sherlock holmes


  • However, his continued work and the publication of Watson’s stories raise Holmes’s profile, and he rapidly becomes well known as a detective; so many clients ask for his help
    instead of (or in addition to) that of the police[32] that, Watson writes, by 1887 “Europe was ringing with his name”[33] and by 1895 Holmes has “an immense practice”.

  • [95] Looking back on the development of the character in 1912, Conan Doyle wrote that “In the first one, the Study in Scarlet, [Holmes] was a mere calculating machine, but
    I had to make him more of an educated human being as I went on with him.

  • [1] The character was so well known that in 1893 when Arthur Conan Doyle killed Holmes in the short story “The Final Problem”, the strongly negative response from readers
    was unlike any previous public reaction t

  • [92] In A Study in Scarlet, Holmes claims to be unaware that the earth revolves around the sun since such information is irrelevant to his work; after hearing that fact from
    Watson, he says he will immediately try to forget it.

  • [91] Knowledge and skills Shortly after meeting Holmes in the first story, A Study in Scarlet (generally assumed to be 1881, though the exact date is not given), Watson assesses
    the detective’s abilities: 1.

  • In several stories (“The Sign of Four”, “The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton”, “The Man with the Twisted Lip”, “The Adventure of the Empty House” and “A Scandal in
    Bohemia”), to gather evidence undercover he uses disguises so convincing that Watson fails to recognise him.

  • [47] However, the recorded public reaction to Holmes’s death was unlike anything previously seen for fictional events.

  • Although this is her only appearance, she is one of only a handful of people who best Holmes in a battle of wits, and the only woman.

  • [10][11] Doyle has his main characters discuss these literary antecedents near the beginning of A Study in Scarlet, which is set soon after Watson is first introduced to Holmes.

  • [101] In “The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans”, Watson says that “Holmes lost himself in a monograph which he had undertaken upon the Polyphonic Motets of Lassus”,
    considered “the last word” on the subject—which must have been the result of an intensive and very specialized musicological study which could have had no possible application to the solution of criminal mysteries.

  • For example, fingerprints were proposed to be distinct in Conan Doyle’s day, and while Holmes used a thumbprint to solve a crime in “The Adventure of the Norwood Builder”
    (generally held to be set in 1895), the story was published in 1903, two years after Scotland Yard’s fingerprint bureau opened.

  • [89] The beginning of the story describes the high regard in which Holmes holds her: To Sherlock Holmes she is always the woman.

  • [148] Another character subsequently refers to Mr Woodley as looking “much disfigured” as a result of his encounter with Holmes.

  • [59] In several stories (“A Case of Identity”, “The Red-Headed League”, “The Adventure of the Six Napoleons”) Holmes wields a riding crop, described in the latter story as
    his “favourite weapon”.

  • Their most trivial actions may mean volumes…”[80] In The Sign of Four, he says, “Women are never to be entirely trusted—not the best of them”, a feeling Watson notes as
    an “atrocious sentiment”.

  • In the latter story, Watson says, “The stage lost a fine actor … when [Holmes] became a specialist in crime”.

  • [76] However, Watson notes that Holmes would refuse to help even the wealthy and powerful if their cases did not interest him.

  • [82] At the end of The Sign of Four, Holmes states that “love is an emotional thing, and whatever is emotional is opposed to that true, cold reason which I place above all

  • [93] The later stories move away from this notion: in The Valley of Fear, he says, “All knowledge comes useful to the detective”,[94] and in “The Adventure of the Lion’s Mane”,
    the detective calls himself “an omnivorous reader with a strangely retentive memory for trifles”.

  • Sherlock describes his brother as the more intelligent of the two, but notes that Mycroft lacks any interest in physical investigation, preferring to spend his time at the
    Diogenes Club.

  • [7] The character and stories have had a profound and lasting effect on mystery writing and popular culture as a whole, with the original tales as well as thousands written
    by authors other than Conan Doyle being adapted into stage and radio plays, television, films, video games, and other media for over one hundred years.

  • [54] Said to have a “cat-like” love of personal cleanliness,[55] at the same time Holmes is an eccentric with no regard for contemporary standards of tidiness or good order.

  • The first two Sherlock Holmes stories, the novels A Study in Scarlet (1887) and The Sign of the Four (1890), were moderately well received, but Holmes first became very popular
    early in 1891 when the first six short stories featuring the character were published in The Strand Magazine.

