stromal cell-derived factor 1


  • [7] In the urinary tract system, methylation of the CXCL12 promoter and expression of PD-L1 may be powerful prognostic biomarkers for biochemical recurrence in prostate carcinoma
    patients after radical prostatectomy, and further studies are ongoing to confirm if CXCL12 methylation may aid in active surveillance strategies.

  • [32] As a drug target[edit] Chemokines and chemokine receptors, of which CXCR stands out, regulate multiple processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and immune responses
    and are considered potential targets for drug development.

  • [27] Like other chemokines, CXCL12 is involved with cell migration that contributes to inflammation.

  • [7][8] The CXCL12 gene also contains one of 27 SNPs associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease.

  • [8] Clinical marker[edit] A multi-locus genetic risk score study based on a combination of 27 loci, including the CXCL12 gene, identified individuals at increased risk for
    both incident and recurrent coronary artery disease events, as well as an enhanced clinical benefit from statin therapy.

  • CXCL12 is also chemotactic for mesenchymal stem cells and is expressed in the area of inflammatory bone destruction, where it mediates their suppressive effect on osteoclastogenesis.

  • [15][16] AMD-3100 is also widely used in combination with G-CSF for mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells into the blood stream, allowing collection for bone marrow transplant.

  • [34] For instance, blocking CXCR4, the receptor for CXCL12, with Plerixafor (AMD-3100) increased the effectiveness of combretastatin in a mouse model of breast cancer, presumably
    by preventing macrophages from being recruited to tumours.

  • [15] This interaction used to be considered exclusive (unlike for other chemokines and their receptors), but recently, it was suggested that CXCL12 may also bind the CXCR7
    receptor (now called ACKR3).

  • [31][unreliable medical source] Alzheimer’s disease[edit] Though CXCL12 may be detrimental for those with MS, recent research is suggesting that this chemokine may be beneficial
    in decreasing the progression of patients with Alzheimer’s.

  • [25] Within the CNS, CXCL12 contributes to cell proliferation, neurogenesis (nervous tissue development and growth), as well as neuroinflammation.

  • Elevated levels of CXCL12 are observed in the cerebral spinal fluid of patients with MS. CXCL12 crosses the blood–brain barrier and causes neuroinflammation that contributes
    to axonal damage and therefore the progression of multiple sclerosis.

  • Once at the site of damage, NPCs may begin stem cell based tissue repair to the lesion.

  • [32][unreliable medical source] Additionally, this pretreatment with CXCL decreased the prevalence of apoptosis and oxidative damage normally caused by the presence of the
    beta-amyloid plaque.

  • It has also been shown that CXCL12 signalling regulates the expression of CD20 on B cells.


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