social media


  • “[30] While the variety of evolving stand-alone and built-in social media services makes it challenging to define them,[2] marketing and social media experts broadly agree
    that social media includes the following 13 types:[31] • Blogs (ex.

  • It offered early forms of social media features with 1973-era innovations such as Notes, PLATO’s message-forum application; TERM-talk, its instant-messaging feature; Talkomatic,
    perhaps the first online chat room; News Report, a crowdsourced online newspaper, and blog and Access Lists, enabling the owner of a note file or other application to limit access to a certain set of users, for example, only friends, classmates,
    or co-workers.

  • Re-sharing (or, in this case, retweeting) is an especially popular component and feature of Twitter, allowing its users to keep up with important events and stay connected
    with their peers, as well as contributing in various ways throughout social media.

  • [91] Social media marketing[edit] Main article: Social media marketing Social media marketing is the use of social media platforms and websites to promote a product or service
    and also to establish a connection with its customers.

  • [26] Research from 2015 shows that the world spent 22% of their online time on social networks,[27] thus suggesting the popularity of social media platforms.

  • [98] Companies using social media marketing have to keep up with the different social media platforms and stay on top of ongoing trends.

  • Definition and features[edit] The idea that social media are defined simply by their ability to bring people together has been seen as too broad, as this would suggest that
    fundamentally different technologies like the telegraph and telephone are also social media.

  • [18] Development of social-media platforms[edit] SixDegrees, launched in 1997, is often regarded as the first social media site.

  • Social media can also be used to directly advertise; placing an advert on Facebook’s Newsfeed, for example, can provide exposure of the brand to a large number of people.

  • When the World Wide Web (WWW, or ‘the web’) was added to the Internet in the mid-1990s, message forums migrated to the web, becoming Internet forums, primarily due to cheaper
    per-person access as well as the ability to handle far more people simultaneously than telco modem banks.

  • [42][43][44] A common legitimate use includes using automated programs to post on social media at a specific time.

  • Users create service-specific profiles for the site or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization.

  • [65] Data from Common Sense Media has suggested that children under the age of 13 in the United States use social networking services despite the fact that many social media
    sites have policies that state one must be at least 13-years-old or older to join.

  • In a social media context, content or websites that are ‘viral’ (or which ‘go viral’) are those with a greater likelihood that users will re-share content posted (by another
    user) to their social network, leading to further sharing.

  • New social media technology[edit] Main article: Software patent There has been rapid growth in the number of U.S. patent applications that cover new technologies that are
    related to social media, and the number of them that are published has been growing rapidly over the past five years.

  • [23] As such, according to CBS News, SixDegrees is “widely considered to be the very first social networking site,” as it included “profiles, friends lists, and school affiliations”
    that could be used by registered users.

  • Social media marketing has increased due to the growing active user rates on social media sites.

  • [1][2] While challenges to the definition of social media arise[3][4] due to the variety of stand-alone and built-in social media services currently available, there are some
    common features:[2] 1.

  • [62] Most popular social networking services[edit] The following is a list of the most popular social networking services based on the number of active users as of January
    2022 per Statista.

  • [96] However, since social media allows consumers to spread opinions and share experiences in a peer-to-peer fashion, this has shifted some of the power from the organization
    to consumers, since these messages can be transparent and honest.

  • Companies are increasingly using social-media monitoring tools to monitor, track, and analyze online conversations on the Web about their brand or products or about related
    topics of interest.

  • [70] As children grow older, they utilize certain social media services on a frequent basis and often use the application YouTube to consume content.

  • Social media helps the development of online social networks by connecting a user’s profile with those of other individuals or groups.

  • Users create service-specific profiles for the website or app that are designed and maintained by the social media organization.

  • [32] Mobile social media differ from others because they incorporate the current location of the user (location-sensitivity) or the time delay between sending and receiving

  • Nonprofit organizations and activists may have similar interests in posting content on social media sites with the aim of it going viral.

  • One of the main uses is to interact with audiences to create awareness of the company or organization, with the main idea of creating a two-way communication system where
    the audience and/or customers can interact; e.g., customers can provide feedback on the firm’s products.

  • Social media platforms also enable targeting specific audiences with advertising.

  • [85] Businesses[edit] Main article: Social media use by businesses Businesses can use social media tools for marketing research, communication, sales promotions/discounts,
    informal employee-learning/organizational development, relationship development/loyalty programs,[32] and e-Commerce.

  • Social media facilitate the development of online social networks by connecting a user’s profile with those of other individuals or groups.

  • “[71] This also made healthcare workers and systems more aware of social media as a place people were getting health information about the pandemic: “During the COVID-19 pandemic,
    social media use has accelerated to the point of becoming a ubiquitous part of modern healthcare systems.

  • Users of social media are then able to like, share, and comment on the advert; this turns the passive advertising consumers into active advertising producers since they can
    pass the advert’s message on to their friends.

  • It was the first website to provide users the option of creating a profile.

  • Examples are the social hub site Facebook launching an integrated video platform in May 2007,[48] and Instagram, whose original scope was low-resolution photo sharing, introducing
    the ability to share quarter-minute 640×640 pixel videos in 2013[49] (later extended to a minute with increased resolution), acting like a minimal video platform without video seek bar.

  • Additionally, some bots violate the terms of use on many social media platforms such as Instagram, which can result in profiles being taken down and banned.

  • [13] Additionally, social media outlets operate in a dialogic transmission system, i.e., many sources to many receivers, while traditional media outlets operate under a monologic
    transmission model (i.e., one source to many receivers).

  • [14] Since the dramatic expansion of the Internet, digital media or digital rhetoric can be used to represent or identify a culture.