  • For the one and only time I caught a glimpse of a great heart as well as of a great brain.

  • [106] Maria Konnikova points out in an interview with D. J. Grothe that Holmes practises what is now called mindfulness, concentrating on one thing at a time, and almost never

  • Nevertheless, mentions of his early life and extended family paint a loose biographical picture of the detective.

  • [46] Legend has it that Londoners were so distraught upon hearing the news of Holmes’s death that they wore black armbands in mourning, though there is no known contemporary
    source for this; the earliest known reference to such events comes from 1949.

  • [29] Nevertheless, when Holmes recorded a case himself, he was forced to concede that he could more easily understand the need to write it in a manner that would appeal to
    the public rather than his intention to focus on his own technical skill.

  • [104] Holmes also demonstrates a knowledge of psychology in “A Scandal in Bohemia”, luring Irene Adler into betraying where she hid a photograph based on the premise that
    a woman will rush to save her most valued possession from a fire.

  • Most are narrated by the character of Holmes’s friend and biographer Dr. John H. Watson, who usually accompanies Holmes during his investigations and often shares quarters
    with him at the address of 221B Baker Street, London, where many of the stories begin.

  • [84] But while Watson says that the detective has an “aversion to women”,[85] he also notes Holmes as having “a peculiarly ingratiating way with [them]”.

  • Watson describes Holmes as laughing, “‘if he had remained I might have shown him that my grip was not much more feeble than his own.’

  • He is known only in select professional circles at the beginning of the first story, but is already collaborating with Scotland Yard.

  • [52] The story features Holmes and Watson coming out of retirement to aid the British war effort.

  • Her memory is kept alive by the photograph of Adler that Holmes received for his part in the case.

  • [46] Conan Doyle himself received many protest letters, and one lady even began her letter with “You brute”.

  • [69][70] In “The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter”, Watson says that although he has “weaned” Holmes from drugs, the detective remains an addict whose habit is “not
    dead, but merely sleeping”.

  • In this 1871 novel (sixteen years before the first appearance of Sherlock Holmes), Henry Cauvain imagined a depressed, anti-social, opium-smoking polymath detective, operating
    in Paris.

  • First appearing in print in 1887’s A Study in Scarlet, the character’s popularity became widespread with the first series of short stories in The Strand Magazine, beginning
    with “A Scandal in Bohemia” in 1891; additional tales appeared from then until 1927, eventually totalling four novels and 56 short stories.

  • [133] Guy Mankowski has said of Holmes that his ability to change his appearance to blend into any situation “helped him personify the idea of the English eccentric chameleon,
    in a way that prefigured the likes of David Bowie.

  • [77] Attitudes towards women As Conan Doyle wrote to Joseph Bell, “Holmes is as inhuman as a Babbage’s Calculating Machine and just about as likely to fall in love”.

  • A statement of Holmes’s age in “His Last Bow” places his year of birth at 1854; the story, set in August 1914, describes him as sixty years of age.

  • I daresay that if I had put 100 pounds down in front of him, that man would not have given me such complete information as was drawn from him by the idea that he was doing
    me on a wager”.

  • [129] Ballistics feature in “The Adventure of the Empty House” when spent bullets are recovered to be matched with a suspected murder weapon, a practice which became regular
    police procedure only some fifteen years after the story was published.

  • Holmes frequently calls Watson’s records of Holmes’s cases sensational and populist, suggesting that they fail to accurately and objectively report the “science” of his craft:
    Detection is, or ought to be, an exact science and should be treated in the same cold and unemotional manner.

  • [100] In The Hound of the Baskervilles, the detective recognises works by Godfrey Kneller and Joshua Reynolds: “Watson won’t allow that I know anything of art, but that is
    mere jealousy since our views upon the subject differ”.

  • Conan Doyle killed off Holmes in a final battle with the criminal mastermind Professor James Moriarty[44] in “The Final Problem” (published 1893, but set in 1891), as Conan
    Doyle felt that “my literary energies should not be directed too much into one channel.

  • In “The Gloria Scott”, he tells the doctor that during two years at college he made only one friend: “I was never a very sociable fellow, Watson …

  • [40] The detective acts on behalf of the British government in matters of national security several times,[41] and declines a knighthood “for services which may perhaps some
    day be described”.

