Different species hybridize easily, and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses.
• Platyrhodon (from the Greek for “flaky rose”, referring to flaky bark) with one species from east Asia, Rosa roxburghii (also known as the chestnut rose).
The leaves and washed roots are also sometimes used to make tea.
Uses Roses are best known as ornamental plants grown for their flowers in the garden and sometimes indoors.
 Among the old Chinese garden roses, the Old Blush group is the most primitive, while newer groups are the most diverse.
 In France, there is much use of rose syrup, most commonly made from an extract of rose petals.
In temperate climates, cut roses are often grown in greenhouses, and in warmer countries they may also be grown under cover in order to ensure that the flowers are not damaged
by weather and that pest and disease control can be carried out effectively.
In the 19th century, for example, artists associated the city of Trieste with a certain rare white rose, and this rose developed as the city’s symbol.
Each petal is divided into two distinct lobes and is usually white or pink, though in a few species yellow or red.
Cut flowers Roses are a popular crop for both domestic and commercial cut flowers.
 In pre-modern medicine, diarrhodon (Gr διάρροδον, “compound of roses”, from ῥόδων, “of roses”) is a name given to various compounds in which red roses are an ingredient.
 The second-century AD Greek travel writer Pausanias associates the rose with the story of Adonis and states that the rose is red because Aphrodite wounded herself
on one of its thorns and stained the flower red with her blood.
The aggregate fruit of the rose is a berry-like structure called a rose hip.
A sweet preserve of rose petals called gulkand is common in the Indian subcontinent.
In other parts of the world Rosa × centifolia is commonly used.
o Laevigatae – a single white flowered species from China.
 Species The genus Rosa is composed of 140–180 species and divided into four subgenera: • Hulthemia (formerly Simplicifoliae, meaning “with single leaves”) containing
two species from southwest Asia, Rosa persica and Rosa berberifolia, which are the only roses without compound leaves or stipules.
 They form a group of plants that can be erect shrubs, climbing, or trailing, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles.
 Species, cultivars and hybrids are all widely grown for their beauty and often are fragrant.
The flowers of most species have five petals, with the exception of Rosa sericea, which usually has only four.
Rose hips are also used to produce rose hip seed oil, which is used in skin products and some makeup products.
 Their flowers vary in size and shape and are usually large and showy, in colours ranging from white through yellows and reds.
The weight of oil extracted is about one three-thousandth to one six-thousandth of the weight of the flowers; for example, about two thousand flowers are required to produce
one gram of oil.
Under the American Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, there are only certain Rosa species, varieties, and parts are listed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).
 Today’s garden roses come from 18th-century China.
Perfume Rose perfumes are made from rose oil (also called attar of roses), which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of
 Medicine The rose hip, usually from R. canina, is used as a minor source of vitamin C. The fruits of many species have significant levels of vitamins and have been used
as a food supplement.
Some species such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia have densely packed straight prickles, probably an adaptation to reduce browsing by animals, but also possibly an
adaptation to trap wind-blown sand and so reduce erosion and protect their roots (both of these species grow naturally on coastal sand dunes).
 Framed print after 1908 painting by Henry Payne of the scene in the Temple Garden, where supporters of the rival factions in the Wars of the Roses pick either red
or white roses Ever since the 1400s, the Franciscans have had a Crown Rosary of the Seven Joys of the Blessed Virgin Mary.
These may be long enough to be visible when viewed from above and appear as green points alternating with the rounded petals.
 It is estimated that 30 to 35 thousand rose hybrids and cultivars have been bred and selected for garden use as flowering plants.
Art and symbolism Main article: Rose (symbolism) The long cultural history of the rose has led to it being used often as a symbol.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/husseinabdallah/2087981909/’]