• [5] However, the modern Sudoku only began to gain widespread popularity in 1986 when it was published by the Japanese puzzle company Nikoli under the name Sudoku, meaning
    “single number”.

  • [1] Garns’s name was always present on the list of contributors in issues of Dell Pencil Puzzles and Word Games that included Number Place, and was always absent from issues
    that did not.

  • French newspapers featured variations of the Sudoku puzzles in the 19th century, and the puzzle has appeared since 1979 in puzzle books under the name Number Place.

  • ‘digit-single’; originally called Number Place)[1] is a logic-based,[2][3] combinatorial[4] number-placement puzzle.

  • The Times also publishes a three-dimensional version under the name Tredoku.

  • Some variants, such as in the TV Guide Magazine, include a word reading along a main diagonal, row, or column once solved; determining the word in advance can be viewed as
    a solving aid.

  • An example of Greater Than Sudoku A tabletop version of Sudoku can be played with a standard 81-card Set deck (see Set game).

  • Hyper Sudoku / Windoku[edit] Hypersudoku puzzle And its solution Hyper Sudoku or Windoku uses the classic 9×9 grid with 3×3 regions, but defines four additional interior 3×3
    regions in which the numbers 1–9 must appear exactly once.

  • [6] It first appeared in a U.S. newspaper, and then The Times (London), in 2004, thanks to the efforts of Wayne Gould, who devised a computer program to rapidly produce unique

  • [14] Recognizing the different psychological appeals of easy and difficult puzzles, The Times introduced both, side by side, on June 20, 2005.

  • In this, a 3×3 grid of the Sudoku is given with 12 symbols of Greater Than (>) or Less Than (
    <) on the common line of the two adjacent numbers.

  • [9] Modern Sudoku[edit] The modern Sudoku was most likely designed anonymously by Howard Garns, a 74-year-old retired architect and freelance puzzle constructor from Connersville,
    Indiana, and first published in 1979 by Dell Magazines as Number Place (the earliest known examples of modern Sudoku).

  • The maximum number of clues that can be provided while still not rendering a unique solution is four short of a full grid (77); if two instances of two numbers each are missing
    from cells that occupy the corners of an orthogonal rectangle, and exactly two of these cells are within one region, the numbers can be assigned two ways.

  • In classic Sudoku, the objective is to fill a 9 × 9 grid with digits so that each column, each row, and each of the nine 3 × 3 subgrids that compose the grid (also called
    “boxes”, “blocks”, or “regions”) contain all of the digits from 1 to 9.

  • The relationship between the two theories is known, after it was proven that a first-order formula that does not mention blocks is valid for Sudoku if and only if it is valid
    for Latin squares.

  • [21] Due to its popularity, Nintendo made a second Brain Age game titled Brain Age2, which has over 100 new Sudoku puzzles and other activities.

  • The center cell in each 3×3 grid of all nine puzzles is left blank and form a tenth Sudoku puzzle without any cell completed; hence, “clueless”.

  • History Predecessors[edit] Number puzzles appeared in newspapers in the late 19th century, when French puzzle setters began experimenting with removing numbers from magic

  • [7] It was not a Sudoku because it contained double-digit numbers and required arithmetic rather than logic to solve, but it shared key characteristics: each row, column and
    subsquare added up to the same number.

  • A completed Sudoku grid is a special type of Latin square with the additional property of no repeated values in any of the nine blocks (or boxes of 3×3 cells).

  • [5][13] The rapid rise of Sudoku in Britain from relative obscurity to a front-page feature in national newspapers attracted commentary in the media and parody (such as when
    The Guardian’s G2 section advertised itself as the first newspaper supplement with a Sudoku grid on every page).

  • [23] Mini Sudoku[edit] Under the name “Mini Sudoku”, a 6×6 variant with 3×2 regions appears in the American newspaper USA Today and elsewhere.

  • Often, the limit takes the form of an extra “dimension”; the most common is to require the numbers in the main diagonals of the grid to also be unique.

  • Over six years, he developed a computer program to produce unique puzzles rapidly.

  • One of the most popular video games featuring Sudoku is Brain Age: Train Your Brain in Minutes a Day!.

  • [15] The world’s first live TV Sudoku show, July 1, 2005, Sky One The world’s first live TV Sudoku show, Sudoku Live, was a puzzle contest first broadcast on July 1, 2005,
    on Sky One.

  • A similar form, for younger solvers of puzzles, called “The Junior Sudoku”, has appeared in some newspapers, such as some editions of The Daily Mail.

  • [36] Various other grid sizes have also been enumerated—see the main article for details.

  • Dell Magazines regularly publishes 16×16 “Number Place Challenger” puzzles (using the numbers 1–16 or the letters A-P).

  • Later in 2005, the BBC launched SUDO-Q, a game show that combined Sudoku with general knowledge.

  • The aforementioned “Number Place Challenger” puzzles are all of this variant, as are the Sudoku X puzzles in The Daily Mail, which use 6×6 grids.

  • Each player had a hand-held device for entering numbers corresponding to answers for four cells.

  • The puzzle setter provides a partially completed grid, which for a well-posed puzzle has a single solution.

  • Thomas Snyder repeated as the individual overall champion, and also won the first ever Classic Trophy (a subset of the competition counting only classic Sudoku).

  • [5] Knowing that British newspapers have a long history of publishing crosswords and other puzzles, he promoted Sudoku to The Times in Britain, which launched it on November
    12, 2004 (calling it Su Doku).

  • [49] In the 2009 event, the third-place finalist in the advanced division, Eugene Varshavsky, performed quite poorly onstage after setting a very fast qualifying time on paper,
    which caught the attention of organizers and competitors including past champion Thomas Snyder, who requested organizers reconsider his results due to a suspicion of cheating.

  • The first time it was called Hyper Sudoku was in Will Shortz’s Favorite Sudoku Variations (February 2006).

  • Although they were unmarked, each 3×3 subsquare did indeed comprise the numbers 1–9, and the additional constraint on the broken diagonals led to only one solution.

  • Unlike the number of complete Sudoku grids, the number of minimal 9×9 Sudoku puzzles is not precisely known.

  • The Baltimore Sun and the Toronto Star publish a puzzle of this variant (titled High Five) in their Sunday edition.

  • Nine teams of nine players (with one celebrity in each team) representing geographical regions competed to solve a puzzle.


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