stromal cell-derived factor 1

 

  • [7] In the urinary tract system, methylation of the CXCL12 promoter and expression of PD-L1 may be powerful prognostic biomarkers for biochemical recurrence in prostate carcinoma
    patients after radical prostatectomy, and further studies are ongoing to confirm if CXCL12 methylation may aid in active surveillance strategies.

  • [32] As a drug target[edit] Chemokines and chemokine receptors, of which CXCR stands out, regulate multiple processes such as morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and immune responses
    and are considered potential targets for drug development.

  • [27] Like other chemokines, CXCL12 is involved with cell migration that contributes to inflammation.

  • [7][8] The CXCL12 gene also contains one of 27 SNPs associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease.

  • [8] Clinical marker[edit] A multi-locus genetic risk score study based on a combination of 27 loci, including the CXCL12 gene, identified individuals at increased risk for
    both incident and recurrent coronary artery disease events, as well as an enhanced clinical benefit from statin therapy.

  • CXCL12 is also chemotactic for mesenchymal stem cells and is expressed in the area of inflammatory bone destruction, where it mediates their suppressive effect on osteoclastogenesis.

  • [15][16] AMD-3100 is also widely used in combination with G-CSF for mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells into the blood stream, allowing collection for bone marrow transplant.

  • [34] For instance, blocking CXCR4, the receptor for CXCL12, with Plerixafor (AMD-3100) increased the effectiveness of combretastatin in a mouse model of breast cancer, presumably
    by preventing macrophages from being recruited to tumours.

  • [15] This interaction used to be considered exclusive (unlike for other chemokines and their receptors), but recently, it was suggested that CXCL12 may also bind the CXCR7
    receptor (now called ACKR3).

  • [31][unreliable medical source] Alzheimer’s disease[edit] Though CXCL12 may be detrimental for those with MS, recent research is suggesting that this chemokine may be beneficial
    in decreasing the progression of patients with Alzheimer’s.

  • [25] Within the CNS, CXCL12 contributes to cell proliferation, neurogenesis (nervous tissue development and growth), as well as neuroinflammation.

  • Elevated levels of CXCL12 are observed in the cerebral spinal fluid of patients with MS. CXCL12 crosses the blood–brain barrier and causes neuroinflammation that contributes
    to axonal damage and therefore the progression of multiple sclerosis.

  • Once at the site of damage, NPCs may begin stem cell based tissue repair to the lesion.

  • [32][unreliable medical source] Additionally, this pretreatment with CXCL decreased the prevalence of apoptosis and oxidative damage normally caused by the presence of the
    beta-amyloid plaque.

  • It has also been shown that CXCL12 signalling regulates the expression of CD20 on B cells.

 

