Many women, too, now took up the sonnet form, in particular Charlotte Smith, whose lachrymose Elegiac Sonnets (1784 onwards) are credited with helping create the ‘school
of sensibility’ characteristic of the time.
And soon after, in the following century, John Donne adapted the emerging Baroque style to the new subject matter of his series of Holy Sonnets.
But though sonnets continued to be written in both the old world and the new, innovation was mainly limited to the Americas, where the sonnet was used to express a different
and post-colonial reality.
 At the same time, Geoffrey Hill’s “An Apology for the Revival of Christian Architecture in England” appeared in Tenebrae (1978), where the challenging thirteen poems
of the sequence employ half-rhyme and generally ignore the volta.
 Beyond this, though the idea of arranging such material in a sequence was original to Lefroy, Thomas Warwick had anticipated the approach a century before in his sonnet
“From Bacchylides”, equally based on a fragment of an ancient Greek author.
D. G. Rossetti’s illuminated description of the sonnet, 1880 By the time the second half of the 19th century was reached, sonnets become chiefly interesting for their publication
in long sequences.
 Thus aware that its compression was applicable to a great variety of themes, Wordsworth eventually wrote some 523 sonnets which were to exert a powerful stylistic influence
throughout the first half of the 19th century.
The essay also surveyed the whole history of the sonnet, including English examples and European examples in translation, in order to contextualise the American achievement.
This led to Mary Robinson’s fighting preface to her sequence Sappho and Phaon, in which she asserted the legitimacy of the Petrarchan form as used by Milton over “the non-descript
ephemera from the heated brains of self-important poetasters” that pass as sonnets in the literary reviews of her day.
 Peter Dale’s book-length One Another contains a dialogue of some sixty sonnets in which the variety of rhyming methods are as diverse as the emotions expressed between
the speakers there.
It employs a 16-line form, described as (and working like) a sonnet, linking together the work’s fifty narrative episodes.
 In 1978 two later innovatory sequences were published at a period when it was considered that “the sonnet seems to want to lie fallow, exhausted”, in the words of one
 That sequence was followed in 1862 by George Meredith’s Modern Love, based in part on the breakdown of his first marriage.
Afterwards the work was long forgotten, until the 20th century witnessed a revival of interest in the poet, and his sonnets are now regarded as classic works of French poetry.
On the other hand, Eugene Lee-Hamilton’s exploration of the sonnet’s dramatic possibilities was through creating historical monologues in his hundred Imaginary Sonnets (1888),
based on episodes chosen from the seven centuries between 1120 – 1820.
 During that period, too, the form was taken up in many other European language areas and eventually any subject was considered acceptable for writers of sonnets.
 The undergraduate W. H. Auden is sometimes credited with dispensing with rhyme altogether in “The Secret Agent”, but went on to write many conventional sonnets, including
two long sequences during the time of international crisis: “In Time of War” (1939) and “The Quest” (1940).
 The poem’s fascination for U.S. writers is evidenced by no less than five translations in the second half of the 20th century alone.
 Part of his appeal to others was the way in which he used the sonnet as a focus for new subject matter, frequently in sequences.
 He also seems to have been the first to introduce an Italian variation of the form, the caudate sonnet, into English in his prolongation of “On the New Forcers of Conscience
Under the Long Parliament”.
“Tellingly, attempts to close off the sonnet from its Arabic predecessors depend upon a definition of the new lyric to which Giacomo’s poetry does not conform: surviving in
thirteenth-century recensions, his poems appear not in fourteen, but rather six lines, including four rows, each with two hemistiches and two “tercets” each in a line extending over two rows.
 One aspect of the American sonnet during the 20th century was the publication of sequences which had to wait decades for critical recognition.
The title page of the first edition of Shakespeare’s Sonnets Shakespeare’s sequence of 154 sonnets departs from the norm in addressing more than one person in its course,
male as well as female.
 Their unmannered style was once compared to Edward Arlington Robinson’s, but since then a case has been made for the work as minor poetry of contemporary importance
in its own right.
One of the best known and most imitated was  (Violante orders me to write a sonnet), which occupies a pivotal position in literary history.
 The example which later impressed Wordsworth the most was that of Milton’s sonnets, which he described in 1803 as having “an energetic and varied flow of sound, crowding
into narrow room more of the combined effect of rhyme and blank verse, than can be done by any other kind of verse I know of”.
20th century As part of his attempted renewal of poetic prosody, Gerard Manley Hopkins had applied his experimental sprung rhythm to the composition of the sonnet, amplifying
the number of unstressed syllables within a five- (or occasionally six-) stressed line – as in the rhetorical “The Windhover”, for example.
