• [145] Renaissance and Early Modern period[edit] While reincarnation has been a matter of faith in some communities from an early date it has also frequently been argued for
    on principle, as Plato does when he argues that the number of souls must be finite because souls are indestructible,[146] Benjamin Franklin held a similar view.

  • Judaism[edit] The belief in reincarnation developed among Jewish mystics in the Medieval World, among whom differing explanations were given of the afterlife, although with
    a universal belief in an immortal soul.

  • [59][60] Also referred to as the wheel of existence (Bhavacakra), it is often mentioned in Buddhist texts with the term punarbhava (rebirth, re-becoming).

  • According to various Buddhist scriptures, Gautama Buddha believed in the existence of an afterlife in another world and in reincarnation, Since there actually is another world
    (any world other than the present human one, i.e.

  • [43][44][45] Detailed descriptions first appear around the mid-1st millennium BCE in diverse traditions, including Buddhism, Jainism and various schools of Hindu philosophy,
    each of which gave unique expression to the general principle.

  • Julius Caesar recorded that the druids of Gaul, Britain and Ireland had metempsychosis as one of their core doctrines:[117] The principal point of their doctrine is that the
    soul does not die and that after death it passes from one body into another… the main object of all education is, in their opinion, to imbue their scholars with a firm belief in the indestructibility of the human soul, which, according to
    their belief, merely passes at death from one tenement to another; for by such doctrine alone, they say, which robs death of all its terrors, can the highest form of human courage be developed.

  • [162] Academic psychiatrist and believer in reincarnation, Ian Stevenson, reported that belief in reincarnation is held (with variations in details) by adherents of almost
    all major religions except Christianity and Islam.

  • Emanuel Swedenborg believed that we leave the physical world once, but then go through several lives in the spiritual world—a kind of hybrid of Christian tradition and the
    popular view of reincarnation.

  • Celtic paganism[edit] In the first century BCE Alexander Cornelius Polyhistor wrote: The Pythagorean doctrine prevails among the Gauls’ teaching that the souls of men are
    immortal, and that after a fixed number of years they will enter into another body.

  • Recent scholars have come to see that Plato has multiple reasons for the belief in reincarnation.

  • Reincarnation, also known as rebirth or transmigration, is the philosophical or religious concept that the non-physical essence of a living being begins a new life in a different
    physical form or body after biological death.

  • Thus Buddhism and Hinduism have a very different view on whether a self or soul exists, which impacts the details of their respective rebirth theories.

  • Diodorus also recorded the Gaul belief that human souls were immortal, and that after a prescribed number of years they would commence upon a new life in another body.

  • [165] She noted that although most people “hold their belief in reincarnation quite lightly” and were unclear on the details of their ideas, personal experiences such as past-life
    memories and near-death experiences had influenced most believers, although only a few had direct experience of these phenomena.

  • The beliefs of this group also did not appear to contain any more than usual of “new age” ideas (broadly defined) and the authors interpreted their ideas on reincarnation
    as “one way of tackling issues of suffering”, but noted that this seemed to have little effect on their private lives.

  • In the interviewed group, the belief in the existence of this phenomenon appeared independent of their age, or the type of religion that these people belonged to, with most
    being Christians.

  • [163] One 1999 study by Walter and Waterhouse reviewed the previous data on the level of reincarnation belief and performed a set of thirty in-depth interviews in Britain
    among people who did not belong to a religion advocating reincarnation.

  • [155] By the early 20th century, interest in reincarnation had been introduced into the nascent discipline of psychology, largely due to the influence of William James, who
    raised aspects of the philosophy of mind, comparative religion, the psychology of religious experience and the nature of empiricism.

  • [27][28][29] However, the Buddhist, Hindu and Jain traditions have differed, since ancient times, in their assumptions and in their details on what reincarnates, how reincarnation
    occurs and what leads to liberation.

  • [33] Early Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism[edit] The concepts of the cycle of birth and death, saṁsāra, and liberation partly derive from ascetic traditions that arose in
    India around the middle of the first millennium BCE.

  • [125] Today, reincarnation is an esoteric belief within many streams of modern Judaism.

  • Later Jung would emphasise the importance of the persistence of memory and ego in psychological study of reincarnation: “This concept of rebirth necessarily implies the continuity
    of personality… (that) one is able, at least potentially, to remember that one has lived through previous existences, and that these existences were one’s own….”[155] Hypnosis, used in psychoanalysis for retrieving forgotten memories,
    was eventually tried as a means of studying the phenomenon of past life recall.

