Finally, scientific ecology, or commonly known as ecology, addresses central concerns, such as understanding the role of the ecologists and what they study, and the types
of methodology and conceptual issues that surround the development of these studies and what type of problem this may present.
For example, this field considers the ‘nature of nature’, the methodological and conceptual issues surrounding ecological research, and the problems associated with these
studies within its contextual environment.
Defining ecology Further information: Ecology There is yet to be an established consensus amongst philosophers about the exact definition of ecology, however, there
are commonalities in the research agendas that helps differentiate this discipline from other natural sciences.
For example, mathematical models incorporate environmental decisions of people within a group holistically.
 Critics of the employment of mathematical models within ecology question its use and the extent of their relevance, prompted by an imbalance in investigative procedure
and theoretical propositions.
An obvious consequence of this paradigm is the presence and usage of pluralistic methodology, although there has yet to be a unifying model adequate for application in ecology,
and neither has there yet to establish a pluralistic theory as well.
Although there has yet to be a consensus about what presupposes philosophy of ecology, and the definition for ecology is up for debate, there are some central issues that
philosophers of ecology consider when examining the role and purpose of what ecologists practice.
 He had first expressed ecology as an interchangeable term constituted within an area of biology and an aspect of ‘physiology of relationships’.
 A common belief amongst environmental philosophy is the view that biological entities are morally valuable and independent of human standards.
Contemporary ecology Defining contemporary ecology requires looking at certain fundamental principles, namely principles of system and evolution.
 In the English translation by Stauffer, Haeckel defined ecology as “the whole science of the relationship of organism to environment including, in the broad sense, all
the ‘conditions for existence.
Naturalism Main article: Naturalism (philosophy) There is yet to be a defined explanation of naturalism within philosophy of ecology, however, its current usage connotes
the idea that underlines a system containing a reality subsumed by nature, independent of the ‘supernatural’ world or existence.
Its main concerns centre on the practice and application of ecology, its moral issues, and the intersectionality between the position of humans and other entities.
 Philosophy addresses the questions that make up ecological studies, and presents a different perspective into the history of ecology, environmental ethics in ecological
science, and the application of mathematical models.
Mathematical model in particular also provide contextual supporting information regarding factors on a wider, more global scale as well.
They also maintain that mathematical modelling within ecology is an oversimplification of reality, and a misrepresentation or insufficient representation of the biological
 The first definition does not consider nature as ‘artifacts of human manipulation’, and nature, in this sense, comprises those not of artificial origins.
There are mainly two types of models used to explore the relationship between applications of mathematics and practice within ecology.
The main issue is to also incorporate natural entities in its ethical concern, which involves conscious, sentient, living and existing beings.
Although an established definition of ecology has yet to be presented, there are some commonalities in the questions proposed by ecologists.
For example, identification and explanations of certain organisms and population abundance is essential for understanding the role of ecology and biodiversity.
Certain entities that interact with their environments create evolution through survival, and it is the production of changes that shape ecological systems.
 Mathematical models Mathematical models play a role in questioning the issues presented in ecology and conservation biology.
 There are three main concerns that ecologists generally concur with: naturalism, scientific realism, and the comprehensive scope of ecology.
 Common questions involve examining whether the means to understanding an object is through critical analyses of its constituents (reductionism) or ‘contextualisation’
of its components (holism) to retain phenomenological value.
Naturalists who support this perspective view mental, biological, and social operations as physical entities.
 He expanded upon this definition of ecology after considering the Darwinian theory of evolution and natural selection.
 Criticisms The process of mathematical modelling presents distinction between reality and theory, or more specifically, the application of models against the genuine
phenomena these models aim to represent.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/martin_nikolaj/4979895172/’]