Works Cited

[‘1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000107562 – Ensembl, May 2017
2. ^ Jump up to:a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000061353 – Ensembl, May 2017
3. ^ “Human PubMed Reference:”. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National
Library of Medicine.
4. ^ “Mouse PubMed Reference:”. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
5. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Entrez Gene: CXCL12 chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (stromal cell-derived factor 1)”.
6. ^
“BioGPS – your Gene Portal System”. biogps.org. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
7. ^ Jump up to:a b Guo JC, Li J, Zhou L, Yang JY, Zhang ZG, Liang ZY, Zhou WX, You L, Zhang TP, Zhao YP (August 2016). “CXCL12-CXCR7 axis contributes to the invasive phenotype
of pancreatic cancer”. Oncotarget. 7 (38): 62006–62018. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.11330. PMC 5308707. PMID 27542220.
8. ^ Jump up to:a b Sorrentino C, Miele L, Porta A, Pinto A, Morello S (August 2016). “Activation of the A2B adenosine receptor in
B16 melanomas induces CXCL12 expression in FAP-positive tumor stromal cells, enhancing tumor progression”. Oncotarget. 7 (39): 64274–64288. doi:10.18632/oncotarget.11729. PMC 5325441. PMID 27590504.
9. ^ Jump up to:a b Mega JL, Stitziel NO, Smith
JG, Chasman DI, Caulfield MJ, Devlin JJ, Nordio F, Hyde CL, Cannon CP, Sacks FM, Poulter NR, Sever PS, Ridker PM, Braunwald E, Melander O, Kathiresan S, Sabatine MS (June 2015). “Genetic risk, coronary heart disease events, and the clinical benefit
of statin therapy: an analysis of primary and secondary prevention trials”. Lancet. 385 (9984): 2264–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61730-X. PMC 4608367. PMID 25748612.
10. ^ Jump up to:a b “CXCL12 – Stromal cell-derived factor 1 precursor – Homo
sapiens (Human) – CXCL12 gene & protein”. UniProt.
11. ^ De La Luz Sierra M, Yang F, Narazaki M, Salvucci O, Davis D, Yarchoan R, Zhang HH, Fales H, Tosato G (April 2004). “Differential processing of stromal-derived factor-1alpha and stromal-derived
factor-1beta explains functional diversity”. Blood. 103 (7): 2452–9. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-08-2857. PMID 14525775.
12. ^ Crump MP, Gong JH, Loetscher P, Rajarathnam K, Amara A, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Virelizier JL, Baggiolini M, Sykes BD, Clark-Lewis
I (December 1997). “Solution structure and basis for functional activity of stromal cell-derived factor-1; dissociation of CXCR4 activation from binding and inhibition of HIV-1”. The EMBO Journal. 16 (23): 6996–7007. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.23.6996.
PMC 1170303. PMID 9384579.
13. ^ Schrader AJ, Lechner O, Templin M, Dittmar KE, Machtens S, Mengel M, Probst-Kepper M, Franzke A, Wollensak T, Gatzlaff P, Atzpodien J, Buer J, Lauber J (April 2002). “CXCR4/CXCL12 expression and signalling in kidney
cancer”. British Journal of Cancer. 86 (8): 1250–6. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600221. PMC 2375348. PMID 11953881.
14. ^ Custo S, Baron B, Felice A, Seria E (5 July 2022). “A comparative profile of total protein and six angiogenically-active growth factors
in three platelet products”. GMS Interdisciplinary Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery DGPW. 11 (Doc06): Doc06. doi:10.3205/iprs000167. PMC 9284722. PMID 35909816.
15. ^ Jump up to:a b Bleul CC, Fuhlbrigge RC, Casasnovas JM, Aiuti A, Springer TA
(September 1996). “A highly efficacious lymphocyte chemoattractant, stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)”. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 184 (3): 1101–9. doi:10.1084/jem.184.3.1101. PMC 2192798. PMID 9064327.
16. ^ Ara T, Nakamura Y, Egawa
T, Sugiyama T, Abe K, Kishimoto T, Matsui Y, Nagasawa T (April 2003). “Impaired colonization of the gonads by primordial germ cells in mice lacking a chemokine, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
of the United States of America. 100 (9): 5319–23. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.5319A. doi:10.1073/pnas.0730719100. PMC 154343. PMID 12684531.
17. ^ Askari AT, Unzek S, Popovic ZB, Goldman CK, Forudi F, Kiedrowski M, Rovner A, Ellis SG, Thomas JD, DiCorleto
PE, Topol EJ, Penn MS (August 2003). “Effect of stromal-cell-derived factor 1 on stem-cell homing and tissue regeneration in ischaemic cardiomyopathy”. Lancet. 362 (9385): 697–703. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14232-8. PMID 12957092. S2CID 24354002.
18. ^
Ma Q, Jones D, Borghesani PR, Segal RA, Nagasawa T, Kishimoto T, Bronson RT, Springer TA (August 1998). “Impaired B-lymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis, and derailed cerebellar neuron migration in CXCR4- and SDF-1-deficient mice”. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 95 (16): 9448–53. Bibcode:1998PNAS…95.9448M. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.16.9448. PMC 21358. PMID 9689100.
19. ^ Takano T, Li YJ, Kukita A, Yamaza T, Ayukawa Y, Moriyama K, Uehara N, Nomiyama H, Koyano
K, Kukita T (2014). “Mesenchymal stem cells markedly suppress inflammatory bone destruction in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis”. Laboratory Investigation. 94 (3): 286–96. doi:10.1038/labinvest.2013.152. PMID 24395111.