  • [51] Twitter, whose original scope was text-based microblogging, later adapted photo sharing functionality (deprecating third-party services such as TwitPic),[52] later video
    sharing with 140-second time limit and view counter but no manual quality selection or subtitles like on dedicated video platforms, and originally only available to mobile app users but later implemented in their website front ends.

  • Certain social media applications such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram are places where users share specific political or sports content.

  • As users engage with these electronic services, they create highly interactive platforms which individuals, communities, and organizations can share, co-create, discuss, participate,
    and modify user-generated or self-curated content posted online.

  • Often social media can become a good source of information and/or explanation of industry trends for a business to embrace change.

  • Similarly, a nationally representative survey by Common Sense Media conducted in 2020 of Americans ages 13–18 found that YouTube was also the most popular social media service
    (used by 86% of 13- to 18-year-old Americans in the past year).

  • Social media promotes users to share content with others and display content in order to enhance a particular brand or product.

  • Since the different platforms and trends attract different audiences, firms must be strategic about their use of social media to attract the right audience.

  • Social media, by connecting individuals to new ties via the social network can increase entrepreneurship and innovation, especially for those individuals who lack conventional
    information channels due to their lower socioeconomic background.

  • [29] The terminology is unclear, with some early researchers referring to social media as social networks or social networking services in the mid 2000s.

  • Slow-timers (neither location nor time sensitive): Transfer of traditional social media applications to mobile devices (e.g.

  • [69] (In general, as age increased, the tweens were more likely to have used major social media apps and games.)

  • The use of social media certainly increases as people grow older and it has become a customary thing to have an Instagram and Twitter account.

  • In some cases, posts containing popular content or fast-breaking news have been rapidly shared and re-shared by a huge number of users.

  • [28] As many as 4.08 billion social media users worldwide were found active on smartphones as of October 2020.

  • Mobile social media are useful applications of mobile marketing because the creation, exchange, and circulation of user-generated content can assist companies with marketing
    research, communication, and relationship development.

  • Many social media sites provide specific functionality to help users re-share (also known as re-blogging) content, such as Twitter’s ‘retweet’ button, Pinterest’s ‘pin’ function,
    Facebook’s ‘share’ option, or Tumblr’s ‘re-blog’ function.

  • [22] The development of social media began with simple platforms.

  • [89] Because of the wide use of social media by consumers and their own employees, companies use social media[90] on a customer-organizational level; and an intra-organizational

  • [37] As companies aim for greater market shares and increased audiences, internet bots have also been developed to facilitate social media marketing.

  • [6] A more recent paper from 2015 reviewed the prominent literature in the area and identified four common features unique to then-current social media services:[2] 1.

  • [86] To properly take advantage of these benefits, businesses need to have a set of guidelines that they can use on different social media platforms.

  • Social media are Web 2.0 Internet-based applications.

  • [8][9][1] Additionally, social media are used to document memories, learn about and explore things, advertise oneself, and form friendships along with the growth of ideas
    from the creation of blogs, podcasts, videos, and gaming sites.

  • [2][6] Introduction The term “social” in regard to media suggests that platforms are user-centric and enable communal activity.

  • ARPANET, which first came online in 1967, had by the late-1970s developed a rich cultural exchange of non-government/business ideas and communication, as evidenced by the
    network etiquette (or ‘netiquette’) described in a 1982 handbook on computing at MIT’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.

  • [83] Government reputation management[edit] As social media gained momentum among the younger generations, governments began using it to improve their image, especially among
    the youth.

  • [88] However, this process can be difficult, because one of the foundational concepts in social media is that one cannot completely control one’s message through social media
    but rather one can simply begin to participate in the “conversation” expecting that one can achieve a significant influence in that conversation.

  • Second Life, Twinity) Mobile social media[edit] Mobile social media refers to the use of social media on mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers.

  • [64] A separate study from 2015 found that people with a higher social comparison orientation appear to use social media more heavily than people with low social comparison