  • [139] The followers of Bardaisan of Mesopotamia, a sect of the second century deemed heretical by the Catholic Church, drew upon Chaldean astrology, to which Bardaisan’s son
    Harmonius, educated in Athens, added Greek ideas including a sort of metempsychosis.

  • different rebirth realms), one who holds the view ‘there is no other world’ has wrong view… — Buddha, Majjhima Nikaya i.402, Apannaka Sutta, translated by Peter Harvey[169]
    The Buddha also asserted that karma influences rebirth, and that the cycles of repeated births and deaths are endless.

  • It has been suggested that some of the early Church Fathers, especially Origen, still entertained a belief in the possibility of reincarnation, but evidence is tenuous, and
    the writings of Origen as they have come down to us speak explicitly against it.

  • [129] Christianity[edit] In Greco-Roman thought, the concept of metempsychosis disappeared with the rise of Early Christianity, reincarnation being incompatible with the Christian
    core doctrine of salvation of the faithful after death.

  • At this time popular awareness of the idea of reincarnation was boosted by the Theosophical Society’s dissemination of systematised and universalised Indian concepts and also
    by the influence of magical societies like The Golden Dawn.

  • Reincarnation refers to the belief that an aspect of every human being (or all living beings in some cultures) continues to exist after death.

  • [59][61][62] Buddhist texts also assert that an enlightened person knows his previous births, a knowledge achieved through high levels of meditative concentration.

  • [49] The texts of ancient Jainism that have survived into the modern era are post-Mahavira, likely from the last centuries of the first millennium BCE, and extensively mention
    rebirth and karma doctrines.

  • However, unlike the Orphics, who considered metempsychosis a cycle of grief that could be escaped by attaining liberation from it, Pythagoras seems to postulate an eternal,
    neutral reincarnation where subsequent lives would not be conditioned by any action done in the previous.

  • [120] Nonetheless, he proposed the possibility of an ancient common source, also related to the Orphic religion and Thracian systems of belief.

  • [3][25] The reincarnation concept is considered in Indian religions as a step that starts each “cycle of aimless drifting, wandering or mundane existence”,[3] but one that
    is an opportunity to seek spiritual liberation through ethical living and a variety of meditative, yogic (marga), or other spiritual practices.

  • [13] Many new religious movements include reincarnation among their beliefs, e.g.

  • [21] Rebirth is a key concept found in major Indian religions, and discussed using various terms.

  • [25][41][42] It is in the early Upanishads, which are pre-Buddha and pre-Mahavira, where these ideas are developed and described in a general way.

  • [167] The Indian spiritual teacher Meher Baba who had significant following in the West taught that reincarnation followed from human desire and ceased once a person was freed
    from desire.

  • While Nirvana is taught as the ultimate goal in the Theravadin Buddhism, and is essential to Mahayana Buddhism, the vast majority of contemporary lay Buddhists focus on accumulating
    good karma and acquiring merit to achieve a better reincarnation in the next life.

  • [52] After death, reincarnation into a new body is asserted to be instantaneous in early Jaina texts.

  • [12] In recent decades, many Europeans and North Americans have developed an interest in reincarnation,[13] and many contemporary works mention it.

  • [121][122] However, author T. D. Kendrick rejected a real connection between Pythagoras and the Celtic idea reincarnation, noting their beliefs to have substantial differences,
    and any contact to be historically unlikely.

  • More recently, many people in the West have developed an interest in and acceptance of reincarnation.

  • Some authorities believe that Pythagoras was Pherecydes’ pupil, others that Pythagoras took up the idea of reincarnation from the doctrine of Orphism, a Thracian religion,
    or brought the teaching from India.

  • [105] One argument concerns the theory of reincarnation’s usefulness for explaining why non-human animals exist: they are former humans, being punished for their vices; Plato
    gives this argument at the end of the Timaeus.

  • Such souls may “wander among nations” through multiple lives, until they find their way back to Judaism, including through finding themselves born in a gentile family with
    a “lost” Jewish ancestor.

  • [35][36] Though no direct evidence of this has been found, the tribes of the Ganges valley or the Dravidian traditions of South India have been proposed as another early source
    of reincarnation beliefs.

