polyglutamic acid


  • [2] Alpha PGA is industally made by chemical synthesis, using a ring-opening polymerization reaction.

  • [13] G-PGA was found to bind and efficiently remove 99.8% of lead ions from water via a suitable low-pressure ultrafiltration technique.

  • [citation needed] Water treatment[edit] The “PolyGlu” water flocculant, based on a mixture of gamma PGA, calcium sulfate, and calcium carbonate,[11] is used by the International
    Organization for Migration to treat water for refugees.

  • In practical use, alpha PGA is almost universally purely contain the L form,[1] while gamma PGA tends to have a mixture of both.

  • [5] Uses Gamma PGA has been used for food, medicine[6] [7], cosmeceuticals[8] and water treatment.


Works Cited

[‘1. Zhang, Y; Song, W; Lu, Y; Xu, Y; Wang, C; Yu, DG; Kim, I (25 April 2022). “Recent Advances in Poly(α-L-glutamic acid)-Based Nanomaterials for Drug Delivery”. Biomolecules. 12 (5). doi:10.3390/biom12050636. PMID 35625562.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b c
d Li, D; Hou, L; Gao, Y; Tian, Z; Fan, B; Wang, F; Li, S (2 March 2022). “Recent Advances in Microbial Synthesis of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid: A Review”. Foods (Basel, Switzerland). 11 (5). doi:10.3390/foods11050739. PMID 35267372.
3. ^ https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27286372/
4. ^
Johnson, Leah C.; Akinmola, Adekunle Titus; Scholz, Carmen (March 2022). “Poly(glutamic acid): From natto to drug delivery systems”. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 40: 102292. doi:10.1016/j.bcab.2022.102292.
5. ^ Jang, J; Cho, M; Chun,
JH; Cho, MH; Park, J; Oh, HB; Yoo, CK; Rhie, GE (September 2011). “The poly-γ-D-glutamic acid capsule of Bacillus anthracis enhances lethal toxin activity”. Infection and immunity. 79 (9): 3846–54. doi:10.1128/IAI.01145-10. PMID 21690241.
6. ^ Choi,
Jae-Chul; Uyama, Hiroshi; Sung, Chul-Hoon Lee and Moon-Hee (2015-06-28). “Promotion Effects of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid on Wound Healing”. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 25 (6): 941–945. doi:10.4014/jmb.1412.12083.
PMID 25791849.
7. ^ Lee, Na-Ri; Go, Tae-Hun; Lee, Sang-Mee; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Park, Geun-Tae; Hong, Chang-Oh; Son, Hong-Joo (2014-04-21). “In vitro evaluation of new functional properties of poly-γ-glutamic acid produced by Bacillus subtilis D7”.
Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 21 (2): 153–158. doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.09.004. ISSN 1319-562X. PMC 3942858. PMID 24600308.
8. ^ Eroglu, I. (March 12, 2022). “Polyglutamic Acid in Skincare, Explained”. Ejollify. Retrieved April 12, 2022.
9. ^
Bringing Safe Drinking Water to the World
10. ^ C. Li; D.F. Yu; A. Newman; F. Cabral; C. Stephens; N.R. Hunter; L. Milas; S. Wallace (1998). “Complete regression of well-established tumors using a novel water-soluble poly(L-glutamic acid)-paclitaxel
conjugate” (PDF). Cancer Research. 58 (11): 2404–2409. PMID 9622081.
11. ^ Yanagibashi, Tomokazu; Kobayashi, Motoyoshi; Omori, Keisuke (22 August 2019). “Application of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid Flocculant to Flocculation–Sedimentation Treatment of Ultrafine
Cement Suspension”. Water. 11 (9): 1748. doi:10.3390/w11091748. A food-derived amino acid-based polymer, namely the PGAF (PGα21Ca, Japan Poly-Glu Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan), was used as the flocculant. Figure 3 shows the appearance of PGα21Ca. PGα21Ca
is a natural polymer consisting of γ-PGA, which is an amino acid obtained from Bacillus subtilis [7]. PGα21Ca is composed of cross-linked γ-PGA with an average molecular weight of 107 and natural minerals such as calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate
12. ^ “UN Migration Agency, Japan Hand Over New Water Purification Facility in Sierra Leone”. International Organization for Migration.
13. ^ Bhattacharyya, D (April 1998). “Novel poly-glutamic acid functionalized microfiltration membranes
for sorption of heavy metals at high capacity”. Journal of Membrane Science. 141 (1): 121–135. doi:10.1016/S0376-7388(97)00301-3.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/proflowers/15922772266/’]