strategic management

 

  • [7][8][9] Michael Porter identifies three principles underlying strategy:[10] • creating a “unique and valuable [market] position” • making trade-offs by choosing “what not
    to do” • creating “fit” by aligning company activities with one another to support the chosen strategy Corporate strategy involves answering a key question from a portfolio perspective: “What business should we be in?”

  • Companies that pursued the highest market share position to achieve cost advantages fit under Porter’s cost leadership generic strategy, but the concept of choice regarding
    differentiation and focus represented a new perspective.

  • [21] Porter revised the strategy paradigm again in 1985, writing that superior performance of the processes and activities performed by organizations as part of their value
    chain is the foundation of competitive advantage, thereby outlining a process view of strategy.

  • He also wrote: “The two basic types of competitive advantage [differentiation and lower cost] combined with the scope of activities for which a firm seeks to achieve them
    lead to three generic strategies for achieving above average performance in an industry: cost leadership, differentiation and focus.

  • [46] On the one hand, scholars drawing on organizational economics (e.g., transaction costs theory) have argued that firms use interorganizational relationships when they
    are the most efficient form comparatively to other forms of organization such as operating on its own or using the market.

  • Author Walter Kiechel wrote that it reflected several insights, including: • A company can always improve its cost structure; • Competitors have varying cost positions based
    on their experience; • Firms could achieve lower costs through higher market share, attaining a competitive advantage; and • An increased focus on empirical analysis of costs and processes, a concept which author Kiechel refers to as “Greater
    Taylorism”.

  • Where the realized pattern was different from the intent, he referred to the strategy as emergent; • Strategy as position – locating brands, products, or companies within
    the market, based on the conceptual framework of consumers or other stakeholders; a strategy determined primarily by factors outside the firm; • Strategy as ploy – a specific maneuver intended to outwit a competitor; and • Strategy as perspective
    – executing strategy based on a “theory of the business” or natural extension of the mindset or ideological perspective of the organization.

  • The idea of strategy targeting particular industries and customers (i.e., competitive positions) with a differentiated offering was a departure from the experience-curve influenced
    strategy paradigm, which was focused on larger scale and lower cost.

  • In his 1962 ground breaking work Strategy and Structure, Chandler showed that a long-term coordinated strategy was necessary to give a company structure, direction and focus.

  • “[11][12] Management theory and practice often make a distinction between strategic management and operational management, with operational management concerned primarily
    with improving efficiency and controlling costs within the boundaries set by the organization’s strategy.

  • [52] Core competency is part of a branch of strategy called the resource-based view of the firm, which postulates that if activities are strategic as indicated by the value
    chain, then the organization’s capabilities and ability to learn or adapt are also strategic.

  • He mentioned four concepts of corporate strategy each of which suggest a certain type of portfolio and a certain role for the corporate office; the latter three can be used
    together:[43] 1.

  • [31] Ansoff wrote that strategic management had three parts: strategic planning; the skill of a firm in converting its plans into reality; and the skill of a firm in managing
    its own internal resistance to change.

  • See Corporate Level Strategy 1995 and Strategy for the Corporate Level 2014 Competitive advantage[edit] Main article: Competitive advantage In 1980, Porter defined the two
    types of competitive advantage an organization can achieve relative to its rivals: lower cost or differentiation.

  • Each of these activities can contribute to a firm’s relative cost position and create a basis for differentiation…the value chain disaggregates a firm into its strategically
    relevant activities in order to understand the behavior of costs and the existing and potential sources of differentiation.

  • Change creates novel combinations of circumstances requiring unstructured non-repetitive responses; • Affects the entire organization by providing direction; • Involves both
    strategy formulation processes and also implementation of the content of the strategy; • May be planned (intended) and unplanned (emergent); • Is done at several levels: overall corporate strategy, and individual business strategies; and •
    Involves both conceptual and analytical thought processes.

  • By aligning the various activities in its value chain with the organization’s strategy in a coherent way, a firm can achieve a competitive advantage.

  • The second group, consisting of six schools, is more concerned with how strategic management is actually done, rather than prescribing optimal plans or positions.

  • [33] Porter wrote in 1980 that companies have to make choices about their scope and the type of competitive advantage they seek to achieve, whether lower cost or differentiation.