20. ^ Zheng H, Fu G, Dai
T, Huang H (2007). “Migration of endothelial progenitor cells mediated by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha/CXCR4 via PI3K/Akt/eNOS signal transduction pathway”. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 50 (3): 274–80. doi:10.1097/FJC.0b013e318093ec8f.
PMID 17878755. S2CID 13616442.
21. ^ Balabanian K, Lagane B, Infantino S, Chow KY, Harriague J, Moepps B, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Thelen M, Bachelerie F (2005). “The chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12 binds to and signals through the orphan receptor RDC1 in T
lymphocytes”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (42): 35760–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M508234200. PMID 16107333.
22. ^ Burns JM, Summers BC, Wang Y, Melikian A, Berahovich R, Miao Z, Penfold ME, Sunshine MJ, Littman DR, Kuo CJ, Wei K, McMaster BE,
Wright K, Howard MC, Schall TJ (2006). “A novel chemokine receptor for SDF-1 and I-TAC involved in cell survival, cell adhesion, and tumor development”. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 203 (9): 2201–13. doi:10.1084/jem.20052144. PMC 2118398.
PMID 16940167.
23. ^ Cruz-Orengo L, Holman DW, Dorsey D, Zhou L, Zhang P, Wright M, McCandless EE, Patel JR, Luker GD, Littman DR, Russell JH, Klein RS (2011). “CXCR7 influences leukocyte entry into the CNS parenchyma by controlling abluminal CXCL12
abundance during autoimmunity”. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 208 (2): 327–39. doi:10.1084/jem.20102010. PMC 3039853. PMID 21300915.
24. ^ Oberlin E, Amara A, Bachelerie F, Bessia C, Virelizier JL, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Schwartz O, Heard
JM, Clark-Lewis I, Legler DF, Loetscher M, Baggiolini M, Moser B (1996). “The CXC chemokine SDF-1 is the ligand for LESTR/fusin and prevents infection by T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1” (PDF). Nature. 382 (6594): 833–5. Bibcode:1996Natur.382..833O. doi:10.1038/382833a0.
PMID 8752281. S2CID 4233446.
25. ^ Bajetto A, Bonavia R, Barbero S, Florio T, Schettini G (July 2001). “Chemokines and their receptors in the central nervous system”. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology. 22 (3): 147–84. doi:10.1006/frne.2001.0214. PMID
11456467. S2CID 29689159.
26. ^ Jump up to:a b Li M, Hale JS, Rich JN, Ransohoff RM, Lathia JD (October 2012). “Chemokine CXCL12 in neurodegenerative diseases: an SOS signal for stem cell-based repair”. Trends in Neurosciences. 35 (10): 619–28.
doi:10.1016/j.tins.2012.06.003. PMC 3461091. PMID 22784557.
27. ^ Guyon A (March 2014). “CXCL12 chemokine and its receptors as major players in the interactions between immune and nervous systems”. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 8: 65. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00065.
PMC 3944789. PMID 24639628.
28. ^ Guyon A (2014). “CXCL12 chemokine and its receptors as major players in the interactions between immune and nervous systems”. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. 8: 65. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00065. PMC 3944789.
PMID 24639628.
29. ^ Pozzobon T, Goldoni G, Viola A, Molon B (September 2016). “CXCR4 signaling in health and disease”. Immunology Letters. 177: 6–15. doi:10.1016/j.imlet.2016.06.006. hdl:11577/3222781. PMID 27363619.
30. ^ Goltz D, Holmes EE,
Gevensleben H, Sailer V, Dietrich J, Jung M, Röhler M, Meller S, Ellinger J, Kristiansen G, Dietrich D (July 2016). “CXCL12 promoter methylation and PD-L1 expression as prognostic biomarkers in prostate cancer patients”. Oncotarget. 7 (33): 53309–53320.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.10786. PMC 5288188. PMID 27462860.
31. ^ Krumbholz M, Theil D, Cepok S, Hemmer B, Kivisäkk P, Ransohoff RM, Hofbauer M, Farina C, Derfuss T, Hartle C, Newcombe J, Hohlfeld R, Meinl E (January 2006). “Chemokines in multiple
sclerosis: CXCL12 and CXCL13 up-regulation is differentially linked to CNS immune cell recruitment”. Brain: A Journal of Neurology. 129 (Pt 1): 200–11. doi:10.1093/brain/awh680. PMID 16280350.
32. ^ Jump up to:a b Raman D, Milatovic SZ, Milatovic
D, Splittgerber R, Fan GH, Richmond A (November 2011). “Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1α, suppress amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 256 (3): 300–13. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2011.06.006.
PMC 3236026. PMID 21704645.
33. ^ Li F, Xu X, Geng J, Wan X, Dai H (March 2020). “The autocrine CXCR4/CXCL12 axis contributes to lung fibrosis through modulation of lung fibroblast activity”. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 19 (3): 1844–1854.
doi:10.3892/etm.2020.8433. PMC 7027131. PMID 32104240.
34. ^ Neesse A, Ellenrieder V (September 2016). “NEMO-CXCL12/CXCR4 axis: a novel vantage point for antifibrotic therapies in chronic pancreatitis?”. Gut. 66 (2): gutjnl–2016–312874. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2016-312874.
PMID 27590996. S2CID 3493909.
35. ^ De Clercq E. (2019) Mozobil(R) (Plerixafor, AMD3100), 10 years after its approval by the US Food and Drug Administration. Antivir Chem Chemother 27:1.
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ana_carrington/5556633113/’]