  • [42] However, he does not actively seek fame and is usually content to let the police take public credit for his work.

  • [107] Holmesian deduction Sidney Paget illustration of Holmes examining a corpse for “The Adventure of the Abbey Grange” Holmes observes the dress and attitude of his clients
    and suspects, noting skin marks (such as tattoos), contamination (such as ink stains or clay on boots), emotional state, and physical condition in order to deduce their origins and recent history.

  • [31] After confirming Watson’s assessment of the wound, Holmes makes it clear to their opponent that the man would not have left the room alive if he genuinely had killed

  • The detective states at one point that “My professional charges are upon a fixed scale.

  • The detective’s guiding principle, as he says in The Sign of Four, is: “When you have eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.

  • “[119] Despite Holmes’s remarkable reasoning abilities, Conan Doyle still paints him as fallible in this regard (this being a central theme of “The Yellow Face”).

  • [102][103] Holmes is a cryptanalyst, telling Watson that “I am fairly familiar with all forms of secret writing, and am myself the author of a trifling monograph upon the
    subject, in which I analyse one hundred and sixty separate ciphers”.

  • When Watson is injured by a bullet, although the wound turns out to be “quite superficial”, Watson is moved by Holmes’s reaction: It was worth a wound; it was worth many wounds;
    to know the depth of loyalty and love which lay behind that cold mask.

  • “[146] In “The Yellow Face”, Watson says: “He was undoubtedly one of the finest boxers of his weight that I have ever seen”.

  • Holmes aficionados refer to the period from 1891 to 1894—between his disappearance and presumed death in “The Final Problem” and his reappearance in “The Adventure of the
    Empty House”—as the Great Hiatus.

  • These agents included a variety of informants, such as Langdale Pike, a “human book of reference upon all matters of social scandal”,[135] and Shinwell Johnson, who acted
    as Holmes’s “agent in the huge criminal underworld of London”.

  • [25] Life with Watson Holmes (right) and Watson in a Sidney Paget illustration for “The Adventure of Silver Blaze” In the first Holmes tale, A Study in Scarlet, financial
    difficulties lead Holmes and Dr. Watson to share rooms together at 221B Baker Street, London.

  • When Watson asks how Holmes knows this, the detective answers: It is simplicity itself … my eyes tell me that on the inside of your left shoe, just where the firelight strikes
    it, the leather is scored by six almost parallel cuts.

  • [130] Laura J. Snyder has examined Holmes’s methods in the context of mid- to late-19th-century criminology, demonstrating that, while sometimes in advance of what official
    investigative departments were formally using at the time, they were based upon existing methods and techniques.

  • [122][131] Though the effect of the Holmes stories on the development of forensic science has thus often been overstated, Holmes inspired future generations of forensic scientists
    to think scientifically and analytically.

  • [48] Following “The Adventure of the Empty House”, Conan Doyle would sporadically write new Holmes stories until 1927.

  • Referring to himself as a “consulting detective” in the stories, Holmes is known for his proficiency with observation, deduction, forensic science and logical reasoning that
    borders on the fantastic, which he employs when investigating cases for a wide variety of clients, including Scotland Yard.

  • Watson describes him as in his personal habits one of the most untidy men that ever drove a fellow-lodger to distraction.

  • I never mixed much with the men of my year”.

  • … And yet there was but one woman to him, and that woman was the late Irene Adler, of dubious and questionable memory.

  • [51] The move is not dated precisely, but can be presumed to be no later than 1904 (since it is referred to retrospectively in “The Adventure of the Second Stain”, first published
    that year).

  • [149] In “The Adventure of the Empty House”, Holmes tells Watson that he used a Japanese martial art known as baritsu to fling Moriarty to his death in the Reichenbach Falls.

  • He appears to know every detail of every horror perpetrated in the century.


