Some quilters also use a home sewing machine for quilting together the layers of the quilt, as well as binding the final product.
It is used in the last stage of making a quilt, and is a method of covering the edges of the quilt.
In 1900, with the introduction of sewing machines and readily available fabric in Seminole communities, the patterns became much more elaborate and the style continues to
be in use today, both by Seminole women and by others who have copied and adapted their designs and techniques.
 Art quilting Main article: Quilt art During the late 20th century, art quilts became popular for their aesthetic and artistic qualities rather than for functionality
as they are displayed on a wall or table rather than being used on a bed.. “It is believed that decorative quilting came to Europe and Asia during the Crusades (A.D. 1100–1300), a likely idea because textile arts were more developed in China
and India than in the West.
Specialty styles • Foundation piecing – also known as paper-piecing – sewing pieces of fabric onto a temporary or permanent foundation • Shadow or echo quilting – Hawaiian
quilting, where quilting is done around an appliquéd piece on the quilt top, then the quilting is echoed again and again around the previous quilting line.
 However the sewing techniques of piecing, appliqué, and quilting have been used for clothing and furnishings in diverse parts of the world for several millennia and a
wide range of quilting styles and techniques have uniquely evolved around the globe.
Once pieced, the quilt top is placed on a reed mat with the other layers and sewn together using thick, colored thread in straight parallel lines by members of the designer’s
family and community.
 Gee’s Bend is a small, isolated community of African-Americans in southern Alabama with a quilt-making tradition that goes back several generations and is characterized
by pattern improvisation, multiple patterning, bright and contrasting colors, visual motion, and a lack of rules.
Eventually the style began to be used not just for clothing but for quilts as well.
Quilting templates/patterns come in many varieties and are generally considered the basis of the structure of the quilt, like a blueprint for a house.
In American Colonial times, quilts were predominantly whole-cloth quilts—a single piece of fabric layered with batting and backing held together with fine needlework quilting.
Quilting can be considered one of the first examples of upcycling, as it has historically made extensive use of remnants and offcuts for the creation of new products.
The style of these quilts was determined largely by time period and region, rather than race, and the documented slave-made quilts generally resemble those made by white women
in their region.
As industrial sewing technology has become more precise and flexible, quilting using exotic fabrics and embroidery began to appear in home furnishings in the early 21st century.
The stitches are decorative, but also functional; they hold the pieced cotton rags together Quilting in Japan, until the 20th century, generally covered local bast fibers
with more valuable cotton cloth.
Women would make strips of sewing the remnants of fabric rolls together, then sew these into larger pieces to make clothing.
The quilt blocks are repeated, or sometimes alternated with plain blocks, to form the overall design of a quilt.
The characteristics of a modern quilt may include: the use of bold colors and prints, high contrast and graphic areas of solid color, improvisational piecing, minimalism,
expansive negative space, and alternate grid work.
Specialist quilting threads come in many types, including different weights of thread and different materials.
Paper was cut into shapes and used as a pattern; each individual piece of cut fabric was basted around the paper pattern.
The classic Hawaiian quilt design is a large, bold, curvilinear appliqué pattern that covers much of the surface of the quilt, with the symmetrical design cut from only one
piece of fabric.
While most home sewing machines can be used to quilt layers together, having a wide throat (the space to the right of the needle mechanism) is useful to manipulate a bulky
quilt through the machine when the throat is both high and long.
 Some antique quilts made in North America have worn-out blankets or older quilts as the internal batting layer, quilted between new layers of fabric and thereby extending
the usefulness of old material.
Amish quilters also tend to use simple patterns: Lancaster County Amish are known for their Diamond-in-a-Square and Bars patterns, while other communities use patterns such
as Brick, Streak of Lightning, Chinese Coins, and Log Cabins, and midwestern communities are known for their repeating block patterns.
Native American women quickly developed their own unique style, the Lone Star design (also called the Star of Bethlehem), a variation on Morning Star designs that had been
featured on Native American clothing and other items for centuries.
In Europe, quilting has been part of the needlework tradition from about the fifth century, with early objects containing Egyptian cotton, which may indicate that Egyptian
and Mediterranean trade provided a conduit for the technique.
It was originally used by the working classes to stitch layers together for warmth.
The style evolved out of a need for cloth (the closest town was often a week’s journey away).
 A simple Nine Patch is made by sewing five patterned or dark pieces (patches) to four light square pieces in alternating order.
 Another variation develops when one square piece is divided into two equal rectangles in the basic Nine Patch design.
These late-eighteenth- and nineteenth-century patchwork quilts often mixed wool, silk, linen, and cotton in the same piece, as well as mixing large-scale (often chintz) and
small-scale (often calico) patterns.
• Traditional embroidery techniques can also be used to create block designs or embellish pieced or appliqued blocks.
There is no one single school or style that dominates the quilt-making world.
Typically, these quilts use only solid fabrics, are pieced from geometric shapes, do not contain appliqué, and construction is simple (corners are butted, rather than mitered,
for instance) and done entirely by hand.
Quilt blocks The quilt block is traditionally a sub-unit composed of several pieces of fabric sewn together.
“ American artist Judy Chicago stated in a 1981 interview that if not for sexism in the visual arts, the art world, and broader society, quilting would be regarded as
a form of high art: Abstract patterns by men are “art”; abstract patterns by women in fabric are “decorative”; they’re called quilts.
This is done primarily on quilts that are made to be used and are needed quickly.
• Watercolor quilting – A sophisticated form of scrap quilting whereby uniform sizes of various prints are arranged and sewn to create a picture or design.
Machine quilting needles are very sharp in order to readily pierce layers of quilt and properly sew together the quilt top, batting and backing.
Broderie perse quilts were popular during this time and the majority of pierced or appliqued quilts made during the 1170–1800 period were medallion-style quilts (quilts with
a central ornamental panel and one or more borders).
 Modern quilts are different from art quilts in that they are made to be used.
A quilter can make one stitch at a time by first driving the needle through the fabric from the right side, then pushing it back up through the material from the wrong side
to complete the stitch; this is called a stab stitch.
 Another option is called a rocking stitch, where the quilter has one hand, usually with a finger wearing a thimble, on top of the quilt, while the other hand is located
beneath the piece to push the needle back up.
The three layers are typically referred to as the top fabric or quilt top, batting or insulating material and the backing.
These quilts, created from silk, wool, and felt, were intended to be both decorative and functional and were found in churches and in the homes of nobility.
 Fabric markers can be used to mark where cuts should be made in the fabric.
 The Prairie Queen block combines two large scale triangles in the corner section with the middle section using four squares.
Paper was a scarce commodity in the early American west so women would save letters from home, postcards, newspaper clippings, and catalogs to use as patterns.
Square knots are used to finish off the ties so that the quilt may be washed and used without fear of the knots coming undone.
The rectangular nature of Japanese cloth articles encouraged rectangle-based patterns.
Beginning with the children’s story Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt (1989), a legend has developed that enslaved people used quilts as a means to share and transmit secret
messages to escape slavery and travel the Underground Railroad.
Quilting is the term given to the process of joining a minimum of three layers of fabric together either through stitching manually using a needle and thread, or mechanically
with a sewing machine or specialised longarm quilting system.
• Shadow trapunto – This involves quilting a design in fine lawn and filling some of the spaces in the pattern with small lengths of colored wool.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/tcfairyqueen/12025042086/’]