Works Cited

[‘Kietzmann, Jan H.; Kristopher Hermkens (2011). “Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media”. Business Horizons (Submitted manuscript). 54 (3): 241–251. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.01.005. S2CID 51682132.
2. ^
Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l Obar, Jonathan A.; Wildman, Steve (2015). “Social media definition and the governance challenge: An introduction to the special issue”. Telecommunications Policy. 39 (9): 745–750. doi:10.2139/ssrn.2647377. SSRN 2647377.
3. ^
Tuten, Tracy L.; Solomon, Michael R. (2018). Social Los Angeles: Sage. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-5264-2387-0.
4. ^ Jump up to:a b c Aichner, T.; Grünfelder, M.; Maurer, O.; Jegeni, D. (2021). “Twenty-Five Years of Social Media: A Review
of Social Media Applications and Definitions from 1994 to 2019”. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 24 (4): 215–222. doi:10.1089/cyber.2020.0134. PMC 8064945. PMID 33847527.
5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Kaplan Andreas M.; Haenlein Michael
(2010). “Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media” (PDF). Business Horizons. 53 (1): 61. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-24. Retrieved 2016-12-07.
6. ^ Jump up to:a
b c d e f boyd, danah m.; Ellison, Nicole B. (2007). “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship”. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication. 13 (1): 210–30. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x.
7. ^ Dijck, Jose van (2013-01-02).
The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-997079-7.
8. ^ Schivinski, Bruno; Brzozowska-Woś, Magdalena; Stansbury, Ellena; Satel, Jason; Montag, Christian; Pontes, Halley M. (2020). “Exploring
the Role of Social Media Use Motives, Psychological Well-Being, Self-Esteem, and Affect in Problematic Social Media Use”. Frontiers in Psychology. 11: 3576. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2020.617140. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC 7772182. PMID 33391137.
9. ^ Boyd, D.
N., and Ellison, N. B. (2007). “Social network sites: definition, history, and scholarship”. J. Comput. Commun. 13, 210–230. doi:10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x
10. ^ O’Keeffe, Gwenn Schurgin; Clarke-Pearson, Kathleen; Media, Council on Communications
and (April 1, 2011). “The Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families”. Pediatrics. 127 (4): 800–804. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-0054. ISSN 0031-4005. PMID 21444588.
11. ^ Dennis, Amy (July 5, 2017). “5 Social Media Outlets Ruling the
World”. Nice Branding Agency. Retrieved October 10, 2021.
12. ^ Agichtein, Eugene; Carlos Castillo. Debora Donato; Aristides Gionis; Gilad Mishne (2008). “Finding high-quality content in social media” (PDF). WISDOM – Proceedings of the 2008 International
Conference on Web Search and Data Mining: 183–193.
13. ^ Xiaohui Tao; Wei Huang; Xiangming Mu; Haoran Xie (18 November 2016). “Special issue on knowledge management of web social media”. Web Intelligence. 14 (4): 273–274. doi:10.3233/WEB-160343
– via Lingnan scholars.
14. ^ Pavlik & MacIntoch, John and Shawn (2015). Converging Media 4th Edition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-19-934230-3.
15. ^ Stacy, Christopher C. (September 7, 1982). “Getting Started Computing
at the AI Lab” (PDF). MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2019-03-23.
16. ^ Cerf, Vinton; Dalal, Yogen; Sunshine, Carl (December 1974), RFC 675, Specification of Internet Transmission Control Protocol
17. ^
Benj Edwards (November 4, 2016). “The Lost Civilization of Dial-Up Bulletin Board Systems”. The Atlantic. online. Retrieved 2018-02-05.
18. ^ Jump up to:a b “CMOS Sensors Enable Phone Cameras, HD Video”. NASA Spinoff. NASA. Retrieved 6 November
19. ^ Jump up to:a b Fossum, Eric R. (12 July 1993). Blouke, Morley M. (ed.). “Active pixel sensors: are CCDs dinosaurs?”. SPIE Proceedings Vol. 1900: Charge-Coupled Devices and Solid State Optical Sensors III. International Society for Optics
and Photonics. 1900: 2–14. Bibcode:1993SPIE.1900….2F. CiteSeerX doi:10.1117/12.148585. S2CID 10556755.
20. ^ Matsumoto, Kazuya; et al. (1985). “A new MOS phototransistor operating in a non-destructive readout mode”. Japanese Journal
of Applied Physics. 24 (5A): L323. Bibcode:1985JaJAP..24L.323M. doi:10.1143/JJAP.24.L323.
21. ^ Fossum, Eric R.; Hondongwa, D. B. (2014). “A Review of the Pinned Photodiode for CCD and CMOS Image Sensors”. IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society.
2 (3): 33–43. doi:10.1109/JEDS.2014.2306412.
22. ^ Dijck, Jose van (2013-01-02). The Culture of Connectivity: A Critical History of Social Media. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-997079-7.
23. ^ Jump up to:a b Kirkpatrick, David (2011).
The Facebook effect: the real inside story of Mark Zuckerberg and the world’s fastest-growing company. London: Virgin.
24. ^ Jump up to:a b “Then and now: a history of social networking sites”. CBS news. Retrieved 2018-01-26.
25. ^ “A Brief History
of Social Media & timeline – 1973 to 2021”. Dewzilla. 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
26. ^ “Social media”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2022-06-14.
27. ^ Nielsen Company. “Social Networks Blogs Now Account for One in Every Four and a
Half Minutes Online”. Nielsen. Retrieved 2015-04-30.
28. ^ Metzger, Justin (April 4, 2016). “Cell phones”.
29. ^ Schejter, A.M.; Tirosh, N. (2015). “”Seek the meek, seek the just”: Social media and social justice”. Telecommunications Policy. 39