  • [3][4][5][6] In various forms, it occurs as an esoteric belief in many streams of Judaism, certain pagan religions including Wicca, and some beliefs of the Indigenous peoples
    of the Americas[7] and Indigenous Australians (though most believe in an afterlife or spirit world).

  • “[141][better source needed] European Middle Ages[edit] Around the 11–12th century in Europe, several reincarnationist movements were persecuted as heresies, through the establishment
    of the Inquisition in the Latin west.

  • [68] However, the ancient Vedic rishis challenged this idea of afterlife as simplistic, because people do not live equally moral or immoral lives.

  • The most comprehensive kabbalistic work on reincarnation, Shaar HaGilgulim,[126][127] was written by Chaim Vital, based on the teachings of his mentor, the 16th-century kabbalist
    Isaac Luria, who was said to know the past lives of each person through his semi-prophetic abilities.

  • The Greek Pre-Socratics discussed reincarnation, and the Celtic druids are also reported to have taught a doctrine of reincarnation.

  • [132] Some Christians believe that certain New Testament figures are reincarnations of Old Testament figures.

  • [144] As there is no known Manichaean mythology or terminology in the writings of these groups there has been some dispute among historians as to whether these groups truly
    were descendants of Manichaeism.

  • Plato (428/427–348/347 BCE) presented accounts of reincarnation in his works, particularly the Myth of Er, where Plato makes Socrates tell how Er, the son of Armenius, miraculously
    returned to life on the twelfth day after death and recounted the secrets of the other world.

  • [112] In Roman literature it is found as early as Ennius,[113] who, in a lost passage of his Annals, told how he had seen Homer in a dream, who had assured him that the same
    soul which had animated both the poets had once belonged to a peacock.

  • [55] From the early stages of Jainism on, a human being was considered the highest mortal being, with the potential to achieve liberation, particularly through asceticism.

  • Demographic survey data from 1999 to 2002 shows a significant minority of people from Europe (22%) and America (20%) believe in the existence of life before birth and after
    death, leading to a physical rebirth.

  • Examples include figures from eddic poetry and sagas, potentially by way of a process of naming and/or through the family line.

  • Scholars have discussed the implications of these attestations and proposed theories regarding belief in reincarnation among the Germanic peoples prior to Christianization
    and potentially to some extent in folk belief thereafter.

  • According to this school of thought in Judaism, when non-Jews are drawn to Judaism, it is because they had been Jews in a former life.

  • This asserts that the nature of existence is a “suffering-laden cycle of life, death, and rebirth, without beginning or end”.

  • The practice of conversion to Judaism is sometimes understood within Orthodox Judaism in terms of reincarnation.

  • [11] The historical relations between these sects and the beliefs about reincarnation that were characteristic of Neoplatonism, Orphism, Hermeticism, Manichaenism, and Gnosticism
    of the Roman era as well as the Indian religions have been the subject of recent scholarly research.

  • [128] There is an extensive literature of Jewish folk and traditional stories that refer to reincarnation.

  • [59][67] Rationale[edit] The earliest layers of Vedic text incorporate the concept of life, followed by an afterlife in heaven and hell based on cumulative virtues (merit)
    or vices (demerit).

  • [75] They also emphasize similar virtuous practices and karma as necessary for liberation and what influences future rebirths.

  • [95][98][99] Classical antiquity[edit] See also: Metempsychosis A second-century Roman sarcophagus shows the mythology and symbolism of the Orphic and Dionysiac Mystery schools.


