• For many sailing craft, the arc spanning 45° on either side of the wind is a “no-go” zone,[57] where a sail is unable to mobilize power from the wind.

  • [58] Consequently, a sailboat experiences a wider range of apparent wind angles than does an ice boat, whose speed is typically great enough to have the apparent wind coming
    from a few degrees to one side of its course, necessitating sailing with the sail sheeted in for most points of sail.

  • [16] Coastal top-sail schooners with a crew as small as two managing the sail handling became an efficient way to carry bulk cargo, since only the fore-sails required tending
    while tacking and steam-driven machinery was often available for raising the sails and the anchor.

  • Even into the twentieth century, sailing ships could hold their own on transoceanic voyages such as Australia to Europe, since they did not require bunkerage for coal nor
    fresh water for steam, and they were faster than the early steamers, which usually could barely make 8 knots (15 km/h).

  • This results both in a reduced sail area but also in a lower centre of effort from the sails, reducing the heeling moment and keeping the boat more upright.

  • [55][56] Navigation Point of sail[edit] Further information: Point of sail A sailing craft’s ability to derive power from the wind depends on the point of sail it is on—the
    direction of travel under sail in relation to the true wind direction over the surface.

  • [33] Cruising on a sailing yacht may be either near-shore or passage-making out of sight of land and entails the use of sailboats that support sustained overnight use.

  • In the early 1800s, fast blockade-running schooners and brigantines—Baltimore Clippers—evolved into three-masted, typically ship-rigged sailing vessels with fine lines that
    enhanced speed, but lessened capacity for high-value cargo, like tea from China.

  • Conventional sailing craft cannot derive wind power on a course with a point of sail that is too close into the wind.

  • Fore-and-aft sails with booms, gaffs or sprits are unstable when the free end points into the eye of the wind and must be controlled to avoid a violent change to the other
    side; square rigs as they present the full area of the sail to the wind from the rear experience little change of operation from one tack to the other; and windsurfers again have flexibly pivoting and fully rotating masts that get flipped
    from side to side.

  • Sailing employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, raft, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice
    (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation.

  • [73] Local temporary wind shifts are called lifts, when they improve the sailing craft’s ability travel along its rhumb line in the direction of the next waypoint.

  • [68] Changing tack by tacking[edit] Further information: Tacking (sailing) § For various sailing craft Two sailing yachts on opposite tacks Tacking or coming about is a maneuver
    by which a sailing craft turns its bow into and through the wind (referred to as “the eye of the wind”[69]) so that the apparent wind changes from one side to the other, allowing progress on the opposite tack.

  • [74]: 97  • Currents – On a global scale, vessels making long voyages must take major ocean current circulation into account.

  • • Reducing sail • Adjusting the depth of underwater foils to control their lateral resistance force and center of resistance Helm force[edit] The alignment of center of force
    of the sails with center of resistance of the hull and its appendices controls whether the craft will track straight with little steering input, or whether correction needs to be made to hold it away from turning into the wind (a weather helm)
    or turning away from the wind (a lee helm).

  • On conventional sailboats, the sails are set to create lift for those points of sail where it’s possible to align the leading edge of the sail with the apparent wind.

  • [77] Towards the end of the Age of Sail, steam-powered machinery reduced the number of crew required to trim sail.

  • Ice boats typically have the least resistance to forward motion of any sailing craft.

  • As the boat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind becomes smaller and the lateral component becomes less; boat speed is highest on the beam reach.

  • In points of sail from a broad reach to down wind, sails act substantially like a parachute, with drag predominantly propelling the craft.

  • In points of sail that range from close-hauled to a broad reach, sails act substantially like a wing, with lift predominantly propelling the craft.

  • However, a variety of sailing craft can achieve a higher downwind velocity made good by traveling on a series of broad reaches, punctuated by jibes in between.

  • [59] Effect of apparent wind on sailing craft at three points of sail Sailing craft A is close-hauled.

  • [79] On downwind points of sail, power is achieved primarily with the wind pushing on the sail, as indicated by drooping tell-tales.

  • Changing tack by jibing[edit] Further information: Jibe § For various sailing craft Jibing or gybing is a sailing maneuver by which a sailing craft turns its stern past the
    eye of the wind so that the apparent wind changes from one side to the other, allowing progress on the opposite tack.

  • • Wind – On a global scale, vessels making long voyages must take atmospheric circulation into account, which causes zones of westerlies, easterlies, trade winds and high-pressure
    zones with light winds, sometimes called horse latitudes, in between.

  • On a given course, the sails are set to an angle that optimizes the development of wind power, as determined by the apparent wind, which is the wind as sensed from a moving

  • There are three common methods of reefing the mainsail:[80][81] • Slab reefing, which involves lowering the sail by about one-quarter to one-third of its full length and tightening
    the lower part of the sail using an outhaul or a pre-loaded reef line through a cringle at the new clew, and hook through a cringle at the new tack.

  • For craft with little forward resistance, such as ice boats and land yachts, this transition occurs further off the wind than for sailboats and sailing ships.

  • Naval power in this period used sail to varying degrees depending on the current technology, culminating in the gun-armed sailing warships of the Age of Sail.

  • On points of sail between close-hauled and a broad reach, the goal is typically to create flow along the sail to maximize power through lift.

  • [67] Fore-and-aft rigs are designed to operate with the wind on either side, whereas square rigs and kites are designed to have the wind come from one side of the sail only.

  • [61] Course under sail[edit] Atmospheric circulation, showing wind direction at various latitudes Wind circulation around an occluded front in the Northern Hemisphere Wind
    and currents are important factors to plan on for both offshore and inshore sailing.