In her 2014 survey of the book for Poetry, April Bernard suggests that he was there making of ‘Berryman’ a similar semi-fictional character to the ‘Henry’ in The Dream Songs
In the course of their literary discussion, Navagero then suggested that the poet might attempt the sonnet and other Italian forms in his own language.
 Soon afterwards the sonnet form was deconstructed as part of the modernist questioning of the past.
Another key figure at this period was Lope de Vega, who was responsible for writing some 3,000 sonnets, a large proportion of them incorporated into his dramas.
The poems of both followed the Petrarchan model, employed the hitherto unfamiliar hendecasyllable, and when writing of love were based on the neoplatonic ideal championed
in The Book of the Courtier (Il Cortegiano) that Boscán had also translated.
 In contrast, Hassanally Ladha has argued that the Sicilian sonnet’s structure and content drew upon Arabic poetry and cannot be explained as an “invention” by Giacomo
da Lentini or any other member of the Sicilian School.
 From 1969 Robert Lowell too began publishing a less radical deconstruction of the form in his series of five collections of blank verse sonnets, including his Pulitzer
Prize volume The Dolphin (1973).
To this, da Lentini (or whoever else invented the form) added two tercets to the Strambotto in order to create the new 14-line sonnet form.
Petrarch followed in his footsteps later in the next century with the 366 sonnets of the Canzionere, which chronicle his life-long love for Laura.
Though they were written in the later Victorian era, the poems remained virtually unknown until they were published in 1918.
From that time on there were many deviations from the traditional sonnet form.
 William Baer suggests that the first eight lines of the earliest Sicilian sonnets are identical to the eight-line Sicilian folksong stanza known as the Strambotto.
Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s autobiographical Sonnets from the Portuguese (1845–50), for example, is described as the first depiction of a successful courtship since Elizabethan
 However, the greatest sonneteer of this period was the slightly younger Luís de Camões, though in his work the influence of the Spanish pioneers of the form has
also been discerned.
The character of the group’s literary program was given in Du Bellay’s manifesto, the “Defense and Illustration of the French Language” (1549), which maintained that French
(like the Tuscan of Petrarch and Dante) was a worthy language for literary expression, and which promulgated a program of linguistic and literary production and purification.
Impatience with the set form resulted in many variations over the centuries, including abandonment of the quatorzain limit and even of rhyme altogether in modern times.
With the similar aim of freeing the form from its fetters, Matthew Arnold turns his “Austerity of poetry” (1867) into a narrative carried forward over an enjambed eighth
line to a conclusion that is limited to the final three lines.
 During the Baroque period that followed, two notable writers of sonnets headed rival stylistic schools.
According to Christopher Blum, during the Renaissance, the sonnet became the “choice mode of expressing romantic love”.
The structure of a typical Italian sonnet as it developed included two parts that together formed a compact form of “argument”.
From his series on the River Duddon sprang reflections on any number of regional natural features; his travel tour effusions, though not always confined to sonnet form,
found many imitators.
At the turn of the 14th century there arrive early examples of the sonnet sequence unified about a single theme.
 Milton’s predilection for political themes, continuing through Wordsworth’s “Sonnets dedicated to liberty and order”, now became an example for contemporaries too.
Spanish Main article: Spanish poetry The poet Íñigo López de Mendoza, 1st Marquis of Santillana is credited as among the foremost to attempt “sonnets written in the
Italian manner” towards the middle of the 15th century.
 Later on, among Emma Lazarus’ many sonnets, perhaps the best-known is “The New Colossus” of 1883, which celebrates the Statue of Liberty and its role in welcoming
immigrants to the New World.
At its first appearance in his 1617 comedy La niña de Plata (Act 3), the character there pretends to be a novice whose text is a running commentary on the poem’s creation.
Yet on its republication in 2008, Dana Gioia asserted in his introduction that Wyeth is the only American poet of the Great War who can stand comparison to British war poets,
a claim later corroborated by Jon Stallworthy in his review of the work.
It was particularly so in whole series of amatory sequences, beginning with Sir Philip Sidney’s Astrophel and Stella (1591) and continuing over a period of two decades.
 Portuguese Main article: Portuguese poetry Dom Pedro, a son of King John I, has been credited with translations of sonnets by Petrarch into Portuguese, but
the form did not come into its own until the start of the 16th century.
Essentially the stanza is made up of four quatrains of enclosed rhyme, rhythmically driven forward over these divisions so as to allow a greater syntactical complexity “more
readily associated with the realist novel than with lyric poetry”.