(9): 796–803. doi:10.1016/j.telpol.2015.08.002.
30. ^ “Definition of SOCIAL MEDIA”. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
31. ^ Aichner, T.; Jacob, F. (March 2015). “Measuring the Degree of Corporate Social Media Use”. International
Journal of Market Research. 57 (2): 257–275. doi:10.2501/IJMR-2015-018. S2CID 166531788.
32. ^ Jump up to:a b c Kaplan, Andreas M. (March–April 2012). “If you love something, let it go mobile: Mobile marketing and mobile social media 4×4”. Business
Horizons. 55 (2): 129–139. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2011.10.009.
33. ^ Nikolinakou, Angeliki (January 2020). “”Do human values matter for promoting brands on social media? How social media users’ values influence valuable brand‐related activities such
as sharing, content creation, and reviews””. Journal of Consumer Behavior. 19 (1): 13–23. doi:10.1002/cb.1790. S2CID 210535859. Retrieved November 14, 2021.
34. ^ Ghosh, Rumi (June 2011). “Entropy-based Classification of ‘Retweeting’ Activity
on Twitter”. arXiv:1106.0346 [cs.SI].
35. ^ “the definition of bots”. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
36. ^ “Global chatbot market 2015-2024 | Statistic”. Statista. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
37. ^ Rodrigo, S. and Abraham, J. (2012). Development
and Implementation of a Chat Bot in a Social Network. 2012 Ninth International Conference on Information Technology – New Generations.
38. ^ Castronovo, Cristina (2012). “Social Media in Alternative Marketing Communication Model”. Journal of Marketing
Development & Competitivness. 6: 117–136.
39. ^ Baym, Nancy K. (October 7, 2013). “Data Not Seen: The uses and shortcomings of social media metrics”. First Monday. 18 (10). doi:10.5210/fm.v18i10.4873.
40. ^ “Terms of Use | Instagram Help Center”. Retrieved 2017-06-26.
41. ^ Jump up to:a b c Chu, Z.; Gianvecchio, S.; Wang, H.; Jajodia, S. (2012). “Detecting automation of Twitter accounts: Are you a human, bot, or cyborg?”. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing.
9 (6): 811–824. doi:10.1109/tdsc.2012.75. S2CID 351844.
42. ^ Stone-Gross, B.; Holz, T.; Stringhini, G.; Vigna, G. (2011). “The Underground Economy of Spam: A Botmaster’s Perspective of Coordinating Large-Scale Spam Campaigns” (PDF). LEET. 11:
43. ^ “The real cyborgs – in-depth feature about people merging with machines”. Retrieved March 2, 2022 – via
44. ^ Schreckinger, B.,. “Inside Trump’s ‘cyborg’ Twitter army”, Politico, September 30, 2016
(retrieved May 10, 2017)
45. ^ Media 0, Annie Pilon In Social (2021-03-11). “50 Social Media Management Tools for your Business”. Small Business Trends. Retrieved 2021-03-26.
46. ^ “USPTO search on published patent applications mentioning “social
media””. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
47. ^ “USPTO search on issued patents mentioning “social media””. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
48. ^ Cashmore, Pete (May 25, 2007). “Facebook Video Launches: YouTube Beware!”. Mashable.
Retrieved June 15, 2017.
49. ^ “Introducing Video on Instagram | Instagram Blog”.
50. ^ “Vido marketing”. 2019-02-12.
51. ^ Alexander, Julia (29 November 2018). “YouTube is rolling out its Instagram-like Stories
feature to more creators”. The Verge.
52. ^ Parr, Ben (Aug 10, 2011). “Twitter Rolls Out Photo Sharing to All Users”. Mashable.
53. ^ “Now on Twitter: group Direct Messages and mobile video camera”.
54. ^ “New ways to tap into
video on Twitter”. 2016.
55. ^ “Twitter Updates Media Studio, Expands Access to All Users”. Social Media Today.
56. ^ “r/announcements – Image Hosting on Reddit”. reddit. 2016-06-21.
57. ^ “r/changelog – [Reddit change] Introducing
video uploading beta”. reddit. 2017-06-26.
58. ^ “Introducing Reddit Image Galleries”. Upvoted. 2020-07-15.
59. ^ Liao, Shannon (29 May 2018). “Imgur adds 30-second video uploads so your GIFs can have soundtracks”. The Verge.
60. ^ “How to Upload
Video”. Imgur.
61. ^ TeamYouTube [@TeamYouTube] (December 11, 2018). “New on the Community tab: Post Playlists to engage with your audience! If you have Community posts enabled on your channel, learn more about Playlist posts here →” (Tweet). Archived from the original on January 5, 2021. Retrieved November 2, 2021 – via Twitter.
62. ^ “Number of global social network users 2017-2025| Statista”. Statista. Retrieved 2020-08-05.
63. ^ “Most popular social networks
worldwide as of January 2022, ranked by number of monthly active users (in millions)”. Statista.
64. ^ Correa, Teresa; Hinsley, Amber W. (October 2009). “Who Interacts on the Web?: The Intersection of Users’ Personality and Social Media Use”. Computers
in Human Behavior. 26 (2): 247–253. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2009.09.003.
65. ^ Vogel, Erin A.; Rose, Jason P.; Okdie, Bradley M.; Eckles, Katheryn; Franz, Brittany (2015). “Who compares and despairs? The effect of social comparison orientation on social
media use and its outcomes”. Personality and Individual Differences. 86: 249–56. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.026.
66. ^ Jargon, Julie (June 19, 2019). “How 13 Became the Internet’s Age of Adulthood”. The Wall Street Journal.
67. ^ Rideout, Vicky
(2017). “The Common Sense census: Media use by kids age zero to eight, 2017”. Common Sense Media.
68. ^ Rideout, Vicky; Robb, Michael B. (2019). “The Common Sense census: Media use by tweens and teens, 2019”. Common Sense Media.
69. ^ Jump up
to:a b Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer (2020). “Tween cyberbullying in 2020”. Cartoon Network. Archived from the original on 2020-10-20.
70. ^ Jump up to:a b Robb, Michael B. (2020). “Teens and the news: The influencers, celebrities, and platforms
