Uses Culinary use The top side of a sage leaf – trichomes are visible The underside of a sage leaf – more trichomes are visible on this side A specimen of Salvia
officinalis grown in a flowerpot Sage seeds are very small and almost spherical in shape In Britain, sage has for generations been listed as one of the essential herbs, along with parsley, rosemary, and thyme (as in the folk song “Scarborough
Despite the common use of traditional and available herbs in French cuisine, sage never found favor there.
The common name “sage” is also used for closely related species and cultivars.
It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times it has been used as an ornamental garden plant.
Essential oil Main article: Sage oil Common sage is grown in parts of Europe for distillation of an essential oil, although other species such as Salvia fruticosa may
also be harvested and distilled with it.
 Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called
 Theophrastus wrote about two different sages, a wild undershrub he called sphakos, and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos.
The specific epithet officinalis refers to plants with a well-established medicinal or culinary value.
Like many herbs they can be killed by a cold wet winter, especially if the soil is not well drained.
Modern cultivars include leaves with purple, rose, cream, and yellow in many variegated combinations.
Cultivated forms include purple sage and red sage.
 The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages, with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value.
It has been grown for centuries in the Old World for its food and healing properties, and was often described in old herbals for the many miraculous properties attributed
Pliny the Elder said the latter plant was called salvia by the Romans, and used as a diuretic, a local anesthetic for the skin, a styptic, and for other uses.
The Old World type grows to approximately 60 cm (2 ft) tall and wide, with lavender flowers most common, though they can also be white, pink, or purple.
[‘Harrison, Lorraine (2012). RHS Latin for gardeners. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845337315.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b Clebsch, Betsy; Carol D. Barner (2003). The New Book of Salvias. Timber Press. p. 216. ISBN 978-0-88192-560-9.
Stearn, William T. (2004). Botanical Latin. Timber Press (OR). p. 456. ISBN 978-0-88192-627-9.
4. ^ Sutton, John (2004). The Gardener’s Guide to Growing Salvias. Workman Publishing Company. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-88192-671-2.
5. ^ Greer, John Michael
(2017). The Encyclopedia of Natural Magic (First ed.). Woodbury, MN: Llewellyn Publications. p. 185. ISBN 9780738706740.
6. ^ Watters, L. L. (1901). An Analytical Investigation of Garden Sage (Salvia officinalis, Linne). New York: Columbia University.
Jump up to:a b c Kintzios, Spiridon E. (2000). Sage: The Genus Salvia. CRC Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-90-5823-005-8.
8. ^ An Anglo-Saxon manuscript read “Why should man die when he has sage?” Kintzios, p. 10
9. ^ “Le Menagier de Paris”. Hinson,
Janet, translator. 1393.
10. ^ Grieve, Maud (1971). A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs, & Trees with All Their Modern Scientific Uses, Volume 2.
Markham, Gervase (1615). The English House-wife.
12. ^ Le Viandier de Taillevent: 14th Century Cookery, Based on the Vatican Library Manuscript. Translated by Prescott, James. Eugene, Oregon: Alfarhaugr Publishing Society. 1989. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-9623719-0-5.
Miroddi M, Navarra M, Quattropani MC, Calapai F, Gangemi S, Calapai G (2014). “Systematic review of clinical trials assessing pharmacological properties of Salvia species on memory, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease”. CNS Neurosci Ther.
20 (6): 485–95. doi:10.1111/cns.12270. PMC 6493168. PMID 24836739.
14. ^ Jump up to:a b Lopresti AL (2017). “Salvia (Sage): A Review of its Potential Cognitive-Enhancing and Protective Effects”. Drugs in R&D. 17 (1): 53–64. doi:10.1007/s40268-016-0157-5.
PMC 5318325. PMID 27888449.
15. ^ “RHS Plant Selector – Salvia officinalis ‘Icterina'”. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
16. ^ “RHS Plant Selector – Salvia officinalis ‘Purpurascens'”. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
17. ^ “AGM Plants – Ornamental” (PDF).
Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 94. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/genista/39271782/’]