pinus longaeva


  • [8] The tree grows in large open stands, unlike the related foxtail pine, which sometimes form dense forests.

  • [citation needed][13] Among the White Mountain specimens, the oldest trees are found on north-facing slopes, with an average of 2,000 years, as compared to the 1,000 year
    average on the southern slopes.

  • [2] The tree is a “vigorous” primary succession species, growing quickly on new open ground.

  • [citation needed] These ancient trees have a gnarled and stunted appearance, especially those found at high altitudes,[2] and have reddish-brown bark with deep fissures.

  • However, populations of Pinus longaeva are known to be extremely resilient, and as a primary succession species, it is believed that populations of the tree would reestablish
    itself quickly after a fire.

  • While rare, wild fires such as The Carpenter 1 fire in southern Nevada (July 2013) and the Phillips Fire in Great Basin National Park, (September 2000) that started in lower
    elevation fuel types and moved through the crowns of trees with the aid of extreme fire weather, could become more likely.

  • The climate and the durability of their wood can preserve them long after death, with dead trees as old as 7,000 years persisting next to live ones.

  • [citation needed] The Great Basin bristlecone pine differs from the Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine in that the needles of the former always have two uninterrupted resin canals,
    so it lacks the characteristic small white resin flecks appearing on the needles of the latter.

  • That said, large-scale fires are extremely uncommon where the species grows, and are not a major factor in the species’ long-term viability.

  • [11] Harlan passed away in 2013, and neither the tree nor the core Harlan studied have been found, making the age or existence of this tree unable to be confirmed.

  • In very old specimens, often only a narrow strip of living tissue connects the roots to a handful of live branches.

  • [1] Pinus longaeva shares habitats with a number of other pine species, including the ponderosa pine, the white fir and, notably, the limber pine, a similarly long-lived high-elevation

  • Yet at high elevations near treeline, Pinus longaeva typically grow on limestone outcroppings that provide little or no surface fuels to propagate a wildfire.

  • As a result, the species was moved to “Least Concern”.

  • Pinus longaeva trees generally do not form closed canopies, usually covering only 15-50%.

  • [10] Age A specimen located in the White Mountains of California was measured by Tom Harlan, a researcher with the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, to be 5,062 years old
    as of 2010.

  • [12] The confirmed oldest tree of this species, “Methuselah”, is also located in the Ancient Bristlecone Pine Forest of the White Mountains.

  • [citation needed] An introduced fungal disease known as white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) is believed to affect some individuals.


Works Cited

[‘1. Stritch, L.; Mahalovich, M.; Nelson, K.G. (2011). “Pinus longaeva”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T34024A9830878. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T34024A9830878.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Howard,
JL (2004). “Pinus longaeva”. Fire Effects Information System. USDA. Archived from the original on 2008-12-18. Retrieved 2008-12-02.
3. ^ Moore, Gerry; Kershner, Bruce; Craig Tufts; Daniel Mathews; Gil Nelson; Spellenberg, Richard; Thieret, John
W.; Terry Purinton; Block, Andrew (2008). National Wildlife Federation Field Guide to Trees of North America. New York: Sterling. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-4027-3875-3.
4. ^ Jump up to:a b “Oldlist”. Rocky Mountain Tree Ring Research. Archived from the
original on 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2013-01-08.
5. ^ “Nevada Facts and State Emblems”. State of Nevada. Archived from the original on 2014-03-27. Retrieved 2016-02-04.
6. ^ “The Gymnosperm Database”. March 2008. Archived from the original on 27
June 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
7. ^ Jump up to:a b “The Ancient Bristlecone Pine”. August 2003. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
8. ^ Jump up to:a b Gray, Curtis (2017). Impact of Climate Variability on
the Frequency and Severity of Ecological Disturbances in Great Basin Bristlecone Pine Sky Island Ecosystems (Thesis). Utah State University. Archived from the original on 2018-12-07. Retrieved 2018-11-01.
9. ^ Jump up to:a b “Global Trees Campaign”.
March 2008. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 30 July 2011.
10. ^ Gray, C (2017-05-15). “Climate warming alters fuels across elevational gradients in Great Basin bristlecone pine-dominated sky island forests”. Forest Ecology
and Management. 392: 125–136. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2017.03.004. ISSN 0378-1127.
11. ^ Oatman-Stanford, Hunter. “Read My Rings: The Oldest Living Tree Tells All”. Collectors Weekly. Archived from the original on 2014-07-29. Retrieved 2014-07-27.
12. ^
“RMTRR OLDLIST”. Retrieved 2020-08-22.
13. ^ Dr. Peter M. Brown (January 2013). “OldList, a database of ancient trees”. Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research. Archived from the original on 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2013-01-22.
14. ^ Lewington,
A; Parker E (1999). Ancient Trees: Trees that Live for a Thousand Years. London: Collins & Brown Ltd. p. 37. ISBN 1-85585-704-9.
2. Ewers, F. W.; Schmid, R. (1981). “Longevity of needle fascicles of Pinus longaeva (bristlecone pine) and other North
American pines”. Oecologia. 51 (1): 107–15. Bibcode:1981Oecol..51..107E. doi:10.1007/BF00344660. PMID 28310317. S2CID 19465953.
3. Lewington, A.; Parker, E. (1999). Ancient Trees: Trees that Live for a Thousand Years. London: Collins & Brown Ltd.
ISBN 1-85585-704-9.
Photo credit:’]