they say matter most, 2020”. Common Sense Media.
71. ^ Saud, Muhammad; Mashud, Musta’in; Ida, Rachmah (2020). “Usage of social media during the pandemic: Seeking support and awareness about COVID-19 through social media platforms”. Journal of Public
Affairs. 20 (4): e2417. doi:10.1002/pa.2417. ISSN 1479-1854. S2CID 224943667.
72. ^ Wong, Adrian; Ho, Serene; Olusanya, Olusegun; Antonini, Marta Velia; Lyness, David (2021-08-01). “The use of social media and online communications in times of pandemic
COVID-19”. Journal of the Intensive Care Society. 22 (3): 255–260. doi:10.1177/1751143720966280. ISSN 1751-1437. PMC 8373288. PMID 34422109.
73. ^ “Call for Action: Managing the Infodemic”. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
74. ^ Jump up to:a
b Kudchadkar, Sapna R.; Carroll, Christopher L. (August 2020). “Using Social Media for Rapid Information Dissemination in a Pandemic: #PedsICU and Coronavirus Disease 2019”. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 21 (8): e538–e546. doi:10.1097/PCC.0000000000002474.
ISSN 1529-7535. PMC 7255404. PMID 32459792.
75. ^ Singh, Shweta; Dixit, Ayushi; Joshi, Gunjan (December 2020). “Is compulsive social media use amid COVID-19 pandemic addictive behavior or coping mechanism?”. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 54: 102290.
doi:10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102290. ISSN 1876-2018. PMC 7338858. PMID 32659658.
76. ^ Khan, Gohar F. (2017). Social Media for Government: A Practical Guide to Understanding, Implementing, and Managing Social Media Tools in the Public Sphere. SpringerBriefs
in Political Science. Singapore: Springer. ISBN 978-981-10-2942-4. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
77. ^ Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shir-Raz, Yaffa (2017). Risk Communication and Infectious Diseases in an Age of Digital Media. Routledge Studies in Public Health.
ISBN 978-0-367-22405-9. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
78. ^ Joshua Brunty & Katherine Helenek (2014). Social Media Investigation for Law Enforcement. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-52165-5.
79. ^ Caroline Sturdy Colls; Stephen J. Morewitz, eds. (2016).
Handbook of Missing Persons. Springer International. pp. 97, 102, 164.
80. ^ Perez, Kaitlyn (June 30, 2017). “Social Media Has Become a Critical Part of Law Enforcement”. National Police Foundation.
81. ^ Jump up to:a b Christopher J. Schneider
(2015). “Police “Image Work” in an Era of Social Media” YouTube and 2007 Montebello Summit Protests”. Social Media, Politics and the StateProtests, Revolutions, Riots, Crime and Policing in the Age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Routledge Research
in Information Technology and Society. Routledge. pp. 229–30. ISBN 9781317655480.
82. ^ Funk, McKenzie (2019-10-02). “How ICE Picks Its Targets in the Surveillance Age”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 2019-10-02.
Retrieved 2019-10-22.
83. ^ Jump up to:a b “Social Media Monitoring”. Brennan Center for Justice. pp. 255–57.
84. ^ “Sugar-coated propaganda? Middle East taps into power of influencers”. The Guardian. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
85. ^ “‘In this
world, social media is everything’: how Dubai became the planet’s influencer capital”. The Guardian. 17 April 2021. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
86. ^ Lugmayr, Artur (2013). “Predicting the Future of Investor Sentiment with Social Media in Stock Exchange
Investments: A Basic Framework for the DAX Performance Index”. Handbook of Social Media Management. Springer Berlin Heidelberg: 565–589. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-28897-5_33. ISBN 978-3-642-28896-8.
87. ^ Kaplan, Andreas M.; Haenlein, Michael (2010).
“Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of social media” (PDF). Business Horizons. Bloomington, Indiana: Kelley School of Business. 53 (1): 64–65. doi:10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-24.
Retrieved 2019-04-28. Social Media is a very active and fast-moving domain. What may be up-to-date today could have disappeared from the virtual landscape tomorrow. It is therefore crucial for firms to have a set of guidelines that can be applied
to any form of Social Media […].
88. ^ “5 Indirect Ways Building Social Authority Improves Your Brand”. Business 2 Community. 4 January 2013. Retrieved 2019-05-03.
89. ^ “Research Survey”. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04.
Retrieved 2012-04-24. One of the tenets of social media is that you can’t control your message, you can only participate in the conversation.
90. ^ Meske, Christian; Stieglitz, Stefan (2014-01-15). “Reflektion der wissenschaftlichen Nutzenbetrachtung
von Social Software / Reflecting the Scientific Discussion of Benefits Induced by Social Software”. I-com. 13 (3). doi:10.1515/icom.2014.0015. ISSN 2196-6826. S2CID 168104889.
91. ^ Wang, W., Liang, Q., Mahto, R. V., Deng, W., & Zhang, S. X. (2020).
Entrepreneurial entry: The role of social media. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 161, 120337.
92. ^ “Most famous social network sites worldwide as of January 2018, ranked by number of active users (in millions)”. Statista. Retrieved
93. ^ “Facebook MAU worldwide 2021”. Statista. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
94. ^ “Twitter: most users by country”. Statista. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
95. ^ Stephen, Andrew T.; Galak, Jeff (2012-10-01). “The Effects of Traditional and Social
