• Following the rising popularity of the iPhone in the late 2000s, the majority of smartphones have featured thin, slate-like form factors with large, capacitive screens with
    support for multi-touch gestures rather than physical keyboards and have offered the ability for users to download or purchase additional applications from a centralized store and use cloud storage and synchronization, virtual assistants,
    as well as mobile payment services.

  • [26][27] Phones built by Japanese manufacturers used custom firmware, however, and didn’t yet feature standardized mobile operating systems designed to cater to third-party
    application development, so their software and ecosystems were akin to very advanced feature phones.

  • [103] The 2013 Nokia Lumia 1020 has a similar high-resolution camera setup, with the addition of optical image stabilization and manual camera settings years before common
    among high-end mobile phones, although lacking expandable storage that could be of use for accordingly high file sizes.

  • [34] The iPhone’s operating system was also a shift away from older operating systems (which older phones supported and which were adapted from PDAs and feature phones) to
    an operative system powerful enough to not require using a limited, stripped down web browser that can only render pages specially formatted using technologies such as WML, cHTML, or XHTML and instead ran a version of Apple’s Safari browser
    that could easily render full websites[43][44][45] not specifically designed for phones.

  • Later, in the mid-2000s, business users in the U.S. started to adopt devices based on Microsoft’s Windows Mobile, and then BlackBerry smartphones from Research In Motion.

  • Multiple vendors attempted to update or replace their existing smartphone platforms and devices to better-compete with Android and the iPhone; Palm unveiled a new platform
    known as webOS for its Palm Pre in late-2009 to replace Palm OS, which featured a focus on a task-based “card” metaphor and seamless synchronization and integration between various online services (as opposed to the then-conventional concept
    of a smartphone needing a PC to serve as a “canonical, authoritative repository” for user data).

  • [14] PDA/phone hybrids Main article: Personal digital assistant Beginning in the mid-to-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated PDA device,
    running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, Newton OS, Symbian or Windows CE/Pocket PC.

  • [66] In February 2011, Nokia announced that it had entered into a major partnership with Microsoft, under which it would exclusively use Windows Phone on all of its future
    smartphones, and integrate Microsoft’s Bing search engine and Bing Maps (which, as part of the partnership, would also license Nokia Maps data) into all future devices.

  • [73][74] In 2015, BlackBerry began to pivot away from its in-house mobile platforms in favor of producing Android devices, focusing on a security-enhanced distribution of
    the software.

  • Form factor and operating system shifts The LG Prada with a large capacitive touchscreen introduced in 2006 The original Apple iPhone; following its introduction the common
    smartphone form factor shifted to large touchscreen software interfaces without physical keypads[35] The late 2000s and early 2010s saw a shift in smartphone interfaces away from devices with physical keyboards and keypads to ones with large
    finger-operated capacitive touchscreens.

  • [35] The advantages of a design with software powerful enough to support advanced applications and a large capacitive touchscreen affected the development of another smartphone
    OS platform, Android, with a more BlackBerry-like prototype device scrapped in favor of a touchscreen device with a slide-out physical keyboard, as Google’s engineers thought at the time that a touchscreen could not completely replace a physical
    keyboard and buttons.

  • [55][56] Operating system competition A Meizu MX4 with Flyme OS The iPhone and later touchscreen-only Android devices together popularized the slate form factor, based on
    a large capacitive touchscreen as the sole means of interaction, and led to the decline of earlier, keyboard- and keypad-focused platforms.

  • [65] In 2010, Microsoft unveiled a replacement for Windows Mobile known as Windows Phone, featuring a new touchscreen-centric user interface built around flat design and typography,
    a home screen with “live tiles” containing feeds of updates from apps, as well as integrated Microsoft Office apps.

  • [2] History Early smartphones were marketed primarily towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone PDA devices with support for cellular
    telephony, but were limited by their bulky form, short battery life, slow analog cellular networks, and the immaturity of wireless data services.

  • [81][82][78] Prior to the completion of the sale to Microsoft, Nokia released a series of Android-derived smartphones for emerging markets known as Nokia X, which combined
    an Android-based platform with elements of Windows Phone and Nokia’s feature phone platform Asha, using Microsoft and Nokia services rather than Google.

  • The iPhone was notable as being the first device of its kind targeted at the mass market to abandon the use of a stylus, keyboard, or keypad typical of contemporary smartphones,
    instead using a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction.

  • The decline in sales of stand-alone cameras accelerated due to the increasing use of smartphones with rapidly improving camera technology for casual photography, easier image
    manipulation, and abilities to directly share photos through the use of apps and web-based services.