  • Environmental analysis includes the: • Remote external environment, including the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental landscape (PESTLE); •
    Industry environment, such as the competitive behavior of rival organizations, the bargaining power of buyers/customers and suppliers, threats from new entrants to the industry, and the ability of buyers to substitute products (Porter’s 5
    forces); and • Internal environment, regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the organization’s resources (i.e., its people, processes and IT systems).

  • Instead Mintzberg concludes that there are five types of strategies: • Strategy as plan – a directed course of action to achieve an intended set of goals; similar to the strategic
    planning concept; • Strategy as pattern – a consistent pattern of past behavior, with a strategy realized over time rather than planned or intended.

  • [34] Change in focus from production to marketing[edit] The direction of strategic research also paralleled a major paradigm shift in how companies competed, specifically
    a shift from the production focus to market focus.

  • On the other hand, scholars drawing on organizational theory (e.g., resource dependence theory) suggest that firms tend to partner with others when such relationships allow
    them to improve their status, power, reputation, or legitimacy.

  • [34] Industry structure and profitability[edit] A graphical representation of Porter’s Five Forces Main article: Porter five forces analysis Porter developed a framework for
    analyzing the profitability of industries and how those profits are divided among the participants in 1980.

  • [21] The five forces framework helps describe how a firm can use these forces to obtain a sustainable competitive advantage, either lower cost or differentiation.

  • By the 1960s, the capstone business policy course at the Harvard Business School included the concept of matching the distinctive competence of a company (its internal strengths
    and weaknesses) with its environment (external opportunities and threats) in the context of its objectives.

  • [15] Running the day-to-day operations of the business is often referred to as “operations management” or specific terms for key departments or functions, such as “logistics
    management” or “marketing management,” which take over once strategic management decisions are implemented.

  • He recommended eight areas where objectives should be set, such as market standing, innovation, productivity, physical and financial resources, worker performance and attitude,
    profitability, manager performance and development, and public responsibility.

  • [15][16] The answers to these and many other strategic questions result in the organization’s strategy and a series of specific short-term and long-term goals or objectives
    and related measures.

  • Implementation results in how the organization’s resources are structured (such as by product or service or geography), leadership arrangements, communication, incentives,
    and monitoring mechanisms to track progress towards objectives, among others.

  • [30] This core idea was developed further by Kenneth R. Andrews in 1963 into what we now call SWOT analysis, in which the strengths and weaknesses of the firm are assessed
    in light of the opportunities and threats in the business environment.

  • Nature of strategy[edit] In 1985, Ellen Earle-Chaffee summarized what she thought were the main elements of strategic management theory where consensus generally existed as
    of the 1970s, writing that strategic management:[11] • Involves adapting the organization to its business environment; • Is fluid and complex.

  • [15] Strategic management is often described as involving two major processes: formulation and implementation of strategy.

  • Further, the experience curve provided a basis for the retail sale of business ideas, helping drive the management consulting industry.

  • [51] Core competence[edit] Main article: Core competency Gary Hamel and C. K. Prahalad described the idea of core competency in 1990, the idea that each organization has some
    capability in which it excels and that the business should focus on opportunities in that area, letting others go or outsourcing them.

  • “[13] Strategies are established to set direction, focus effort, define or clarify the organization, and provide consistency or guidance in response to the environment.

  • [6] In response to the evident problems of “over diversification”, C. K. Prahalad and Gary Hamel suggested that companies should build portfolios of businesses around shared
    technical or operating competencies, and should develop structures and processes to enhance their core competencies.

  • [15] Definitions[edit] Strategy has been practiced whenever an advantage was gained by planning the sequence and timing of the deployment of resources while simultaneously
    taking into account the probable capabilities and behavior of competition.

  • In his 1965 classic Corporate Strategy, he developed gap analysis to clarify the gap between the current reality and the goals and to develop what he called “gap reducing
    actions”.

  • By 1979, one study estimated that 45% of the Fortune 500 companies were using some variation of the matrix in their strategic planning.

  • [6] Theory of the business[edit] According to Peter Drucker, business theory refers to the key points and strategies of a company, which are divided into three parts: 1.

  • The right level of diversification depends, therefore, on the ability of the parent company to add value in comparison to others.

  • In 1987, he argued that corporate strategy involves two questions: 1) What business should the corporation be in?

  • [15] Implementation[edit] The second major process of strategic management is implementation, which involves decisions regarding how the organization’s resources (i.e., people,
    process and IT systems) will be aligned and mobilized towards the objectives.