Earned Media on Sales: A Study of a Microlending Marketplace”. Journal of Marketing Research. 49 (5): 624–639. doi:10.1509/jmr.09.0401. ISSN 0022-2437. S2CID 167535488.
96. ^ Chaffey, Dave; Ellis-Chadwick, Fiona (2012). Digital Marketing (5th ed.).
Pearson. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-273-74610-2.
97. ^ Sorescu, Alina; Frambach, Ruud T.; Singh, Jagdip; Rangaswamy, Arvind; Bridges, Cheryl (July 2011). “Innovations in Retail Business Models”. Journal of Retailing. 87: S3–S16. doi:10.1016/j.jretai.2011.04.005.
S2CID 27878657.
98. ^ Shu-Chuan, Chu (2011). “VIRAL ADVERTISING IN SOCIAL MEDIA: PARTICIPATION IN FACEBOOK GROUPS AND RESPONSES AMONG COLLEGE-AGED USERS” (PDF). Journal of Interactive Advertising. 12 (1): 32. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
99. ^ Hardy,
Kevin (June 18, 2018). “Wendy’s Roasts its Way to Social Media Stardom”. Retrieved 2018-06-18.
100. ^ “Explore the Best Wendysmascot Art | DeviantArt”. Retrieved 2021-12-31.
101. ^ Linnea, Laestadius; Wahl,
Megan; Pokhrel, Pallav; Cho, Young (2019). “From Apple to Werewolf: A content analysis of marketing for e-liquids on Instagram”. Addictive Behaviors. 91: 119–127. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2018.09.008. PMC 6358470. PMID 30253933.
102. ^ Newman, Daniel.
“Love It Or Hate It: Influencer Marketing Works”. Forbes. Retrieved 2017-11-11.
103. ^ Dunkley, Lydia. “Reaching The Zolom’s Children: Harnessing the Power of Digital Influencers in Film Publicity”. Journal of Promotional Communications. Retrieved
104. ^ “FTC Releases Advertising Disclosures Guidance for Online Influencers”. Federal Trade Commission. 2019-11-05. Retrieved 2021-05-14.
105. ^ “INFLUENCER | definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary”.
Retrieved 2019-01-25.
106. ^ Wang, Xia; Yu, Chunling; Wei, Yujie (November 2012). “Social Media Peer Communication and Impacts on Purchase Intentions: A Consumer Socialization Framework” (PDF). Journal of Interactive Marketing. 26 (4): 198–208.
doi:10.1016/j.intmar.2011.11.004. S2CID 167862356. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-12-15.
107. ^ Compare: Rainie, Lee; Wellman, Barry (27 April 2012). “The Internet Revolution”. Networked: The New Social Operating System. Cambridge, Massachusetts:
MIT Press (published 2012). p. 71. ISBN 978-0-262-30040-7. Retrieved 10 January 2021. […] Witt soon became an active content creator with no intermediary needed. He started blogging in 2003 […].
108. ^ Rosen, Jay. “The People Formally Known
as the Audience”. PressThink. Retrieved 2015-01-27. This post came out of reflections after BloggerCon IV (June 23–24, ’empowering the users’) […].
109. ^ Philip Pond and Jeff Lewis. 2019. “Riots and Twitter: Connective Politics, Social Media,
and Framing Discourses in the Digital Space”. Information, Communication & Society. V22, N2, 213-231
110. ^ Jump up to:a b Newman, N.; Levy, D. (2013). “Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2013” (PDF). Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-07.
111. ^ Howard, Philip N.; Busch, Laura; Sheets, Penelope (2010-02-05). “Comparing Digital Divides: Internet Access and Social Inequality in Canada and the United States”. Canadian Journal of Communication.
35 (1). doi:10.22230/cjc.2010v35n1a2192. ISSN 1499-6642.
112. ^ Leyva, Rodolfo (August 2017). “Exploring UK Millennials’ Social Media Consumption Patterns and Participation in Elections, Activism, and “Slacktivism””. Social Science Computer Review.
35 (4): 462–479. doi:10.1177/0894439316655738. S2CID 62913580.
113. ^ Anderson, Nate; Technica, Ars (January 14, 2011). “Tweeting Tyrants Out of Tunisia: Global Internet at Its Best”. Wired.
114. ^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (February 9, 2011). “Wired
and Shrewd, Young Egyptians Guide Revolt”. The New York Times.
115. ^ “The Arab Uprising’s Cascading Effects”. February 23, 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-02-27. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
116. ^ Compare: Rainie, Lee;
Wellman, Barry (27 April 2012). “The Internet Revolution”. Networked: The New Social Operating System. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press (published 2012). p. 207. ISBN 9780262300407. Retrieved 10 January 2021. Social media – Facebook, Twitter, and
email – plus mobile phones played a major part in the ‘Arab Spring’ of protests and rebellions against authoritarian regimes in the Middle East and North Africa throughout 2011. The activity of networked individuals in Tunisia, Egypt, and other
states was a prime example of how online content creation and community building, in tandem with offline gatherings and backstage maneuvering, can aid mass mobilizations.
117. ^ Gladwell, Malcolm (March 1, 2011). “Malcolm Gladwell and Clay Shirky
on Social Media and Revolution, Foreign Affairs March/April 2011”. Foreign Affairs (March/April 2011). Archived from the original on 2011-02-01. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
118. ^ Jump up to:a b Victoria A. Dounoucos; D. Sunshine Hillygus; Caroline Carlson
(2019). “The Message and the Medium: An Experimental Evaluation of the Effects of Twitter Commentary on Campaign Messages”. Journal of Information Technology and Politics. 16 (1): 66–76. doi:10.1080/19331681.2019.1572566. S2CID 150478043.
119. ^
Glenn W. Richardson, Jr., ed. Social Media and Politics: A New Way to Participate in the Political Process. Volume 1. Praeger, Santa Barbara, California, 2017.
120. ^ Mauro Barisione and Asimina Michailidou, eds. “Do We Need to Rethink EU Politics
in the Social Media Era?” in Social Media and European Politics, New York: Palgrave. Pages 1-23, 2017.