  • [22] Naval power[edit] Further information: Sailing ship tactics Until the general adoption of carvel-built ships that relied on an internal skeleton structure to bear the
    weight of the ship and for gun ports to be cut in the side, sailing ships were just vehicles for delivering fighters to the enemy for engagement.

  • Negotiating obstructions or a channel may also require a change of direction with respect to the wind, necessitating changing of tack with the wind on the opposite side of
    the craft, from before.

  • This combination of forces means that it is possible to sail an upwind course as well as downwind.

  • As the boat points off the wind, lateral force and the forces required to resist it become less important.

  • Downwind, certain high-performance sailing craft can reach the destination more quickly by following a zig-zag route on a series of broad reaches.

  • [28] Modern applications While the use of sailing vessels for commerce or naval power has been supplanted with engine-driven vessels, there continue to be commercial operations
    that take passengers on sailing cruises.

  • From prehistory until the second half of the 19th century, sailing craft were the primary means of maritime trade and transportation; exploration across the seas and oceans
    was reliant on sail for anything other than the shortest distances.

  • When the wind strength is greater than these adjustments can accommodate to prevent overpowering the sailing craft, then reducing sail area through reefing, substituting a
    smaller sail or by other means.

  • A sailing vessel’s form stability (the resistance of hull shape to rolling) is the starting point for resisting heeling.

  • Iron-hulled sailing ships were mainly built from the 1870s to 1900, when steamships began to outpace them economically because of their ability to keep a schedule regardless
    of the wind.

  • [63] If the next waypoint or destination is within the arc defined by the no-go zone from the craft’s current position, then it must perform a series of tacking maneuvers
    to get there on a dog-legged route, called beating to windward.

  • [58] Sailing on a course as close to the wind as possible—approximately 45°—is termed “close-hauled”.

  • The course with respect to the true wind direction (as would be indicated by a stationary flag) is called a point of sail.

  • Effect on apparent wind[edit] Further information: Forces on sails § Effect of points of sail on forces True wind velocity (VT) combines with the sailing craft’s velocity
    (VB) to give the apparent wind velocity (VA), the air velocity experienced by instrumentation or crew on a moving sailing craft.

  • Because the lateral wind forces are highest on a sailing vessel, close-hauled and beating to windward, the resisting water forces around the vessel’s keel, centerboard, rudder
    and other foils is also highest to mitigate leeway—the vessel sliding to leeward of its course.

  • Therefore, a boat of that time could use the current to go north – an unobstructed trip of 750 miles – and sail to make the return trip.

  • A sailboat on three points of sail The waves give an indication of the true wind direction.

  • Wind powers the sailing craft and the ocean bears the craft on its course, as currents may alter the course of a sailing vessel on the ocean or a river.

  • [80][81] Reducing sail[edit] Reducing sail on square-rigged ships could be accomplished by exposing less of each sail, by tying it off higher up with reefing points.

  • [27] This development allowed for naval fleets to array themselves into a line of battle, whereby, warships would maintain their place in the line to engage the enemy in a
    parallel or perpendicular line.

  • History Throughout history, sailing was a key form of propulsion that allowed for greater mobility than travel over land.

  • [37] It entails a variety of different disciplines, including: • Oceanic racing, held over long distances and in open water, often last multiple days and include world circumnavigation,
    such as the Vendée Globe and The Ocean Race.

  • It has been estimated that it cost less for a sailing ship of the Roman Empire to carry grain the length of the Mediterranean than to move the same amount 15 miles by road.

  • In their most developed version, square sails are controlled by two each of: sheets, braces, clewlines, and reef tackles, plus four buntlines, each of which may be controlled
    by a crew member as the sail is adjusted.

  • [79] In addition to using the sheets to adjust the angle with respect to the apparent wind, other lines control the shape of the sail, notably the outhaul, halyard, boom vang
    and backstay.

  • As the iceboat sails further from the wind, the apparent wind increases slightly and the boat speed is highest on the broad reach.

  • [41] • Speed sailing to set new records for different categories of craft with oversight by the World Sailing Speed Record Council.

  • The apparent wind—the wind felt by an observer on a moving sailing craft—determines the motive power for sailing craft.

  • Along coastal areas, sailors contend with diurnal changes in wind direction—flowing off the shore at night and onto the shore during the day.

  • [24] This need for speed translated into longer ships with multiple rows of oars along the sides, known as biremes and triremes.

  • [64] The progress along that route is called the course made good; the speed between the starting and ending points of the route is called the speed made good and is calculated
    by the distance between the two points, divided by the travel time.

  • [13] By the time of the Age of Discovery—starting in the 15th century—square-rigged, multi-masted vessels were the norm and were guided by navigation techniques that included
    the magnetic compass and making sightings of the sun and stars that allowed transoceanic voyages.

  • This maneuver can be done on smaller boats by pulling the tiller towards yourself (the opposite side of the sail).

  • Sail was slowly replaced by steam as the method of propulsion for ships over the latter part of the 19th century – seeing a gradual improvement in the technology of steam
    through a number of stepwise developments.

  • [21] Ultimately, the steamships’ independence from the wind and their ability to take shorter routes, passing through the Suez and Panama Canals, made sailing ships uneconomical.

  • [58] The speed of sailboats through the water is limited by the resistance that results from hull drag in the water.

  • • Tacking from the port tack (bottom) to the starboard (top) tack • Beating to windward on short (P1), medium (P2), and long (P3) tacks Downwind[edit] 18ft Skiff, flying a
    sprit-mounted asymmetrical spinnaker on a broad reach A sailing craft can travel directly downwind only at a speed that is less than the wind speed.

  • Apparent wind velocity provides the motive power for the sails on any given point of sail.

  • Steam allowed scheduled services that ran at higher average speeds than sailing vessels.


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