Works Cited

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22. ^ Klinger I, pp. 637-639—”The Greek Interpreter”
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24. ^ Klinger
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25. ^ Klinger I, pp. 501-502—”The Gloria Scott”
26. ^ Klinger III, pp. 17-18, 28—A Study in Scarlet
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28. ^
Klinger II, pp. 1692, 1705-1706—”The Adventure of the Veiled Lodger”
29. ^ Klinger III, p. 217—The Sign of Four
30. ^ Klinger II, pp. 1482-1483—”The Blanched Soldier”
31. ^ Jump up to:a b Klinger II, p. 1598—”The Adventure of the Three Garridebs”
32. ^
“The Reigate Squires” and “The Adventure of the Illustrious Client” are two examples.
33. ^ “The Reigate Squires”
34. ^ Klinger II, p. 976—”The Adventure of Black Peter”
35. ^ Klinger I, pp. 561-562—”The Reigate Squires”
36. ^ Klinger II,
pp. 1190-1191, 1222-1225—”The Adventure of the Second Stain”
37. ^ Jump up to:a b Klinger I, pp. 15-16—”A Scandal in Bohemia”
38. ^ Klinger II, p. 1092—”The Adventure of the Golden Pince-Nez”
39. ^ Klinger I, p. 299—”The Adventure of the Noble
Bachelor”—there was no such position in existence at the time of the story.
40. ^ The Hound of the Baskervilles (Klinger III p. 409) and “The Adventure of Black Peter” (Klinger II p. 977)
41. ^ “The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans”, “The
Naval Treaty”, and after retirement, “His Last Bow”.
42. ^ Klinger II, p. 1581—”The Adventure of the Three Garridebs”
43. ^ In “The Naval Treaty” (Klinger I p. 691), Holmes remarks that, of his last fifty-three cases, the police have had all the
credit in forty-nine.
44. ^ Walsh, Michael. “Professor James Moriarty”. The Official Conan Doyle Estate Ltd. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
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48. ^ Klinger I, pp. 791-794—”The Adventure of the Empty House”
49. ^
Klinger II, pp. 815-822
50. ^ Riggs, Ransom (2009). The Sherlock Holmes Handbook. The methods and mysteries of the world’s greatest detective. Philadelphia: Quirk Books. pp. 115–118. ISBN 978-1-59474-429-7.
51. ^ Klinger II, pp. 1229, 1437, 1440—His
Last Bow
52. ^ Klinger II, p. 1189—”The Adventure of the Second Stain”
53. ^ Klinger II, p. 1667—”The Adventure of the Lion’s Mane”
54. ^ Klinger I, p. 265—”The Adventure of the Engineer’s Thumb”
55. ^ Klinger III, p. 550—The Hound of the
56. ^ Klinger I, pp. 528-529—”The Musgrave Ritual”
57. ^ Klinger III, p. 481—The Hound of the Baskervilles
58. ^ “A Scandal in Bohemia”, “The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton”, and “The Adventure of the Illustrious Client”
59. ^
Jump up to:a b c Klinger I, p. 502—”The Gloria Scott”
60. ^ Klinger II, p. 848—”The Adventure of the Norwood Builder”
61. ^ Klinger II, p. 1513—”The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone”
62. ^ Klinger III, pp. 34-36—A Study in Scarlet
63. ^ Klinger
II, pp. 1296-1297—”The Adventure of the Red Circle”
64. ^ Klinger I, p. 58—”The Red-Headed League”
65. ^ Klinger III, pp. 213-214—The Sign of Four
66. ^ Diniejko, Andrzej (13 December 2013). “Sherlock Holmes’s Addictions”. The Victorian Web.
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67. ^ Diniejko, Andrzej (7 September 2002). “Victorian Drug Use”. The Victorian Web. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
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70. ^ Klinger II, p. 450—”The Yellow Face”
71. ^ Klinger II, p. 1124—”The Adventure of the Missing Three-Quarter”
72. ^ Klinger III,
p. 423—The Hound of the Baskervilles. See also Klinger II, pp. 950, 1108-1109.
73. ^ Klinger II, p. 1402—”The Adventure of the Devil’s Foot”
74. ^ Klinger II, p. 1609—”The Problem of Thor Bridge”
75. ^ Klinger II, p. 971—”The Adventure of the
Priory School”
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77. ^ Klinger II, p. 976—”The Adventure of Black Peter”
78. ^ Liebow, Ely (1982). Dr. Joe Bell: Model for Sherlock Holmes. Popular
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79. ^ Klinger III, p. 704—The Valley of Fear
