• Tracked wheels behave as if they were made of hundreds of wheels, therefore are very common for outdoor and military robots, where the robot must drive on very rough terrain.

  • Pick and place robots for electronic components and for large objects like car windscreens, often use very simple vacuum end-effectors.

  • Such an integrated robotic system is called a “welding robot” even though its discrete manipulator unit could be adapted to a variety of tasks.

  • These can have certain advantages such as greater efficiency and reduced parts, as well as allowing a robot to navigate in confined places that a four-wheeled robot would
    not be able to.

  • The electrical aspect of robots is used for movement (through motors), sensing (where electrical signals are used to measure things like heat, sound, position, and energy
    status), and operation (robots need some level of electrical energy supplied to their motors and sensors in order to activate and perform basic operations) 3.

  • Using this technique, a robot need only supply a small amount of motor power to walk along a flat surface or a little more to walk up a hill.

  • [76] Dynamic balancing (controlled falling)[edit] A more advanced way for a robot to walk is by using a dynamic balancing algorithm, which is potentially more robust than
    the Zero Moment Point technique, as it constantly monitors the robot’s motion, and places the feet in order to maintain stability.

  • Two-wheeled balancing robots[edit] Balancing robots generally use a gyroscope to detect how much a robot is falling and then drive the wheels proportionally in the same direction,
    to counterbalance the fall at hundreds of times per second, based on the dynamics of an inverted pendulum.

  • [66] Many other robots have been built that walk on more than two legs, due to these robots being significantly easier to construct.

  • Thus the functional end of a robot arm intended to make the effect (whether a hand, or tool) are often referred to as end effectors,[42] while the “arm” is referred to as
    a manipulator.

  • It is perhaps more appropriate to view devices controlled primarily by human commands as falling in the discipline of automation rather than robotics.

  • [97] Capuchin, a climbing robot Climbing[edit] Several different approaches have been used to develop robots that have the ability to climb vertical surfaces.

  • Scientists from several European countries and Israel developed a prosthetic hand in 2009, called SmartHand, which functions like a real one —allowing patients to write with
    it, type on a keyboard, play piano, and perform other fine movements.

  • There are different mechanisms of operation; one type uses the vibration of the piezo elements to step the motor in a circle or a straight line.

  • Therefore, many researchers studying underwater robots would like to copy this type of locomotion.

  • In the caterpillar track example, a robot that needs to move across a muddy road may have the correct mechanical construction and receive the correct amount of power from
    its battery, but would not be able to go anywhere without a program telling it to move.

  • General purpose effectors[edit] Some advanced robots are beginning to use fully humanoid hands, like the Shadow Hand, MANUS,[50] and the Schunk hand.

  • Some researchers have tried to create more complex wheeled robots with only one or two wheels.

  • [23] This work is of particular importance as it drives the non-conservative passivity bounds in an SEA scheme for the first time which allows a larger selection of control

  • This technique promises to make walking robots at least ten times more efficient than ZMP walkers, like ASIMO.

  • Funded by DARPA, NASA, the United States Air Force, and the Georgia Tech Research Institute and patented by Prof. Robert C. Michelson for covert terrestrial missions as well
    as flight in the lower Mars atmosphere, the Entomopter flight propulsion system uses low Reynolds number wings similar to those of the hawk moth (Manduca sexta), but flaps them in a non-traditional “opposed x-wing fashion” while “blowing”
    the surface to enhance lift based on the Coandă effect as well as to control vehicle attitude and direction.

  • Linear actuators[edit] Main article: Linear actuator Various types of linear actuators move in and out instead of by spinning, and often have quicker direction changes, particularly
    when very large forces are needed such as with industrial robotics.

  • Many different types of batteries can be used as a power source for robots.

  • [67][68] Walking robots can be used for uneven terrains, which would provide better mobility and energy efficiency than other locomotion methods.

  • However, such designs are often mechanically complex and need fuel, require heat dissipation, and are relatively heavy.

  • The first build, iSplash-I (2014) was the first robotic platform to apply a full-body length carangiform swimming motion which was found to increase swimming speed by 27%
    over the traditional approach of a posterior confined waveform.

  • Mechanical construction: a frame, form or shape designed to achieve a particular task.

  • Even petrol-powered machines that get their power mainly from petrol still require an electric current to start the combustion process which is why most petrol-powered machines
    like cars, have batteries.

  • For example, the robot with caterpillar tracks would need some kind of power to move the tracker treads.

  • [108] Sailing[edit] The autonomous sailboat robot Vaimos Sailboat robots have also been developed in order to make measurements at the surface of the ocean.

  • Robots that use artificial intelligence interact with their environment on their own without a control source, and can determine reactions to objects and problems they encounter
    using their preexisting programming.

