Many of them were introduced by Mr Thomas Balle (sic), the last of that family who, on returning from the continent brought with him a quantity of cork, ilex, wainscot, oak;
Spanish chestnut, acacia, and other species of exotic trees.
Description An evergreen tree of large size, attaining in favourable places a height of 21–28 metres (69–92 feet), and developing in open situations a huge head of densely
leafy branches as much across, the terminal portions of the branches usually pendulous in old trees.
The first trees to be grown from acorns in England are still to be found within the stately grounds of Mamhead Park, Devon.
[full citation needed] Distribution and habitat Holm oak grows in pure stands or mixed forest in the Mediterranean and often at low or moderate elevations.
It is thought that this population’s propagation (which was established in the late 1800s after having been planted by Victorian residents) has been bolstered by native Eurasian
jays (Garrulus glandarius), which harvest acorns from oak trees and store them by burying them in the ground where they may then germinate.
 The holm oak is one of the top three trees used in the establishment of truffle orchards, or truffières.
 The Roman poet Horace predicted that the ilex growing on his farm would become famous when he included it in his hymn to the Spring of Bandusia there (Odes 3.13.12–16):
You will become one of the famous springs, too, Now that I am telling of the ilex planted over your stone Hollows, where your babbling Waters leap down.
Normally the tree is unable to withstand severe frost, which would prevent it from spreading north, but with climate change, it has successfully penetrated and established
itself in areas north of its native range.
 A specimen in Milo, in Sicily, is reputed to be 700 years old while a small population on the slopes of northern village of Wardija in Malta are said
to be between 500 and 1,000 years old.
 The largest population of Holm oak in Northern Europe is present on and around St. Boniface Down on the Isle of Wight and into the neighbouring town of Ventnor, a town
known for its naturally warmer microclimate, and has shown to tolerate the high winds on the downs.
 An ancient tree reputed to be 500 years old at Fulham Palace, London is listed as one of the Great Trees of London.
Quercus rotundifolia was previously thought to be part of this species, but was later moved to its own.
Another tree at Courtown House, Wexford, Ireland, reputedly planted in 1648, measured 20 m in height, with a spread of 43 m in 2010.
[‘1. Rankou, H.; M’Sou, S.; Barstow, M.; Harvey-Brown, Y.; Martin, G. (2017). “Quercus ilex”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T62537A3116134. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T62537A3116134.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
2. ^ BSBI List
2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
3. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). “Quercus ilex”. The PLANTS Database (plants.usda.gov). Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant
Data Team. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
4. ^ Manos PS, Doyle JJ, Nixon KC (1999) Phylogeny, biogeography and processes of molecular differentiation in Quercus subgenus Quercus (Fagaceae). Mol Phylogenet Evol 12:333–349.
5. ^ Bean, W. J. (1976) Trees
and shrubs hardy in the British Isles 8th ed., revised. John Murray.
6. ^ “holm etymology”. ETYMOLOGEEK. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
7. ^ BBC News, 2008
8. ^ “The holm oaks of Ventnor Downs”. National Trust. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
9. ^ “Holm
Oak | The Wood Database – Lumber Identification (Hardwood)”. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
10. ^ Uzquiano, P.; Ruiz-Zapata, MaB.; Gil-Garcia, MaJ.; Fernández, S.; Carrión, J. S. (1 December 2016). “Late Quaternary developments of Mediterranean oaks in
the Atlantic domain of the Iberian Peninsula: The case of the Cantabrian region (N Spain)”. Quaternary Science Reviews. 153: 63–77. Bibcode:2016QSRv..153…63U. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.10.013. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
11. ^ “The Natural Gardener”.
thenaturalgardener.co.uk. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
12. ^ “Buy Evergreen Oak Hedging Plants Online. Evergreen Oak for Sale Direct from Our Tree Nursery”. www.kingco.co.uk. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
13. ^ Britton, J. & Brayley, E. W. (1803). Beauties
of England & Wales. Vol. 4: Devon & Cornwall, Devonshire, p. 99. Various publishers.
14. ^ Johnson, O. (2011). Champion Trees, of Britain & Ireland, Kew Publishing, London. ISBN 9781842464526
15. ^ Editors of Time Out (2010). The Great Trees of
London, Time Out, London. ISBN 9781846701542
16. ^ See the article about the tree Archived 2020-04-17 at the Wayback Machine
17. ^ Flora of the Maltese Islands, Hans Christian Weber, Bernd Kendzior, 2006, Margraf Publishers p. 184
2. BBC News
(2008) Holm Oak: Garden Invader
3. Royal Botanic Garden (2008) Flora Europaea: Quercus ilex
4. W.J. Bean (1976) Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles 8th ed., revised. John Murray.
5. C. Michael Hogan (2008) Barbary Macaque: Macaca sylvanus,
Globaltwitcher.com, ed. N. Strõmberg
6. Holm Oak (2002) 
7. K. Rushforth (1999) Trees of Britain and Europe. HarperCollins ISBN 0-00-220013-9.
8. Chênes: Quercus ilex (in French)
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kitkaphotogirl/410425647/’]