Where most of the early revivalists had used Milton’s sonnets as the model for theirs, Smith and Bowles had preferred the Shakespearean form.
Wordsworth later accomplishes this in “Scorn not the Sonnet” (1827), which is without midway division, and where enjambment is so managed that the sense overrides from
line to line in an ode-like movement.
 The introduction later of a purified sonnet style to Brazilian literature was due to Cláudio Manuel da Costa, who also composed Petrarchan sonnets in Italian during his
stay in Europe.
They were included in a separate section in Leigh Hunt and S. Adams’ The Book of the Sonnet (London and Boston, 1867), which included an essay by Adams on “American Sonnets
and Sonneteers” and a section devoted only to sonnets by American women.
 It comprises 44 sonnets of dramatised first person narrative, the enjambed lines in which frequently avoid resting at the volta.
It has been observed of their intimate tone, and the way the sense overrides the volta within the poem in some cases, that Milton is here adapting the sonnet form to that
of the Horatian ode.
 So common were they that eventually, in the words of a literary historian, “No event was so trivial, none so commonplace, a tradesman could not open a larger shop, a
government clerk could not obtain a few additional scudi of salary, but all his friends and acquaintance must celebrate the event, and clothe their congratulations in a copy of verses, which almost invariably assumed this shape.
 Later imitations in other languages include one in Italian by Giambattista Marino and another in French by François-Séraphin Régnier-Desmarais, as well as an adaptation
of the idea applied to the rondeau by Vincent Voiture.
What eventually became three series of Ecclesiastical Sonnets started a vogue for sonnets on religious and devotional themes.
 But at this time too began to appear sequences of quatorzains with only a tenuous relationship to the sonnet form.
 The form was little used, however, until the Parnassians brought it back into favour.
 Among the variations made by others, Théodore de Banville’s limited itself to a four-syllable line, while in Jules de Rességuier (1788 – 1862) composed a sonnet monosyllabically
 Seamus Heaney also wrote two sequences during this period: the personal “Glanmore Sonnets” in Field Work (1975); and the more freely constructed elegiac sonnets of
“Clearances” in The Haw Lantern (1987).
John Milton’s sonnets constitute a special case and demonstrate another stylistic transition.
[‘1. Christopher O. Blum, “A Poet of the Passion of Christ”, Crisis Magazine, 2 April 2012.
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20. ^ Rutherford ed. 2016
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24. ^ David Garrison,
“English Translations of Lope de Vega’s Soneto de repente”, Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos 19. 2 (Invierno 1995), pp.311-325
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39. ^ Brandin,
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46. ^ Patricia Thomson, Sir Thomas Wyatt and his Background,
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48. ^ Peter Groves, “Finding his Feet: Wyatt and the Founding of English Pentameter”, Versification: An
Electronic Journal of Literary Prosody 4 (2005)
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Studies in Classical Philology Vol. 48 (1937), pp. 29-73
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54. ^ Bethan Roberts, Charlotte Smith and the Sonnet,
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55. ^ Cambridge History of English Literature (2005), p.231
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subjects, London 1796, p.10
59. ^ Jay Curlin, “Chaos in the Convent’s Narrow Room: Milton and the Sonnet”, Scholarly Commons, 1993
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62. ^ Wordsworth Centre
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73. ^ Google Books, pp.31-82
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78. ^ Norman White,
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122. ^ Turning Tides (ed. Peter van de Kamp), Story Line
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Aistriú na Soinéad go Gaeilge: Saothar Grá! Translating the Sonnets to Irish: A Labour of Love by Muiris Sionóid.
136. ^ Jan Morris (1984), The Matter of Wales: Epic Views of a Small Country, Oxford University Press. Page 152.
137. ^ Translated
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143. ^ Sani,
Zarina (1979). Budha Darakhat. New Delhi: Bazm – e – Seemab. p. 99. OL 24596004M. Akhtar Junagarhi kaa sonnet ghaaliban 1914 kaa hai- Rashid kaa 1930 kaa aur Akhtar Sheerani ne andaazan 1933 se 1942 tak sonnet likhe- isii dauraan 1934 se 1936 tak
Zia Fatehabadi ne bhi keii sonnet likhe (Akhtar Junagarhi’s sonnet is from the year 1914. Rashid’s sonnet is of 1930 and Akhtar Sheerani wrote sonnets between 1932 and 1942. During the period of 1932 to 1936, Zia Fatehabadi also wrote many sonnets)
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/aidanmorgan/8008258043/’]