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et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0158-5, p. 63, Quote: “The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction
between Hinduism and Buddhism”.
89. ^ Bruce M. Sullivan (1997). Historical Dictionary of Hinduism. Scarecrow. pp. 235–236 (See: Upanishads). ISBN 978-0-8108-3327-2.
90. ^ Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007). A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition. State
University of New York Press. pp. 119–122, 162–180, 194–195. ISBN 978-0-7914-7082-4.
91. ^ Kalupahana, David J. (1992). The Principles of Buddhist Psychology. Delhi: ri Satguru Publications. pp. 38–39.
92. ^ G Obeyesekere (1980). Wendy Doniger
(ed.). Karma and Rebirth in Classical Indian Traditions. University of California Press. pp. 137–141. ISBN 978-0-520-03923-0.
93. ^ Libby Ahluwalia (2008). Understanding Philosophy of Religion. Folens. pp. 243–249. ISBN 978-1-85008-274-3.
94. ^
Harold Coward; Julius Lipner; Katherine K. Young (1989). Hindu Ethics. State University of New York Press. pp. 85–94. ISBN 978-0-88706-764-8.
95. ^ Jump up to:a b Naomi Appleton (2014). Narrating Karma and Rebirth: Buddhist and Jain Multi-Life Stories.
Cambridge University Press. pp. 76–89. ISBN 978-1-139-91640-0.
96. ^ Kristi L. Wiley (2004). Historical Dictionary of Jainism. Scarecrow. p. 91. ISBN 978-0-8108-5051-4.
97. ^ Kristi L. Wiley (2004). Historical Dictionary of Jainism. Scarecrow.
pp. 10–12, 111–112, 119. ISBN 978-0-8108-5051-4.
98. ^ Gananath Obeyesekere (2006). Karma and Rebirth: A Cross Cultural Study. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 107–108. ISBN 978-81-208-2609-0.;
Kristi L. Wiley (2004). Historical Dictionary of Jainism.
Scarecrow. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-0-8108-5051-4.
99. ^ John E. Cort (2001). Jains in the World: Religious Values and Ideology in India. Oxford University Press. pp. 118–123. ISBN 978-0-19-803037-9.
100. ^ Schibli, S., Hermann, Pherekydes of Syros,
p. 104, Oxford Univ. Press 2001
101. ^ “The dates of his life cannot be fixed exactly, but assuming the approximate correctness of the statement of Aristoxenus (ap. Porph. V.P. 9) that he left Samos to escape the tyranny of Polycrates at the age
of forty, we may put his birth round about 570 BCE, or a few years earlier. The length of his life was variously estimated in antiquity, but it is agreed that he lived to a fairly ripe old age, and most probably he died at about seventy-five or eighty.”
William Keith Chambers Guthrie, (1978), A history of Greek philosophy, Volume 1: The earlier Presocratics and the Pythagoreans, p. 173. Cambridge University Press
102. ^ The Dialogues of Plato (Benjamin Jowett trans., 1875 ed), vol. 2, p. 125
103. ^
The Dialogues of Plato (Benjamin Jowett trans., 1875 ed), vol. 1, p. 282
104. ^ See Kamtekar 2016 for a discussion of how Plato’s view of reincarnation changes across texts, especially concerning the existence of a distinct reward-or-punishment
phase between lives.
105. ^ See Campbell 2022 for more on why Plato believes in reincarnation.
106. ^ See Timaeus 90–92.
107. ^ Linforth, Ivan M. (1941) The Arts of Orpheus Arno Press, New York, OCLC 514515
108. ^ Long, Herbert S. (1948) A
Study of the doctrine of metempsychosis in Greece, from Pythagoras to Plato (Long’s 1942 Ph.D. dissertation) Princeton, New Jersey, OCLC 1472399
109. ^ Long, Herbert S. (1948). “Plato’s Doctrine of Metempsychosis and Its Source”. The Classical
Weekly. 41 (10): 149–155. doi:10.2307/4342414. JSTOR 4342414. ProQuest 1296280468.
110. ^ Leonid Zhmud (2012). Pythagoras and the Early Pythagoreans. OUP Oxford. pp. 232–233. ISBN 978-0-19-928931-8.
111. ^ Menander, The Inspired Woman
112. ^
Lucian, Gallus, 18 et seq.
113. ^ Poesch, Jessie (1962) “Ennius and Basinio of Parma” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 25(1/2):116–118 [117 n15].
114. ^ Lucretius, (i. 124)
115. ^ Horace, Epistles, II. i. 52
116. ^ Virgil, The
Aeneid, vv. 724 et seq.
117. ^ Julius Caesar, “De Bello Gallico”, VI
118. ^ T. Rice Holmes (1903). Caesar’s Conquest of Gaul: An Historical Narrative.
119. ^ Kendrick, T.D. (2003) [1927]. Druids and Druidism. Dover. p. 106. ISBN 0-486-42719-6.
120. ^
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121. ^ Kendrick 2003, p. 105.
122. ^ Robin Melrose (2014). The Druids and King Arthur: A New View of Early Britain. McFarland. ISBN 978-07-864600-5-2.
123. ^ Kendrick 2003, p. 109.