121. ^ Shirky, Clay (2011). “Technology, the Public Sphere, and Political Change”. Foreign Affairs. 90 (1). Retrieved 2018-08-04.
122. ^ P.W.
Singer and Emerson T. Brooking. Like War: The Weaponization of Social Media. Houghton Mifflin, NY, 2018.
123. ^ Ajbaili, Mustapha (June 24, 2014). “How ISIS conquered social media”. Al Arabiya News.
124. ^ Proofpoint, Inc. (January 17, 2018).
“Q4 2016 & Year in Review: Threat Summary” (PDF). Proofpoint.
125. ^ Podcasts; Daily, Wharton Business; America, North. “How Social Media Is Shaping Political Campaigns”. Knowledge@Wharton. Retrieved 2021-04-15.
126. ^ “Trump’s tirades about
Hillary Clinton’s emails are catching on — in Saudi Arabia”. Washington Post. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
127. ^ “Tweet by Pragmatic Grizzly”. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
128. ^ “Twitter suspends accounts linked to Saudi spying case”.
Reuters. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
129. ^ “Bahrain’s Social Media Problem: The Government’s Online to Real Life Attack on Human Rights”. New York Center For Foreign Policy Affairs. 13 May 2021. Retrieved 13 May 2021.
130. ^ Marche, S. (2012).
“Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?”. The Atlantic. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
131. ^ Burke for Silicon Republic, Elaine (May 30, 2013). “1 in 10 young people losing out on jobs because of pics and comments on social media”.
132. ^ Guillory, J.; Hancock,
J. T. (2012). “The effect of Linkedin on deception in resumes”. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 15 (3): 135–140. doi:10.1089/cyber.2011.0389. PMID 22335544.
133. ^ “Social media for scientists”. Nature Cell Biology. 20 (12): 1329.
2018. doi:10.1038/s41556-018-0253-6. PMID 30482942. S2CID 53744344.
134. ^ Liang, Xuan & Su, Leona Yi-Fan & Yeo, Sara & Scheufele, Dietram & Brossard, Dominique & Xenos, Michael & Nealey, Paul & Corley, Elizabeth. (2014). Building Buzz: (Scientists)
Communicating Science in New Media Environments. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly.
135. ^ National Academies Of Sciences, Engineering; Division of Behavioral Social Sciences Education; Committee on the Science of Science Communication:
A Research Agenda (2017). Communicating Science Effectively. doi:10.17226/23674. ISBN 978-0-309-45102-4. PMID 28406600.
136. ^ Shafer, M.S. (2012). Online communication on climate change and climate politics: A literature review. WIREs: Climate
Change, 3(6), 527-543.
137. ^ Haustein, Stefanie (2016). “Grand challenges in altmetrics: Heterogeneity, data quality and dependencies”. Scientometrics. 108: 413–423. arXiv:1603.04939. Bibcode:2016arXiv160304939H. doi:10.1007/s11192-016-1910-9.
S2CID 2169363.
138. ^ Jha, Rajesh Kumar; Shah, Dev Kumar; Basnet, Sangharshila; Paudel, Keshab Raj; Sah, Phoolgen; Sah, Ajit Kumar; Adhikari, Kishor (2016). “Facebook use and its effects on the life of health science students in a private medical
college of Nepal”. BMC Research Notes. 9: 378. doi:10.1186/s13104-016-2186-0. PMC 4970301. PMID 27485717.
139. ^ “ACLU-MN Files Lawsuit Against Minnewaska Area Schools”. March 2017. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
140. ^ “Employers, Schools,
and Social Networking Privacy”. American Civil Liberties Union. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
141. ^ Leenheer, Jorna; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Smidts, Ale (March 1, 2007). “Do loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty? An empirical
analysis accounting for self-selecting members”. International Journal of Research in Marketing. 24 (1): 31–47. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.ijresmar.2006.10.005. S2CID 168005053.
142. ^ “Kaplan Test Prep Online Pressroom » Kaplan Test
Prep Survey: More College Admissions Officers Checking Applicants’ Digital Trails, But Most Students Unconcerned”. October 31, 2013.
143. ^ “The First Amendment, Social Media and College Admissions”. UF College of Journalism and Communications.
Retrieved 2021-12-31.
144. ^ Jump up to:a b c “5 Court Cases Where Social Media Played a Part”. Blog Herald. August 24, 2017. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
145. ^ Jump up to:a b c Raymer, Elizabeth (September 24, 2018). “The (social media) evidence is
clear”. Canadian Lawyer. Retrieved 2018-10-27.
146. ^ “Survey: More Americans get news from Internet than newspapers or radio”.
147. ^ Rainie, Lee & Wellman, Barry (April 27, 2012). Networked: The New Social
Operating System. ISBN 978-0-262-30040-7.
148. ^ Shearer, Elisa; Grieco, Elizabeth (October 2, 2019). “Americans Are Wary of the Role Social Media Sites Play in Delivering the News”. Retrieved March 2, 2022.
149. ^ Hemsley, Jeff; Jacobson, Jenna;
Gruzd, Anatoliy; Mai, Philip (July 2018). “Social Media for Social Good or Evil: An Introduction”. Social Media + Society. 4 (3): 205630511878671. doi:10.1177/2056305118786719. ISSN 2056-3051.
150. ^ ACUNA, Tanja (2018-04-25). “The digital transformation
of news media and the rise of disinformation and fake news”. EU Science Hub – European Commission. Retrieved 2020-02-23.
151. ^ Wang, Z.; Tchernev, J. M.; Solloway, T. (2012). “A dynamic longitudinal examination of social media use, needs, and gratifications
among college students”. Computers in Human Behavior. 28 (5): 1829–1839. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.05.001.
152. ^ Morahan-Martin, J.; Schumacher, P. (2003). “Loneliness and social uses of the internet”. Computers in Human Behavior. 19 (6): 659–671.
153. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Rideout, Vicky; Robb, Michael, B. (2018). “Social Media, Social Life: Teens Reveal Their Experiences, 2018”. Common Sense Media.