80. ^ Klinger II, pp. 1203-1204—”The Adventure of the Second Stain”
81. ^ Klinger III, p. 311—The Sign of Four
82. ^ Klinger II, p.
1676—”The Adventure of the Lion’s Mane”
83. ^ Klinger III, p. 378—The Sign of Four
84. ^ Klinger II, p. 1422—”The Adventure of the Devil’s Foot”
85. ^ Klinger I, p. 635—”The Greek Interpreter”
86. ^ Klinger II, p. 1111—”The Adventure of
the Golden Pince-Nez”
87. ^ Klinger II, pp. 1341-1342—”The Adventure of the Dying Detective”
88. ^ Klinger II, pp. 1015-1106—”The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton”
89. ^ Karlson, Katherine. “Irene Adler”. The Official Conan Doyle Estate
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90. ^ Klinger I, pp. 5-6—”A Scandal in Bohemia”
91. ^ Klinger I, pp. 5-40—”A Scandal in Bohemia”
92. ^ Jump up to:a b c Klinger III, pp. 34-35—A Study in Scarlet
93. ^ Klinger III, pp. 32-33—A Study in Scarlet
94. ^
Klinger III, p. 650—The Valley of Fear
95. ^ Klinger II, p. 1689—”The Adventure of the Lion’s Mane”
96. ^ Richard Lancelyn Green, “Introduction”, The Return of Sherlock Holmes (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993) XXX.
97. ^ Klinger III,
p. 202—A Study in Scarlet
98. ^ Klinger I, p. 100—”A Case of Identity”
99. ^ Klinger IIII, p. 282—The Sign of Four
100. ^ Klinger I, p. 73—”The Red-Headed League”
101. ^ Klinger III, p. 570—The Hound of the Baskervilles
102. ^ Klinger III,
pp. 1333-1334, 1338-1340—”The Adventure of the Bruce-Partington Plans”
103. ^ Klinger, Leslie (1999). “Lost in Lassus: The Missing Monograph”. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2019.
104. ^ Klinger II, p. 888—”The
Adventure of the Dancing Men”
105. ^ Klinger I, p. 33—”A Scandal in Bohemia”
106. ^ Klinger I, p. 216—”The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle”
107. ^ Konnikova, Maria. “How to Think Like Sherlock Holmes”. Point of Inquiry. Center for Inquiry. Archived
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108. ^ Klinger III, pp. 387-392—The Hound of the Baskervilles
109. ^ Klinger I, pp. 450-453—”The Yellow Face”
110. ^ Klinger I, pp. 201-203—”The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle”
111. ^
Klinger I, p. 9—”A Scandal in Bohemia”
112. ^ Klinger III, p. 42—A Study in Scarlet
113. ^ Klinger I, pp. 423-426—”The Cardboard Box”
114. ^ Klinger II, pp. 864-865—”The Adventure of the Dancing Men”
115. ^ Bird, Alexander (27 June 2006).
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117. ^ Smith, Jonathan (1994).
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118. ^ Klinger III, p. 40—A Study in Scarlet
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123. ^ A Study in Scarlet, “The Adventure of Silver Blaze”, “The Adventure of the Priory
School”, The Hound of the Baskervilles, “The Boscombe Valley Mystery”
124. ^ “The Adventure of the Resident Patient”, The Hound of the Baskervilles
125. ^ “The Reigate Squires”, “The Man with the Twisted Lip”
126. ^ Klinger I, pp. 99-100—”A
Case of Identity”
127. ^ Klinger I, p. 578—”The Reigate Squires”
128. ^ Klinger I, pp. 438-439—”The Cardboard Box”
129. ^ Klinger I, p. 670—”The Naval Treaty”
130. ^ Klinger II, p. 814—”The Adventure of the Empty House”
131. ^ Klinger II,
pp. 860-863
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135. ^ Klinger II, p. 1545—”The Adventure of the Three Gables”
136. ^ Klinger II, p. 1456—”The Adventure of the Illustrious Client”
137. ^ Klinger
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141. ^ Klinger II, pp. 805-806—”The Adventure
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142. ^ See “The Red-Headed League” and “The Adventure of the Illustrious Client”.
143. ^ Klinger II, p. 1050—”The Adventure of the Six Napoleons”
144. ^ Klinger I, p. 449—”The Yellow Face”
145. ^ Klinger I, p. 243—”The
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146. ^ Klinger III, pp. 262-263—The Sign of Four
147. ^ Klinger I, pp. 449-450—”The Yellow Face”
148. ^ Jump up to:a b Klinger II, p. 915—”The Solitary Cyclist”
149. ^ Klinger II, p. 916—”The Solitary Cyclist”
150. ^
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