124. ^ Essential Judaism:
A Complete Guide to Beliefs, Customs & Rituals, By George Robinson, Simon and Schuster 2008, p. 193
125. ^ The Book of Beliefs and Opinions, chap. VIII
126. ^ “Mind in the Balance: Meditation in Science, Buddhism, and Christianity”, p. 104, by
B. Alan Wallace
127. ^ “Between Worlds: Dybbuks, Exorcists, and Early Modern Judaism”, p. 190, by J. H. Chajes
128. ^ Jewish Tales of Reincarnation, By Yonasson Gershom, Yonasson Gershom, Jason Aronson, Incorporated, 31 January 2000
129. ^ Yonasson
Gershom (1999), Jewish Tales of Reincarnation. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson. ISBN 0-7657-6083-5
130. ^ The book Reincarnation in Christianity, by the theosophist Geddes MacGregor (1978) asserted that Origen believed in reincarnation. MacGregor is
convinced that Origen believed in and taught about reincarnation but that his texts written about the subject have been destroyed. He admits that there is no extant proof for that position. The allegation was also repeated by Shirley MacLaine in her
book Out On a Limb. Origen does discuss the concept of transmigration (metensomatosis) from Greek philosophy, but it is repeatedly stated that this concept is not a part of the Christian teaching or scripture in his Comment on the Gospel of Matthew
(which survives only in a sixth-century Latin translatio): “In this place [when Jesus said Elijah was come and referred to John the Baptist] it does not appear to me that by Elijah the soul is spoken of, lest I fall into the doctrine of transmigration,
which is foreign to the Church of God, and not handed down by the apostles, nor anywhere set forth in the scriptures” (13:1:46–53, see Commentary on Matthew, Book XIII
131. ^ Hebrews 9:27
132. ^ Jump up to:a b “Biblical Accounts that Suggest Reincarnation”.
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133. ^ “Who Was Jesus Before the Last Incarnation?”. 9 January 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2023.
134. ^ “CCC – PART 1 SECTION 2 CHAPTER 3 ARTICLE 11”. Retrieved 23
May 2012.
135. ^ “Army of Mary Doctrinal Note”. Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
136. ^ “Army of Mary / Community of the Lady of All Peoples – WRSP”. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
137. ^ Pius X (4 September
1904). “Pius X, Tribus Circiter (05/04/1906)”. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
138. ^ “Archived copy” (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 May 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
139. ^ Much of this is documented in R.E. Slater’s book Paradise
140. ^ Richard Foltz, Religions of the Silk Road, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010
141. ^ Zhuangzi (1889). Chuang Tzŭ: Mystic, Moralist, and Social Reformer (translated by Herbert Allen Giles). Bernard Quaritch. p. 304.
142. ^
“”. 1 February 1911. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
143. ^ Steven Runciman, The Medieval Manichee: A Study of the Christian Dualist Heresy, 1982, ISBN 0-521-28926-2, Cambridge University Press, The Bogomils
144. ^ For example
Dondaine, Antoine. O.P. Un traite neo-manicheen du XIIIe siecle: Le Liber de duobus principiis, suivi d’un fragment de rituel Cathare (Rome: Institutum Historicum Fratrum Praedicatorum, 1939)
145. ^ “”. 1 March 1907.
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146. ^ “the souls must always be the same, for if none be destroyed they will not diminish in number”. Republic X, 611. The Republic of Plato By Plato, Benjamin Jowett Edition: 3 Published by Clarendon press, 1888.
147. ^
In a letter to his friend George Whatley written 23 May 1785: Kennedy, Jennifer T. (2001). “Death Effects: Revisiting the Conceit of Franklin’s “Memoir””. Early American Literature. 36 (2): 201–234. doi:10.1353/eal.2001.0016. JSTOR 25057231. S2CID
148. ^ Marsilio Ficino, Platonic Theology, 17.3–4
149. ^ “Again, Rosalind in “As You Like It” (Act III., Scene 2), says: I was never so be-rhimed that I can remember since Pythagoras’s time, when I was an Irish rat”—alluding to the
doctrine of the transmigration of souls.” William H. Grattan Flood, quoted at Archived 2009-04-21 at the Wayback Machine
150. ^ Boulting, 1914. pp. 163–164
151. ^ “Swedenborg and Life Recap: Do We Reincarnate? 3/6/2017”. Swedenborg
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152. ^ Jump up to:a b Berger, Arthur S.; Berger, Joyce (1991). The Encyclopedia of Parapsychology and Psychical Research. Paragon House Publishers. ISBN 1-55778-043-9.