  • Waste gas from the propulsion system not only facilitates the blown wing aerodynamics, but also serves to create ultrasonic emissions like that of a Bat for obstacle avoidance.

  • These work on a fundamentally different principle, whereby tiny piezoceramic elements, vibrating many thousands of times per second, cause linear or rotary motion.

  • [22] One recent study has derived the necessary and sufficient passivity conditions for one of the most common impedance control architectures, namely velocity-sourced SEA.

  • They are used for various forms of measurements, to give the robots warnings about safety or malfunctions, and to provide real-time information about the task it is performing.

  • Manipulation[edit] KUKA industrial robot operating in a foundry Puma, one of the first industrial robots Baxter, a modern and versatile industrial robot developed by Rodney
    Brooks Lefty, first checker playing robot Further information: Mobile manipulator A definition of robotic manipulation has been provided by Matt Mason as: “manipulation refers to an agent’s control of its environment through selective contact”.

  • Programs are the core essence of a robot, it could have excellent mechanical and electrical construction, but if its program is poorly structured, its performance will be
    very poor (or it may not perform at all).

  • This has the advantage of saving weight and space by moving all power generation and storage components elsewhere.

  • [2] The mechanical aspect of the robot is mostly the creator’s solution to completing the assigned task and dealing with the physics of the environment around it.

  • Mimicking the way real snakes move, these robots can navigate very confined spaces, meaning they may one day be used to search for people trapped in collapsed buildings.

  • [44] Mechanical grippers[edit] One of the most common types of end-effectors are “grippers”.

  • [24][25][26] Wire muscles[edit] Main article: Shape memory alloy Muscle wire, also known as shape memory alloy, Nitinol® or Flexinol® wire, is a material that contracts (under
    5%) when electricity is applied.

  • This approach has successfully been employed in various robots, particularly advanced manufacturing robots[18] and walking humanoid robots.

  • [101] Furthermore, they can accelerate and maneuver far better than any man-made boat or submarine, and produce less noise and water disturbance.

  • Suction is a highly used type of end-effector in industry, in part because the natural compliance of soft suction end-effectors can enable a robot to be more robust in the
    presence of imperfect robotic perception.

  • A robot with remote control programming has a preexisting set of commands that it will only perform if and when it receives a signal from a control source, typically a human
    being with remote control.

  • There are three different types of robotic programs: remote control, artificial intelligence, and hybrid.

  • Passive dynamics[edit] Main article: Passive dynamics Perhaps the most promising approach uses passive dynamics where the momentum of swinging limbs is used for greater efficiency.

  • [80][81] Other methods of locomotion[edit] Flying[edit] A modern passenger airliner is essentially a flying robot, with two humans to manage it.

  • The autopilot can control the plane for each stage of the journey, including takeoff, normal flight, and even landing.

  • Robots have been increasingly used in manufacturing since the 1960s.

  • Touch[edit] Main article: Tactile sensor Current robotic and prosthetic hands receive far less tactile information than the human hand.

  • UAVs are also being developed which can fire on targets automatically, without the need for a command from a human.

  • They have been used for some small robot applications.

  • One approach mimics the movements of a human climber on a wall with protrusions; adjusting the center of mass and moving each limb in turn to gain leverage.

  • As an example: consider the case of a robot vision system that estimates the position of a water bottle but has 1 centimeter of error.

  • The robot’s onboard computer tries to keep the total inertial forces (the combination of Earth’s gravity and the acceleration and deceleration of walking), exactly opposed
    by the floor reaction force (the force of the floor pushing back on the robot’s foot).

  • For example, a robot designed to travel across heavy dirt or mud might use caterpillar tracks.

  • The Entomopter and other biologically-inspired robots leverage features of biological systems, but do not attempt to create mechanical analogs.

  • They range from lead–acid batteries, which are safe and have relatively long shelf lives but are rather heavy compared to silver–cadmium batteries which are much smaller in
    volume and are currently much more expensive.

  • [56] Because of the long, thin shape and ability to maneuver in tight spaces, they have the potential to function better than other robots in environments with people.

  • Designing a battery-powered robot needs to take into account factors such as safety, cycle lifetime, and weight.

  • Several robots have been made which can walk reliably on two legs, however, none have yet been made which are as robust as a human.

  • The researchers expect that an important function of such artificial fingertips will be adjusting the robotic grip on held objects.

  • However, this design does come with the drawback of constantly having a cable connected to the robot, which can be difficult to manage.

  • That power comes in the form of electricity, which will have to travel through a wire and originate from a battery, a basic electrical circuit.

  • Initially, a robot with only one leg, and a very small foot could stay upright simply by hopping.

  • [43] Most robot arms have replaceable end-effectors, each allowing them to perform some small range of tasks.


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