  • [40][41] Corporate strategy and portfolio theory[edit] Main articles: Modern portfolio theory and Growth–share matrix Portfolio growth–share matrix The concept of the corporation
    as a portfolio of business units, with each plotted graphically based on its market share (a measure of its competitive position relative to its peers) and industry growth rate (a measure of industry attractiveness), was summarized in the
    growth–share matrix developed by the Boston Consulting Group around 1970.

  • These “3 Cs” were illuminated by much more robust empirical analysis at ever-more granular levels of detail, as industries and organizations were disaggregated into business
    units, activities, processes, and individuals in a search for sources of competitive advantage.

  • In the field of management, strategic management involves the formulation and implementation of the major goals and initiatives taken by an organization’s managers on behalf
    of stakeholders, based on consideration of resources and an assessment of the internal and external environments in which the organization operates.

  • [5] Academics and practicing managers have developed numerous models and frameworks to assist in strategic decision-making in the context of complex environments and competitive
    dynamics.

  • [15] Formulation[edit] Formulation of strategy involves analyzing the environment in which the organization operates, then making a series of strategic decisions about how
    the organization will compete.

  • The prevailing concept in strategy up to the 1950s was to create a product of high technical quality.

  • Chandler wrote that: “Strategy is the determination of the basic long-term goals of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources necessary
    for carrying out these goals.

  • [36] Over time, the customer became the driving force behind all strategic business decisions.

  • By outsourcing, companies expanded the concept of the value chain, with some elements within the entity and others without.

  • [21] These are known as Porter’s three generic strategies and can be applied to any size or form of business.

  • [21] Generic competitive strategies[edit] Main article: Porter’s generic strategies Michael Porter’s Three Generic Strategies Porter wrote in 1980 that strategy target either
    cost leadership, differentiation, or focus.

  • Restructuring: The corporate office acquires then actively intervenes in a business where it detects potential, often by replacing management and implementing a new business
    strategy.

  • An importance scale could be labelled from “the main thrust of competitiveness” to “never considered by customers and never likely to do so”, and performance can be segmented
    into “better than”, “the same as”, and “worse than” the company’s competitors.

  • [38] The technique is also used in relation to marketing, where the variable “importance” is related to buyers’ perception of important attributes of a product: for attributes
    which might be considered important to buyers, both their perceived importance and their performance are assessed.

  • Further, core competency is difficult to duplicate, as it involves the skills and coordination of people across a variety of functional areas or processes used to deliver
    value to customers.

  • Strategic planning may also refer to control mechanisms used to implement the strategy once it is determined.

  • “[34] The concept of choice was a different perspective on strategy, as the 1970s paradigm was the pursuit of market share (size and scale) influenced by the experience curve.

  • Prior to 1960, the term “strategy” was primarily used regarding war and politics, not business.

  • Porter wrote: “[A]chieving competitive advantage requires a firm to make a choice…about the type of competitive advantage it seeks to attain and the scope within which it
    will attain it.”

  • [20] Michael Porter defined strategy in 1980 as the “…broad formula for how a business is going to compete, what its goals should be, and what policies will be needed to
    carry out those goals” and the “…combination of the ends (goals) for which the firm is striving and the means (policies) by which it is seeking to get there.”

 