153. ^ Schopenhauer,
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154. ^ Nietzsche and the Doctrine of Metempsychosis, in J. Urpeth & J. Lippitt, Nietzsche and the Divine, Manchester: Clinamen, 2000
155. ^ Jump up to:a b “”. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
156. ^ David Hammerman, Lisa Lenard, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Reincarnation, Penguin, p. 34. For relevant works by James, see; William James, Human
Immortality: Two Supposed Objections to the Doctrine (the Ingersoll Lecture, 1897), The Will to Believe, Human Immortality (1956) Dover Publications, ISBN 0-486-20291-7, The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature (1902), ISBN 0-14-039034-0,
Essays in Radical Empiricism (1912) Dover Publications 2003, ISBN 0-486-43094-4
157. ^ Richmal Crompton, More William, George Newnes, London, 1924, XIII. William and the Ancient Souls Archived 2012-05-29 at the Wayback Machine; “The memory usually
came in a flash. For instance, you might remember in a flash when you were looking at a box of matches that you had been Guy Fawkes.”
158. ^ Marquis, “Archy and Mehitabel” (1927)
159. ^ Théodore Flournoy, Des Indes à la planète Mars Archived 2009-12-01
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164. ^ Walter, Tony; Waterhouse, Helen
(1999). “A Very Private Belief: Reincarnation in Contemporary England”. Sociology of Religion. 60 (2): 187–197. doi:10.2307/3711748. JSTOR 3711748.
165. ^ Waterhouse, H. (1999). “Reincarnation belief in Britain: New age orientation or mainstream
option?”. Journal of Contemporary Religion. 14 (1): 97–109. doi:10.1080/13537909908580854.
166. ^ “Unity Magazine November 1938 – Reincarnation | Truth Unity”. Retrieved 20 February 2023.
167. ^ “Being at One: Neale Donald
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168. ^ Baba, Meher (1967), Discourses Archived 2018-07-08 at the Wayback Machine, Volume III, Sufism Reoriented, 1967, ISBN 1-880619-09-1, p. 96.
169. ^ Jump
up to:a b c Peter Harvey (2012). An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. pp. 32–33, 38–39, 46–49. ISBN 978-0-521-85942-4.
170. ^ Ronald Wesley Neufeldt (1986). Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical
Developments. State University of New York Press. pp. 123–131. ISBN 978-0-87395-990-2.
171. ^ Ray Billington (2002). Understanding Eastern Philosophy. Routledge. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-134-79348-8.
172. ^ Ray Billington (2002). Understanding Eastern
Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 43–44, 58–60. ISBN 978-1-134-79349-5.
173. ^ Jump up to:a b Keown, Damien (2004). A Dictionary of Buddhism (Articles titled ucchedavāda, śāśvata-vāda, rebirth). Oxford University Press. pp. 80, 162, 225, 255, 315. ISBN
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175. ^ Kalupahana, David J. (1975). Causality: The Central Philosophy of Buddhism. University Press of Hawaii. pp. 115–119. ISBN 978-0-8248-0298-1.
176. ^ Peter Harvey (2012). An Introduction
to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices. Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–62. ISBN 978-0-521-85942-4.
177. ^ Oliver Leaman (2002). Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings. Routledge. pp. 23–27. ISBN 978-1-134-68919-4.
178. ^ Malcolm B. Hamilton
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179. ^ Raju, P. T. (1985). Structural Depths of Indian Thought. State University of New York Press. pp. 147–151. ISBN 978-0-88706-139-4.
180. ^
McClelland 2010, p. 89;
Hugh Nicholson (2016). The Spirit of Contradiction in Christianity and Buddhism. Oxford University Press. pp. 23–25. ISBN 978-0-19-045534-7.
181. ^ Rahula, Walpola (1990). What the Buddha Taught. London: Gordon Fraser. p.
182. ^ Trainor 2004, p. 58, Quote: “Buddhism shares with Hinduism the doctrine of Samsara, whereby all beings pass through an unceasing cycle of birth, death and rebirth until they find a means of liberation from the cycle. However, Buddhism
differs from Hinduism in rejecting the assertion that every human being possesses a changeless soul which constitutes his or her ultimate identity, and which transmigrates from one incarnation to the next..
183. ^ Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S.
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184. ^ (M.1.256) “Post-Classical Developments in the Concepts of Karma and Rebirth in Theravada Buddhism.” by Bruce Matthews.
