• Alloying this impure platinum residue called “plyoxen” with gold was the only solution at the time to obtain a pliable compound, but nowadays, very pure platinum is available
    and extremely long wires can be drawn from pure platinum, very easily, due to its crystalline structure, which is similar to that of many soft metals.

  • Platinum-cobalt, an alloy of roughly three parts platinum and one part cobalt, is used to make relatively strong permanent magnets.

  • Platinum is considered a precious metal, although its use is not as common as the use of gold or silver.

  • [56] Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet (platinum was the first in the list), Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its
    hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron—platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold.

  • [64] Unprecipitated hexachloroplatinate(IV) may be reduced with elemental zinc, and a similar method is suitable for small scale recovery of platinum from laboratory residues.

  • Their assumptions could not be avoided because the platinum they experimented with was highly contaminated with minute amounts of platinum-family elements such as osmium and
    iridium, amongst others, which embrittled the platinum alloy.

  • [53][54] The platinum used in such objects was not the pure element, but rather a naturally occurring mixture of the platinum group metals, with small amounts of palladium,
    rhodium, and iridium.

  • [67] Catalyst[edit] The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black.

  • This led him to believe he was working with a single metal, but in truth the ore still contained the yet-undiscovered platinum-group metals.

  • [79] • 1,000 cubic centimeters of 99.9% pure platinum, worth about US$696,000 at 29 Jun 2016 prices[80] • Platinum price 1970-2022 Other uses[edit] In the laboratory, platinum
    wire is used for electrodes; platinum pans and supports are used in thermogravimetric analysis because of the stringent requirements of chemical inertness upon heating to high temperatures (~1000 °C).

  • Time trend of platinum production[61] Platinum, along with the rest of the platinum-group metals, is obtained commercially as a by-product from nickel and copper mining and

  • Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane
    gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds.

  • The resulting gold–platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools.

  • [56] From their first encounters with platinum, the Spanish generally saw the metal as a kind of impurity in gold, and it was treated as such.

  • During electrorefining of copper, noble metals such as silver, gold and the platinum-group metals as well as selenium and tellurium settle to the bottom of the cell as “anode
    mud”, which forms the starting point for the extraction of the platinum-group metals.

  • [50][51] The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy.

  • The alluvial deposits used by pre-Columbian people in the Chocó Department, Colombia are still a source for platinum-group metals.

  • Platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum and as alloy with the other platinum-group metals and iron mostly.

  • Platinum also has 34 synthetic isotopes ranging in atomic mass from 165 to 204, making the total number of known isotopes 40.

  • Because of its scarcity in Earth’s crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal

  • [5] Platinum is one of the least reactive metals.

  • Chabeneau realized the infusibility of platinum would lend value to objects made of it, and so started a business with Joaquín Cabezas producing platinum ingots and utensils.

  • [8] Pure platinum is less expensive than pure gold, having been so continuously since 2015.

  • Chemical[edit] See also: Platinum group Platinum being dissolved in hot aqua regia Platinum has excellent resistance to corrosion.

  • [52] To work the metal, they would combine gold and platinum powders by sintering.

  • Platinum finds use in jewellery, usually as a 90–95% alloy, due to its inertness.

  • It has been employed as a catalyst since the early 19th century, when platinum powder was used to catalyze the ignition of hydrogen.

  • Consequently, platinum is often found chemically uncombined as native platinum.

  • [58] Brownrigg also made note of platinum’s extremely high melting point and refractoriness toward borax.

  • Although gold is also used in industrial applications, especially in electronics due to its use as a conductor, its demand is not so driven by industrial uses.

  • In 1752, Henrik Scheffer published a detailed scientific description of the metal, which he referred to as “white gold”, including an account of how he succeeded in fusing
    platinum ore with the aid of arsenic.

  • After several months, Chabaneau succeeded in producing 23 kilograms of pure, malleable platinum by hammering and compressing the sponge form while white-hot.

  • Chabaneau succeeded in removing various impurities from the ore, including gold, mercury, lead, copper, and iron.

  • [42] Platinum also exhibits negative oxidation states at surfaces reduced electrochemically.

  • [34] Compounds Halides[edit] Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum

  • Of the naturally occurring isotopes, only 190 Pt is unstable, though it decays with a half-life of 6.5×1011 years, causing an activity of 15 Bq/kg of natural platinum.

  • In 1750, after studying the platinum sent to him by Wood, Brownrigg presented a detailed account of the metal to the Royal Society, stating that he had seen no mention of
    it in any previous accounts of known minerals.

  • It has remarkable resistance to corrosion, even at high temperatures, and is therefore considered a noble metal.

  • Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches (which they term patina) as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products.

  • The resistance wire in the thermometer is made of pure platinum (NIST manufactured the wires from platinum bar stock with a chemical purity of 99.999% by weight).

  • Because platinum has a higher melting point than most other substances, many impurities can be burned or melted away without melting the platinum.

  • South Africa accounts for 80% of global platinum production and a majority of the world’s known platinum deposits.

  • [citation needed] They are platinum compounds, not the metal itself.

  • Bulk platinum does not oxidize in air at any temperature, but it forms a thin surface film of PtO2 that can be easily by removed by heating to about 400 °C.

  • Correspondingly, platinum is found in slightly higher abundances at sites of bolide impact on Earth that are associated with resulting post-impact volcanism, and can be mined
    economically; the Sudbury Basin is one such example.

  • [20] The use of platinum(II) acetylacetonate has also been reported.

  • As a heavy metal, it leads to health problems upon exposure to its salts; but due to its corrosion resistance, metallic platinum has not been linked to adverse health effects.

  • [81] Symbol of prestige in marketing[edit] See also: Platinum album and Platinum (color) Platinum’s rarity as a metal has caused advertisers to associate it with exclusivity
    and wealth.

  • Scheffer described platinum as being less pliable than gold, but with similar resistance to corrosion.

  • [39] Several barium platinides have been synthesized in which platinum exhibits negative oxidation states ranging from −1 to −2.

  • The specific layer he found, named the Merensky Reef, contains around 75% of the world’s known platinum.

  • [89] The misunderstanding is created by healthcare workers who are using inappropriately the name of the metal as a slang term for platinum-based chemotherapy medications
    like cisplatin.

  • Until May 2019, the kilogram was defined as the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram, a cylinder of the same platinum-iridium alloy made in 1879.

  • The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes.

  • It occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits, mostly in South Africa, which accounts for 80% of the world production.

  • [63] One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia, in which
    palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted.

  • The +1 and +3 oxidation states are less common, and are often stabilized by metal bonding in bimetallic (or polymetallic) species.


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