Works Cited

[‘o Nag, R.; Hambrick, D. C.; Chen, M.-J (2007). “What is strategic management, really? Inductive derivation of a consensus definition of the field”. Strategic Management Journal. 28 (9): 935–955. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.491.7592. doi:10.1002/smj.615.qn|date=June
2018
o ^ Alkhafaji, Abbass F. (2003). Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control in a Dynamic Environment. New York: Routledge (published 2013). ISBN 9781135186357. Retrieved 2018-06-17. Strategic management is the process of
assessing the corporation and its environment in order to meet the firm’s long-term objectives of adapting and adjusting to its environment through manipulation of opportunities and reduction of threats.A corporation-oriented view
o ^ Courtney,
Roger (2002). Strategic Management for Voluntary Nonprofit Organizations. Routledge studies in the management of voluntary and non-profit organizations. Vol. 5. London: Psychology Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780415250238. Retrieved 2018-06-17. […] ‘Strategic
Management’ as ‘the process of strategic change’ (Bowman and Asche 1987) or as ‘the process of making and implementing strategic decisions’, ‘strategic decisions’ being those ‘that determine the overall direction of an enterprise and its ultimate
viability in light of the … changes that may occur in its … environments’ (Quinn 1980).
o ^ Pfeffer, Jeffrey 1946- (2009). The external control of organizations : a resource dependence perspective. Stanford Business Books. ISBN 978-0-8047-4789-9.
OCLC 551900182.
o ^ A Simple Approach to Strategic Management A_Simple_Approach_to_Strategic_Management A Simple Approach to Strategic Management
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Ghemawat, Pankaj (Spring 2002). “Competition and Business Strategy
in Historical Perspective”. Business History Review. 76 (1): 37–74. doi:10.2307/4127751. JSTOR 4127751. SSRN 264528.
o ^ Hill, Charles W. L.; Jones, Gareth R. (2012). Strategic Management: An Integrated Approach (10 ed.). Mason, Ohio: Cengage Learning.
p. 21. ISBN 9781111825843. Retrieved 2018-06-17. The feedback loop […] indicates that strategic planning is ongoing; it never ends. Once a strategy has been implemented, its execution must be monitored […]. This information and knowledge is returned
to the corporate level through feedback loops, and becomes the input for the next round of strategy formulation and implementation.
o ^ (Lamb, 1984:ix)
o ^ Lamb, Robert, Boyden Competitive strategic management, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
1984
o ^ Jump up to:a b c Porter, Michael E. (1996). “What is Strategy?”. Harvard Business Review (November–December 1996).
o ^ Jump up to:a b c Chaffee, Ellen Earle (January 1985). “Three Models of Strategy”. Academy of Management Review. 10
(1): 89–98. doi:10.5465/amr.1985.4277354.
o ^ Playing to win: how strategy really works. 2013-08-20.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Chandler, Alfred Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the history of industrial enterprise, Doubleday, New York, 1962.
o ^
Jump up to:a b Mintzberg, Henry (1987). “Why Organizations Need Strategy”. California Management Review. 30 (Fall 1987). doi:10.2307/41165264. JSTOR 41165264. S2CID 17975339.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Mintzberg, Henry and, Quinn, James Brian
(1996). The Strategy Process:Concepts, Contexts, Cases. Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-234030-4.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Drucker, Peter (1954). The Practice of Management. Harper & Row. ISBN 978-0-06-091316-8.
o ^ Henderson, Bruce (January 1, 1981).
“The Concept of Strategy”. Boston Consulting Group. Retrieved April 18, 2014.
o ^ Mintzberg, Henry “Crafting Strategy”, Harvard Business Review, July/August 1987.
o ^ Mintzberg, Henry and Quinn, J.B. The Strategy Process, Prentice-Hall, Harlow,
1988.
o ^ Mintzberg, H. Ahlstrand, B. and Lampel, J. Strategy Safari : A Guided Tour Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, The Free Press, New York, 1998.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g Porter, Michael E. (1980). Competitive Strategy. Free