154. ^ Ritter, Zacc (May 21, 2020). “Americans Use Social
Media for COVID-19 Info, Connection”. Gallup.
155. ^ Jump up to:a b Turkle, S. (2012). Alone together: Why we expect more from technology and less from each other. New York, NY: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-03146-7.
156. ^ Robb, Michael B.; Bay,
Willow; Vennegaard, Tina (2019). “The New Normal: Parents, Teens, and Mobile Devices in Mexico”. Common Sense Media.
157. ^ Burke, Moira; Kraut, Robert; Marlow, Cameron (2011). Social capital on Facebook: Differentiating uses and users (PDF). Conference
on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Vol. 7–9. pp. 571–580. doi:10.1145/1978942.1979023. ISBN 978-1-4503-0228-9. S2CID 8060040. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-29. Retrieved 2016-03-01.
158. ^ Jump up to:a b Walker, Leslie (October
23, 2016). “The Ins and Outs of Facebook Creeping”. Lifewire. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
159. ^ Fox, Jesse (February 26, 2014). “Why Exes Aren’t So “Ex” Anymore”. Psychology Today. Retrieved 2018-11-12.
160. ^
McCormack, Steven; Ortiz, Joseph (2017). Choices & Connections (second ed.).
161. ^ Chan, TH (2014). “Facebook and its Effects on Users’ Empathic Social Skills and Life Satisfaction: A Double-Edged Sword Effect”. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and
Social Networking. 17 (5): 276–280. doi:10.1089/cyber.2013.0466. PMID 24606026. S2CID 6850595.
162. ^ Goffman, Erving. (1971). The presentation of self in everyday life. Harmondsworth: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-021350-3. OCLC 3091353.
163. ^ “Children,
Teens, Media, and Body Image”. Common Sense Media. Retrieved 2017-12-03.
164. ^ van der Nagel, Emily (2017-09-02). “From usernames to profiles: the development of pseudonymity in Internet communication”. Internet Histories. 1 (4): 312–331. doi:10.1080/24701475.2017.1389548.
ISSN 2470-1475. S2CID 218589874.
165. ^ Jump up to:a b c Chua, Trudy Hui Hui; Chang, Leanne (2016). “Follow me and like my beautiful selfies: Singapore teenage girls’ engagement in self-presentation and peer comparison on social media”. Computers
in Human Behavior. 55: 190–7. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2015.09.011.
166. ^ Chen, Gina Masullo (2015). “Losing Face on Social Media”. Communication Research. 42 (6): 819–38. doi:10.1177/0093650213510937. S2CID 28015890.
167. ^ Kowalski, Robin M, Sue Limber,
and Patricia W Agatston. Cyberbullying. 1st ed. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012. Print.
168. ^ Wolpert, Stuart. “Teenage Brain on Social Media”. Retrieved 2016-05-31.
169. ^ Holland, G.; Tiggerman, M. (2016). “A systematic review of the impact
of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes”. Body Image. 17: 101–109. doi:10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.02.008. PMID 26995158.
170. ^ Lewallen, Jennifer; Behm-Morawitz, Elizabeth (March 30, 2016). “Pinterest or Thinterest?:
Social Comparison and Body Image on Social Media”. Social Media + Society. 2 (1): 205630511664055. doi:10.1177/2056305116640559.
171. ^ Patton, George C.; Sawyer, Susan M.; Santelli, John S.; Ross, David A.; Afifi, Rima; Allen, Nicholas B.; Arora,
Monika; Azzopardi, Peter; Baldwin, Wendy (June 2016). “Our future: a Lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing”. The Lancet. 387 (10036): 2423–2478. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00579-1. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 5832967. PMID 27174304.
172. ^
Holmberg, Christopher; Berg, Christina; Dahlgren, Jovanna; Lissner, Lauren; Chaplin, John Eric (2018). “Health literacy in a complex digital media landscape: Pediatric obesity patients’ experiences with online weight, food, and health information”.
Health Informatics Journal. 25 (4): 1343–1357. doi:10.1177/1460458218759699. PMID 29499615. S2CID 3687773.
173. ^ Jump up to:a b c “media and eating disorders”. 5 October 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
174. ^ Manheim, David; Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat
(2018). “The Structure of Tweets about Vaccine Safety Between Health Organizations, Experts and the Public: Analyzing Risk Communication Conversations”. Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness. 25 (4): 1343–1357. doi:10.1017/dmp.2020.404.
PMC 7943953. PMID 33089770.
175. ^ Wilson, Jenny; Peebles, Rebecka; Hardy, KK; Litt, IF; Wilson, J L (December 2006). “Surfing for thinness: A pilot study of pro-eating disorder web site usage in adolescents with eating disorders”. Pediatrics. 118
(6): e1635–e1643. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-1133. PMID 17142493. S2CID 22277352.
176. ^ Ransom, Danielle C; La Guardia, Jennifer G; Woody, Erik Z; Boyd, Jennifer L (2010). “Interpersonal interactions on online forums addressing eating concerns”. International
Journal of Eating Disorders. 43 (2): 161–170. doi:10.1002/eat.20629. PMID 19308991.
177. ^ “Eating Disorders and the Internet”. National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders. Archived from the original on 2010-10-19. Retrieved
178. ^ Robinson, Lawrence. “Social Media and Mental Health –”. Retrieved 2021-06-21.
179. ^ Carrion-Alvarez, Diego; Tijerina-Salina, Perla X. (2020-11-07). “Fake news in COVID-19: A perspective”. Health
Promotion Perspectives. 10 (4): 290–291. doi:10.34172/hpp.2020.44. ISSN 2228-6497. PMC 7722992. PMID 33312921.
180. ^ {{Chen, X., Zhang, S. X., Jahanshahi, A. A., Alvarez-Risco, A., Dai, H., Li, J., & Ibarra, V. G. (2020). Belief i Photo credit:’]