  • [78] Despite the growth of Windows Phone and the Lumia range (which accounted for nearly 90% of all Windows Phone devices sold),[79] the platform never had significant market
    share in the key U.S. market,[70] and Microsoft was unable to maintain Windows Phone’s momentum in the years that followed, resulting in dwindling interest from users and app developers.

  • [90] Many early smartphones didn’t have cameras at all, and earlier models that had them had low performance and insufficient image and video quality that could not compete
    with budget pocket cameras and fulfill user’s needs.

  • [89] By the mid-2000s, higher-end cell phones commonly had integrated digital cameras.

  • They are distinguished from older-design feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software, access
    to the internet (including web browsing over mobile broadband), and multimedia functionality (including music, video, cameras, and gaming), alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging.

  • Early smartphones Several BlackBerry smartphones, which were highly popular in the mid-late 2000s Phones that made effective use of any significant data connectivity were
    still rare outside Japan until the introduction of the Danger Hiptop in 2002, which saw moderate success among U.S. consumers as the T-Mobile Sidekick.

  • [28][29][30] The rise of 3G technology in other markets and non-Japanese phones with powerful standardized smartphone operating systems, app stores, and advanced wireless
    network capabilities allowed non-Japanese phone manufacturers to finally break in to the Japanese market, gradually adopting Japanese phone features like emojis, mobile payments, NFC, etc.

  • [31] In the U.S., the high cost of data plans and relative rarity of devices with Wi-Fi capabilities that could avoid cellular data network usage kept adoption of smartphones
    mainly to business professionals and “early adopters.”

  • [101] In 2011, the same year the Nintendo 3DS was released, HTC unveiled the Evo 3D, a 3D phone with a dual five-megapixel rear camera setup for spatial imaging, among the
    earliest mobile phones with more than one rear camera.

  • Mobile optical image stabilization was first introduced by Nokia in 2012 with the Lumia 920, enabling prolonged exposure times for low-light photography and smoothing out
    handheld video shake whose appearance would magnify over a larger display such as a monitor or television set, which would be detrimental to watching experience.

  • While virtual keys offer more potential customizability, their location may be inconsistent among systems and/or depending on screen rotation and software used.

  • The following year, the company announced that it would also exit the hardware market to focus more on software and its enterprise middleware,[75] and began to license the
    BlackBerry brand and its Android distribution to third-party OEMs such as TCL for future devices.

  • [25] Japanese cell phones increasingly diverged from global standards and trends to offer other forms of advanced services and smartphone-like functionality that were specifically
    tailored to the Japanese market, such as mobile payments and shopping, near-field communication (NFC) allowing mobile wallet functionality to replace smart cards for transit fares, loyalty cards, identity cards, event tickets, coupons, money
    transfer, etc., downloadable content like musical ringtones, games, and comics, and 1seg mobile television.

  • [46] Later Apple shipped a software update that gave the iPhone a built-in on-device App Store allowing direct wireless downloads of third-party software.

  • [85] It could send up to two images per second over Japan’s Personal Handy-phone System (PHS) cellular network, and store up to 20 JPEG digital images, which could be sent
    over e-mail.

  • In 2016 Apple introduced the iPhone 7 Plus, one of the phones to popularize a dual camera setup.

  • [47][48] This kind of centralized App Store and free developer tools[49][50] quickly became the new main paradigm for all smartphone platforms for software development, distribution,
    discovery, installation, and payment, in place of expensive developer tools that required official approval to use and a dependence on third-party sources providing applications for multiple platforms.

  • [13][non-primary source needed] The term “smartphone” was first used by Ericsson in 1997 to describe a new device concept, the GS88.

  • [91] By the beginning of the 2010s almost all smartphones had an integrated digital camera.

  • [109] On some devices, this intuition may be restricted by software in video/slow motion modes and for front camera.

  • The bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared
    to separate standalone devices, generally limited their popularity to “early adopters” and business users who needed portable connectivity.

  • [24] Japanese cell phones Main articles: Japanese mobile phone culture and Mobile phone industry in Japan In 1999, Japanese wireless provider NTT DoCoMo launched i-mode, a
    new mobile internet platform which provided data transmission speeds up to 9.6 kilobits per second, and access web services available through the platform such as online shopping.

  • While lacking optical zoom, its image sensor has a format of 1″, as used in high-end compact cameras such as the Lumix DMC-LX100 and Sony CyberShot DSC-RX100 series, with
    multiple times the surface size of a typical mobile camera image sensor, as well as support for light sensitivities of up to ISO 25600, well beyond the typical mobile camera light sensitivity range.

  • [33] The touchscreen personal digital assistant (PDA)–derived nature of adapted operating systems like Palm OS, the “Pocket PC” versions of what was later Windows Mobile,
    and the UIQ interface that was originally designed for pen-based PDAs on Symbian OS devices resulted in some early smartphones having stylus-based interfaces.