Press. ISBN 978-0-684-84148-9.
o ^ Stacey, R. D. (1995). “The science of complexity – an alternative perspective for strategic change processes”. Strategic Management Journal. 16 (6): 477–495. doi:10.1002/smj.4250160606.
o ^ Terra, L. A. A.; Passador,
J. L. (2016). “Symbiotic Dynamic: The Strategic Problem from the Perspective of Complexity”. Systems Research and Behavioral Science. 33 (2): 235–248. doi:10.1002/sres.2379.
o ^ Morin, E. (2005). Introduction à la pensée complexe. Paris: Éditionsdu
Seuil.
o ^ Watkins, Michael D. (10 September 2007). “Demystifying Strategy: The What, Who, How, and Why”. Harvard Business Review. HBR. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
o ^ Camporesi, Alberto (1989). Strategia sì, ma non troppo. Guidare l’azienda tra
metodo e intuito. Italy: Franco Angeli. ISBN 9788820430191.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h Kiechel, Walter (2010). The Lords of Strategy. Harvard Business Press. ISBN 978-1-59139-782-3.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Henry Mintzberg-The Fall and Rise of Strategic
Planning-Harvard Business Review-January 1994
o ^ Drucker, Peter The Practice of Management, Harper and Row, New York, 1954.
o ^ Selznick, Philip Leadership in Administration: A Sociological Interpretation, Row, Peterson, Evanston Il. 1957.
o ^
Ansoff, Igor Corporate Strategy, McGraw Hill, New York, 1965.
o ^ The Economist-Strategic Planning-March 2009
o ^ Henderson, Bruce (1970). Perspectives on Experience. Boston Consulting Group. ISBN 978-0-684-84148-9.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c Porter,
Michael E. (1985). Competitive Advantage. Free Press. ISBN 978-0-684-84146-5.
o ^ Wikiquote-Henry Ford
o ^ Theodore Levitt-Marketing Myopia-HBR-1960
o ^ BCG Perspectives-The Experience Curve Reviewed-Parts 1-5-1974
o ^ Jump up to:a b University
of Cambridge, Importance-Performance Matrix, Institute for Manufacturing, Department of Engineering, accessed 9 September 2022, referring to an original article: Nigel Slack, The Importance‐Performance Matrix as a Determinant of Improvement Priority,
International Journal of Operations & Production Management, Vol. 14 No. 5, pp. 59-75
o ^ Levenburg, M. and Magal, S., Applying Importance-Performance Analysis to Evaluate E-Business Strategies among Small Firms, e-Service Journal, volume 3, No.
3 (Summer 2004-2005), pp. 29-48, accessed 9 September 2022
o ^ Lamblin, J-J., Market-Driven Management: Supplementary web resource information, section 4: The Importance-Performance Matrix, 2007 edition
o ^ Martilla, J. A. and James, J. C., Importance-Performance
Analysis, Journal of Marketing, volume 41, No. 1 (Jan., 1977), pp. 77-79
o ^ Corporate Strategy: The Quest for Parenting Advantage
o ^ Jump up to:a b Harvard Business Review-Michael Porter-From Competitive Advantage to Corporate Strategy-May 1987
o ^
Michael Porter-What is Strategy?-Harvard Business Review-November 1996
o ^ Cropper, Steve; Huxham, Chris; Ebers, Mark; Ring, Peter Smith, eds. (2008). The Oxford Handbook of Inter-Organizational Relations (1 ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199282944.001.0001.
ISBN 978-0-19-928294-4.
o ^ Parmigiani, Anne; Rivera-Santos, Miguel (2011). “Clearing a Path Through the Forest: A Meta-Review of Interorganizational Relationships”. Journal of Management. 37 (4): 1108–1136. doi:10.1177/0149206311407507. ISSN 0149-2063.
S2CID 144682495.
o ^ Pisano, Gary P. (1989). “Using Equity Participation to Support Exchange: Evidence from the Biotechnology Industry”. Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization. 5 (1): 109–26.
o ^ Poppo, Laura; Zenger, Todd (2002). “Do formal
contracts and relational governance function as substitutes or complements?”. Strategic Management Journal. 23 (8): 707–725. doi:10.1002/smj.249. ISSN 0143-2095.
o ^ Das, T. K.; Teng, Bing-Sheng (2001). “Trust, Control, and Risk in Strategic Alliances:
An Integrated Framework”. Organization Studies. SAGE Publications. 22 (2): 251–283. doi:10.1177/0170840601222004. ISSN 0170-8406. S2CID 144187071.
o ^ Das, T. K.; Teng, Bing-Sheng (1998). “Resource and Risk Management in the Strategic Alliance Making