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185. ^ Collins, Steven. Selfless persons: imagery and thought in Theravāda Buddhism Cambridge University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-521-39726-X
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186. ^ (D.3.105) “Post-Classical Developments in the Concepts of Karma and Rebirth in Theravada Buddhism. by Bruce Matthews. in Karma and Rebirth: Post-Classical Developments State
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187. ^ Kalupahana 1975, p. 83.
188. ^ William H. Swatos; Peter Kivisto (1998). Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Rowman Altamira. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7619-8956-1.
189. ^ His Holiness the
Dalai Lama, How to Practice: The Way to a Meaningful Life (New York: Atria Books, 2002), p. 46
190. ^ Bruce Matthews in Ronald Wesley Neufeldt, editor, Karma and Rebirth: Post Classical Developments. SUNY Press, 1986, p. 125. Archived
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191. ^ Peter Harvey, The Selfless Mind. Curzon Press 1995, p. 247.
192. ^ Robert E. Buswell Jr.; Donald S. Lopez Jr. (2013). The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. pp. 49–50, 708–709.
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193. ^ The Connected Discourses of the Buddha. A Translation of the Samyutta Nikaya, Bhikkhu Bodhi, Translator. Wisdom Publications. Sutta 44.9
194. ^ Karma-gliṅ-pa; Chogyam Trungpa; Francesca Fremantle (2000). The Tibetan
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197. ^ Trainor 2004, pp. 62–63.
198. ^ McClelland 2010, p. 281.
199. ^ Warner, Brad (2005), Hardcore Zen, Wisdom Publications,
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200. ^ Transform Your Life: A Blissful Journey, p. 52), Tharpa Publications (2001, US ed. 2007) ISBN 978-0-9789067-4-0
201. ^ 1Peter 3:18–20
202. ^ Matthew 14:1–2
203. ^ “Text analysis of Matthew 14:2 with parallel
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204. ^ ANALYSIS (9 December 2009). “”. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
205. ^ “”. Archived
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206. ^ Rudolf Frieling, Christianity and Reincarnation, Floris Books 2015
207. ^ Mark Albrecht, Reincarnation, a Christian Appraisal, InterVarsity Press, 1982
208. ^ Lynn A. De Silva,
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209. ^ Cranston, Sylvia (1990). Reincarnation in Christianity: A New Vision of the Role of Rebirth in Christian Thought (Quest Books) (9780835605014):
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210. ^ The Big Book of Reincarnation, by Roy Stemman, p. 14
211. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Church Fathers: Letter 124 (Jerome)”.
212. ^ Jump up to:a b “Corpus Corporum”.
213. ^ Jump up to:a b Cross, F. L., and Elizabeth A. Livingstone. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Second Edition). New York: Oxford University Press, 1984. p. 1009.
214. ^ Bjorling, J. (2013). Reincarnation: A Bibliography.
Sects and Cults in America (in German). Taylor & Francis. p. 96. ISBN 978-1-136-51133-2. Retrieved 27 June 2023.
215. ^ Augustine of Hippo (1913). The Works of Aurelius Augustine, Bishop of Hippo. Vol. I: The city of God. Translated by Marcus Dods.
Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark. pp. 508–509. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 25 December 2018 – via Internet Archive.
216. ^ Seabrook, W. B., Adventures in Arabia, Harrap and Sons 1928, (chapters on Druze religion)
217. ^ Jump
up to:a b Dwairy, Marwan (March 2006). “The Psychosocial Function Of Reincarnation Among Druze In Israel”. Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry. 30 (1): 29–53. doi:10.1007/s11013-006-9007-1. PMID 16721673. S2CID 9132055.
218. ^ Lewis, James (2002).
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219. ^ Jump up to:a b Juergensmeyer & Roof 2011, p. 272.
220. ^ Fowler, Jeaneane D. (1997). Hinduism: Practices and Beliefs. Sussex Academic Press. p. 10.
221. ^
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222. ^ Christopher Chapple (1986), Karma and creativity, State University of New York Press, ISBN 0-88706-251-2, pp. 60–64
223. ^ Fowler 1997, p. 11.
224. ^ Jump up to:a b Julius Lipner (2012). Hindus: Their Religious Beliefs
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