  • Over the course of the decade, the two platforms became a clear duopoly in smartphone sales and market share, with BlackBerry, Windows Phone, and other operating systems eventually
    stagnating to little or no measurable market share.

  • When closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular telephone.

  • [62][63] The following year, RIM released BlackBerry OS 7 and new models in the Bold and Torch ranges, which included a new Bold with a touchscreen alongside its keyboard,
    and the Torch 9860—the first BlackBerry phone to not include a physical keyboard.

  • [113] The One M8 additionally was one of the earliest smartphones to be equipped with a dual camera setup.

  • [4] The first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a “smartphone” began as a prototype called “Angler” developed by Canova in 1992 while at
    IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show.

  • Resistive touchscreens with stylus-based interfaces could still be found on a few smartphones, like the Palm Treos, which had dropped their handwriting input after a few early
    models that were available in versions with Graffiti instead of a keyboard.

  • As part of a proposed divestment of its consumer business to focus on enterprise software, HP abruptly ended development of future webOS devices in August 2011, and sold the
    rights to webOS to LG Electronics in 2013, for use as a smart TV platform.

  • The results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access.

  • Initially, Nokia’s Symbian smartphones were focused on business with the Eseries,[32] similar to Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices at the time.

  • [51][52][53] Android is based around a modified Linux kernel, again providing more power than mobile operating systems adapted from PDAs and feature phones.

  • Most used a “keyboard bar” form factor, like the BlackBerry line, Windows Mobile smartphones, Palm Treos, and some of the Nokia Eseries.

  • The first commercial camera phone was the Kyocera Visual Phone VP-210, released in Japan in May 1999.

  • [115] In early 2018 Huawei released a new flagship phone, the Huawei P20 Pro, one of the first triple camera lens setups with Leica optics.

  • It was also 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows.

  • In 2015, digital camera sales were 35.395 million units or only less than a third of digital camera sales numbers at their peak and also slightly less than film camera sold
    number at their peak.

  • [60][61] Research in Motion introduced the vertical-sliding BlackBerry Torch and BlackBerry OS 6 in 2010, which featured a redesigned user interface, support for gestures
    such as pinch-to-zoom, and a new web browser based on the same WebKit rendering engine used by the iPhone.

  • Outside the U.S. and Japan, Nokia was seeing success with its smartphones based on Symbian, originally developed by Psion for their personal organisers, and it was the most
    popular smartphone OS in Europe during the middle to late 2000s.

  • This was the first Symbian phone platform allowing the installation of additional applications.

  • In the 2000s, NTT DoCoMo’s i-mode platform, BlackBerry, Nokia’s Symbian platform, and Windows Mobile began to gain market traction, with models often featuring QWERTY keyboards
    or resistive touchscreen input and emphasizing access to push email and wireless internet.

  • • The Kyocera 6035 (February 2001),[20] a dual-nature device with a separate Palm OS PDA operating system and CDMA mobile phone firmware.

  • Five billion camera phones were sold in five years, and by 2007 more than half of the installed base of all mobile phones were camera phones.

  • Video resolution With stronger getting chipsets to handle computing workload demands at higher pixel rates, mobile video resolution and framerate has caught up with dedicated
    consumer-grade cameras over years.

  • These issues were eventually resolved with the exponential scaling and miniaturization of MOS transistors down to sub-micron levels (Moore’s law), the improved lithium-ion
    battery, faster digital mobile data networks (Edholm’s law), and more mature software platforms that allowed mobile device ecosystems to develop independently of data providers.

  • [54] In 2012, Asus started experimenting with a convertible docking system named PadFone, where the standalone handset can when necessary be inserted into a tablet-sized screen
    unit with integrated supportive battery and used as such.

  • In 2012 and 2013, select devices with 720p filming at 60 frames per second were released: the Asus PadFone 2 and HTC One M7, unlike flagships of Samsung, Sony, and Apple.

  • [15] Subsequent landmark devices included: • The Ericsson R380 (December 2000)[16] by Ericsson Mobile Communications,[17] the first phone running the operating system later
    named Symbian (it ran EPOC Release 5, which was renamed Symbian OS at Release 6).

  • [108] In the same year, iOS 7 introduced the later widely implemented viewfinder intuition, where exposure value can be adjusted through vertical swiping, after focus and
    exposure has been set by tapping, and even while locked after holding down for a brief moment.

  • [39][40][41] It had a 3.5″ capacitive touchscreen with twice the common resolution of most smartphone screens at the time,[42] and introduced multi-touch to phones, which
    allowed gestures such as “pinching” to zoom in or out on photos, maps, and web pages.


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