Process”. Journal of Management. SAGE Publications. 24 (1): 21–42. doi:10.1177/014920639802400103. ISSN 0149-2063. S2CID 145072556.
o ^ Klimczak, Karol Marek; Machowiak, Wojciech; Shachmurove, Yochanan; Staniec, Iwona (2020-08-28). “Perceived collaborative
risk in small and medium technology enterprises”. Journal of Small Business Management. Informa UK Limited. 61 (2): 540–559. doi:10.1080/00472778.2020.1799305. ISSN 0047-2778. S2CID 225238339.
o ^ Hamel, G. & Prahalad, C.K. “The Core Competence
of the Corporation”, Harvard Business Review, May–June 1990.
o ^ Drucker, Peter F. (1994). “The Theory of the Business”. Harvard Business Review (September–October 1994).
o ^ Beaufre, Andre (1965). An Introduction to Strategy. Translated by R.H.
Barry. With a pref, by B.H. Liddell Hart. Frederick A. Prager. OCLC 537817. Unknown ID 65-14177.
o ^ Mulcaster, W.R. “Three Strategic Frameworks,” Business Strategy Series, Vol 10, No1, pp68 – 75, 2009.
o ^ Barney, Jay; Felin, Teppo (May 2013).
“What Are Microfoundations?”. Academy of Management Perspectives. 27 (2): 138–155. doi:10.5465/amp.2012.0107. ISSN 1558-9080. S2CID 154370237.
o ^ Foss, Nicolai J.; Lindenberg, Siegwart (May 2013). “Microfoundations for Strategy: A Goal-Framing
Perspective on the Drivers of Value Creation”. Academy of Management Perspectives. 27 (2): 85–102. doi:10.5465/amp.2012.0103. ISSN 1558-9080.
o ^ Scwhartz, Peter The Art of the Long View, Doubleday, New York, 1991.
o ^ Wack, Pierre “Scenarios:
Uncharted Waters Ahead”, Harvard Business review, September October 1985.
o ^ Spaniol, Matthew J.; Rowland, Nicholas J. (2019). “Defining Scenario”. Futures & Foresight Science. 1: e3. doi:10.1002/ffo2.3.
o ^ Between Chaos and Order: What Complexity
Theory Can Teach Business
o ^ Cameron, Bobby Thomas. Using responsive evaluation in strategic management. Strategic Leadership Review 4 (2), 22-27
o ^ Woodhouse, Edward J. and David Collingridge, “Incrementalism, Intelligent Trial-and-Error, and
the Future of Political Decision Theory,” in Redner, Harry, ed., An Heretical Heir of the Enlightenment: Politics, Policy and Science in the Work of Charles E. Limdblom, Boulder, C.: Westview Press, 1993, p. 139
o ^ de Wit and Meyer, Strategy Process,
Content and Context, Thomson Learning 2008
o ^ Elcock, Howard, “Strategic Management,” in Farnham, D. and S. Horton (eds.), Managing the New Public Services, 2nd Edition, New York: Macmillan, 1996, p. 56.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Woodhouse and Collingridge,
1993. p. 140
o ^ Jump up to:a b Hamel, Gary Leading the Revolution, Plume (Penguin Books), New York, 2002.
o ^ Moore, Mark H., Creating Public Value: Strategic Management in Government, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995.
o ^ Lindblom,
Charles E., “The Science of Muddling Through,” Public Administration Review, Vol. 19 (1959), No. 2
o ^ Dictionary. (2015). In Investopedia. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/onlinebanking.asp
o ^ Vuong, Quan-Hoang (2022). A New
Theory of Serendipity: Nature, Emergence and Mechanism. Walter de Gruyter GmbH. ISBN 9788366675582.
o ^ Michael Porter-Strategy and the Internet-Harvard Business Review-March 2001 Archived 2014-03-25 at the Wayback Machine
o ^ Phillip Evans-How
Data will Transform Business-November 2013
o ^ BCG-Phillip Evans-Rethinking Strategy for an Age of Digital Disruption-March 2014
o ^ “Embedded Sustainability: A strategy for market leaders”. The European Financial Review. 2011-04-25. Retrieved
2022-03-29. Consumers, employees, and investors are beginning to demand socially and environmentally-savvy products without compromise, while radical transparency is putting every company under a microscope.
o ^ Laszlo, Christopher (2011). Embedded
sustainability : the next big competitive advantage. Stanford, California. ISBN 978-0-804-77554-0.
o ^ Zhexembayeva, Nadya (2014). Overfished ocean strategy : powering up innovation for a resource-deprived world. San Francisco. ISBN 978-1609949648.
o ^
Sroufe, Robert (2018). Integrated management : how sustainability can create value within any business (First ed.). Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-78714-562-7.
o ^ Galpin, Timothy (October 2018). “Strategic management and
