traditions Leading to the Renaissance”.
In Hendrix, John Shannon; Carman, Charles H. (eds.). Renaissance Theories of Vision (Visual Culture in Early Modernity). Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 11–30. ISBN 978-1-409400-24-0.
40. ^ Hans, Belting (2011). Florence and Baghdad: Renaissance
art and Arab science (1st English ed.). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 90–92. ISBN 978-0-674-05004-4. OCLC 701493612.
41. ^ Livio, Mario (2003). The Golden Ratio. New York: Broadway Books. p. 126. ISBN 0-7679-0816-3.
42. ^
O’Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (July 1999). “Luca Pacioli”. University of St Andrews. Archived from the original on 22 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
43. ^ Goldstein, Andrew M. (17 November 2011). “The Male “Mona Lisa”?: Art Historian
Martin Kemp on Leonardo da Vinci’s Mysterious “Salvator Mundi””. Blouin Artinfo.
44. ^ MacKinnon, Nick (1993). “The Portrait of Fra Luca Pacioli”. The Mathematical Gazette. 77 (479): 206. doi:10.2307/3619717. JSTOR 3619717. S2CID 195006163.
45. ^
“Handprint : Perspective in the world”. Archived from the original on 6 January 2007. Retrieved 25 December 2006. Retrieved on 25 December 2006
b. Edgerton, Samuel Y. (2009). The Mirror, the Window & the Telescope: How Renaissance Linear Perspective
Changed Our Vision of the Universe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4758-7.
Photo credit:’]