sustainability”. Business Strategies for Sustainability: 163–178. doi:10.4324/9780429458859-10. ISBN 9780429458859. S2CID 168685608.
o ^ Longoni, Cagliano, Annachiara, Raffaella (February 2015). “Environmental and social sustainability priorities”.
International Journal of Operations & Production Management. 35 (2): 216–245. doi:10.1108/IJOPM-04-2013-0182. hdl:11311/1015771.
o ^ Prado-Lorenzo, García Sánchez, José-Manuel, Isabel María (December 2010). “The Role of the Board of Directors in
Disseminating Relevant Information on Greenhouse Gases”. Journal of Business Ethics. 97 (3): 391–424. doi:10.1007/s10551-010-0515-0. S2CID 153866847.
o ^ Geus, Arie de (2014-08-01). “The Living Company”. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved 2022-03-29.
o ^
Senge, Peter. The Fifth Discipline, Doubleday, New York, 1990; (also Century, London, 1990).
o ^ Frank, R. and Cook, P. The Winner Take All Society, Free Press, New York, 1995.
o ^ Network Effects
o ^ Bolisani, Ettore; Bratianu, Constantin (2017-04-03).
“Knowledge strategy planning: an integrated approach to manage uncertainty, turbulence, and dynamics”. Journal of Knowledge Management. 21 (2): 233–253. doi:10.1108/jkm-02-2016-0071. ISSN 1367-3270.
o ^ Drucker, Peter The Age of Discontinuity, Heinemann,
London, 1969 (also Harper and Row, New York, 1968).
o ^ Toffler, Alvin Future Shock, Bantom Books, New York, 1970.
o ^ Toffler, Alvin The Third Wave, Bantom Books, New York, 1980.
o ^ Abell, Derek “Strategic windows”, Journal of Marketing, Vol
42, pg 21–28, July 1978.
o ^ Tichy, Noel Managing Strategic Change: Technical, political, and cultural dynamics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1983.
o ^ Handy, Charles The Age of Unreason, Hutchinson, London, 1989.
o ^ Pascale, Richard Managing
on the Edge, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1990.
o ^ Slywotzky, Adrian Value Migration, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1996.
o ^ Slywotzky, A., Morrison, D., Moser, T., Mundt, K., and Quella, J. Profit Patterns, Time Business (Random House),
New York, 1999, ISBN 0-8129-3118-1
o ^ Christensen, Clayton “The Innovator’s Dilemma,” Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1997.
o ^ Markides, Constantinos “A dynamic view of strategy” Sloan Management Review, vol 40, spring 1999, pp55–63.
o ^
Moncrieff, J. “Is strategy making a difference?” Long Range Planning Review, vol 32, no2, pp273–276.
o ^ Teece, David J.; Pisano, Gary; Shuen, Amy (August 1997). “Dynamic Capabilities and Strategic Management” (PDF). Strategic Management Journal.
18 (7): 509–533. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.390.9899. doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0266(199708)18:7
<509::aid-smj882>3.0.co;2-z. S2CID 167484845. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-24.|doi=10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199708)18:7
<509::AID-SMJ882>3.0.CO;2-Z
o ^ “Taking Care of Business, 1995–2005”. ScienceWatch. Thomson Scientific. November–December 2005. Retrieved 2012-01-26.
o ^ Deming, W.E. Quality, Productivity, and Competitive Position, MIT Center for Advanced Engineering, Cambridge
Mass., 1982.
o ^ Juran, J.M. Juran on Quality, Free Press, New York, 1992.
o ^ Kearney, A.T. Total Quality Management: A business process perspective, Kearney Pree Inc, 1992.
o ^ Crosby, P. Quality is Free, McGraw Hill, New York, 1979.
o ^
Feignbaum, A. Total Quality Control, 3rd edition, McGraw Hill, Maidenhead, 1990.
o ^ Heskett, J. Managing in the Service Economy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1986.
o ^ Davidow, W. and Uttal, B. Total Customer Service, Harper
Perennial Books, New York, 1990.
o ^ Schlesinger, L. and Heskett, J. “Customer Satisfaction is rooted in Employee Satisfaction,” Harvard Business Review, November–December 1991.
o ^ Berry, L. On Great Service, Free Press, New York, 1995.
o ^
Kingman-Brundage, J. “Service Mapping” pp 148–163 In Scheuing, E. and Christopher, W. (eds.), The Service Quality Handbook, Amacon, New York, 1993.
o ^ Sewell, C. and Brown, P. Customers for Life, Doubleday Currency, New York, 1990.
o ^
Reichheld, F. The Loyalty Effect, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1996.
o ^ Gronroos, C. “From marketing mix to relationship marketing: towards a paradigm shift in marketing”, Management Decision, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp 4–32, 1994.
o ^
Reichheld, F. and Sasser, E. “Zero defects: Quality comes to services”, Harvard Business Review, September/October 1990.
o ^ Hammer, M. and Champy, J. Reengineering the Corporation, Harper Business, New York, 1993.
o ^ Lester, R. Made
in America, MIT Commission on Industrial Productivity, Boston, 1989.
o ^ Camp, R. Benchmarking: The search for industry best practices that lead to superior performance, American Society for Quality Control, Quality Press, Milwaukee, Wis.,
1989.
o ^ Rumelt, Richard P. (2011). Good Strategy/Bad Strategy. Crown Business. ISBN 978-0-307-88623-1.
o ^ American Rhetoric-President John F. Kennedy-Cuban Missile Crisis Address to the Nation-22 October 1962
o ^ Peters, Tom; Waterman,
Robert H. (1982). In Search of Excellence: Lessons From America’s Best-Run Companies. p. 289. ISBN 9780060150426. Management By Wandering Around at Google Books
o ^ IBM, Capitalizing on Complexity: Insights from the Global Chief Executive
Office Study, July 2010
o ^ Mckeown, Max, The Strategy Book, FT Prentice Hall, 2012
o ^ Barnard, Chester The function of the executive, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass, 1938, page 235.
o ^ Mintzberg, Henry The Nature of Managerial
Work, Harper and Roe, New York, 1973, page 38.
o ^ Kotter, John The general manager, Free Press, New York, 1982.
o ^ Isenberg, Daniel “How managers think”, Harvard Business Review, November–December 1984.
o ^ Isenberg, Daniel Strategic
Opportunism: Managing under uncertainty, Harvard Graduate School of Business, Working paper 9-786-020, Boston, January 1986.
o ^ Zaleznik, Abraham “Managers and Leaders: Are they different?”, Harvard Business Review, May–June 1977.
o ^
Zaleznik, Abraham The Managerial Mistique, Harper and Row, New York, 1989.
o ^ Corner, P. Kinicki, A. and Keats, B. “Integrating organizational and individual information processing perspectives on choice”, Organizational Science, vol. 3,
1994.
o ^ J. Scott Armstrong & Kesten C. Greene (2007). “Competitor-oriented Objectives: The Myth of Market Share” (PDF). International Journal of Business. 12 (1): 116–134. ISSN 1083-4346. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-22.
o ^
Barney, J. (1991) “Firm Resources and Sustainable Competitive Advantage”, Journal of Management, vol 17, no 1, 1991.
o ^ Pine, J. and Gilmore, J. “The Four Faces of Mass Customization”, Harvard Business Review, Vol 75, No 1, Jan–Feb 1997.
o ^
Pine, J. and Gilmore, J. (1999) The Experience Economy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 1999.
o ^ Evens, P. and Wurster, T. “Strategy and the New Economics of Information”, Harvard Business Review, Sept/Oct 1997.
o ^ Schuck, Gloria
“Intelligent Workers: A new pedagogy for the high tech workplace”, Organizational Dynamics, Autumn 1985.
o ^ Zuboff, Shoshana In the Age of the Smart Machine, Basic Books, New York, 1988.
o ^ Buzzell, R. and Gale, B. The PIMS Principles:
Linking Strategy to Performance, Free Press, New York, 1987.
o ^ Schumacher, E.F. Small Is Beautiful: A Study of Economics As If People Mattered, ISBN 0-06-131778-0 (also ISBN 0-88179-169-5)
o ^ Woo, C. and Cooper, A. “The surprising case
for low market share”, Harvard Business Review, November–December 1982, pg 106–113.
o ^ Levinson, J.C. Guerrilla Marketing, Secrets for making big profits from your small business, Houghton Muffin Co. New York, 1984, ISBN 0-618-78591-4.
o ^
Traverso, D. Outsmarting Goliath, Bloomberg Press, Princeton, 2000.
o ^ Moore, J. “Predators and Prey”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 71, May–June, pp 75–86, 1993.
o ^ TED-Phillip Evans-How Data will Transform Business-March 2014
o ^
Collins, James and Porras, Jerry Built to Last, Harper Books, New York, 1994.
o ^ Jump up to:a b de Geus, Arie (1997). The Living Company. Harvard Business School Press. ISBN 978-0-87584-782-5.
o ^ Mulcaster, W.R. “Three Strategic Frameworks,”
Business Strategy Series, Vol 10, No 1, pp 68–75, 2009.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/somemixedstuff/3415176946/’]