tai chi chuan


  • More traditional practitioners hold that the two aspects of health and martial arts make up the art’s yin and yang.

  • The ability to use tai chi as a form of combat is the test of a student’s understanding of the art.

  • Tai chi is often characterized by slow movements in Taolu practice, and one of the reasons is to develop body awareness.

  • Sundial shadow length changes represent traditional Chinese Medicine with four elements theory instead of Confucian politician-based five elements theory.

  • This was an attempt to standardize t’ai-chi ch’üan for wushu tournaments as they wanted to create a routine that would be much less difficult to learn than the classical 88
    to 108 posture solo hand forms.

  • Modern forms[edit] The Cheng Man-ch’ing (Zheng Manqing) and Chinese Sports Commission short forms are derived from Yang family forms, but neither is recognized as Yang family
    tai chi by standard-bearing Yang family teachers.

  • Seated tai chi[edit] Seated tai chi demonstration Traditional tai chi was developed for self-defense, but it has evolved to include a graceful form of seated exercise now
    used for stress reduction and other health conditions.

  • While many scholars and practitioners consider tai chi to be a type of qigong,[30][31] the two are commonly seen as separate but closely related practices.

  • Wu-style master Eddie Wu demonstrating the form “Grasp the bird’s tail” at a tournament in Toronto, Ontario, Canada Most existing styles came from Chen style, which had been
    passed down as a family secret for generations.

  • [citation needed] The designation internal or neijia martial arts is also used to broadly distinguish what are known as external or waijia styles based on Shaolinquan styles,
    although that distinction may be disputed by modern schools.

  • Breathing exercises; neigong (internal skill) or, more commonly, qigong (life energy cultivation) are practiced to develop qi (life energy) in coordination with physical movement
    and zhan zhuang (standing like a post) or combinations of the two.

  • [28] Health[edit] Outdoor practice in Beijing’s Temple of Heaven See also: World Tai Chi and Qigong Day Tai chi’s health training concentrates on relieving stress on the body
    and mind.

  • It is based primarily on the Yang short form, and has been adopted by the general public, medical practitioners, tai chi instructors, and the elderly.

  • [13] The sensitivity needed to capture the center is acquired over thousands of hours of first yin (slow, repetitive, meditative, low-impact) and then later adding yang (realistic,
    active, fast, high-impact) martial training through taolu (forms), tuishou (pushing hands), and sanshou (sparring).

  • While tai chi is typified by its slow movements, many styles (including the three most popular: Yang, Wu, and Chen) have secondary, faster-paced forms.

  • Forms taught for wushu are designed to earn points in competition and are mostly unconcerned with either health or self-defense.

  • Taijiquan is a complete martial art system with a full range of bare-hand movement set and weapon forms as in the Taiji sword and Taiji spear based on the dynamic relationship
    between Yin and Yang.

  • [9] However, modern research doubts those claims, pointing out that a 17th-century piece called Epitaph for Wang Zhengnan (1669), composed by Huang Zongxi (1610–1695), is
    the earliest reference indicating a connection between Zhang Sanfeng and martial arts.

  • Tai chi’s low-stress training method for seniors has become better known.

  • [19] Standardization[edit] Taoist practitioners practising In 1956 the Chinese government sponsored the Chinese Sports Committee (CSC), which brought together four wushu teachers
    to truncate the Yang family hand form to 24 postures.

  • [16] Yang Luchan trained with the Chen family for 18 years before he started to teach in Beijing, which strongly suggests that his work was heavily influenced by the Chen
    family art.

  • Zheng felt Yang’s traditional 108-movement form was unnecessarily long and repetitive, which makes it difficult to learn.

  • In this broad sense, all styles of t’ai chi, as well as related arts such as Baguazhang and Xingyiquan, are, therefore, considered to be “soft” or “internal” martial arts.

  • Traditionally, Taijiquan also has Dan Shi (Single Form Practice) which practice a specific movement from Taolu.

  • • Also known as: Tàijí; T’ai chi; Focus: Chinese Taoism; Hardness: Forms competition, Light contact (pushing hands, no strikes), Full contact (strikes, kicks, throws, takedowns

  • Most development aspects are meant to be covered within the partnered practice of tuishou, and so, sanshou (sparring) is not commonly used as a method of training, although
    more advanced students sometimes practice by sanshou.

  • Attire and ranking[edit] Master Yang Jun in demonstration attire that has come to be identified with tai chi In practice traditionally no specific uniform is part of tai chi.

  • In 1976, they developed a slightly longer demonstration form that would not require the traditional forms’ memory, balance, and coordination.

  • These forms were named after their style: the “Chen-style national competition form” is the “56 Forms”.

  • His success in fighting earned him the nickname Yang Wudi, which means “Abnormally Large”, and his fame and efforts in teaching greatly contributed to the subsequent spreading
    of tai chi knowledge.

  • Some traditional schools teach partner exercises known as tuishou (“pushing hands”), and martial applications of the postures of different forms (taolu).

  • Practitioners mostly interested in tai chi’s health benefits diverged from those who emphasize self-defense, and also those who attracted by its aesthetic appeal (wushu).

  • Partnered (tuishou and sanshou)[edit] Two students receive instruction in tuishou (“pushing hands”), one of the core training exercises of t’ai-chi ch’üan.

  • Unlike the older generation of practitioners, Zheng was cultured and educated in American ways,[clarification needed] and thus was able to transcribe Yang’s dictation into
    a written manuscript that became the de facto manual for Yang style.

  • Practice • Meditation: The focus and calm cultivated by the meditative aspect of tai chi is seen as necessary for maintaining health (in the sense of relieving stress and
    maintaining homeostasis) and in the application of the form as a soft style martial art.

  • This became the “Combined 48 Forms” that were created by three wushu coaches, headed by Men Hui Feng.

  • [8] Although the term Wudang suggests these arts originated in the Wudang Mountains, it is used only to distinguish the skills, theories and applications of neijia (internal
    arts) from those of the Shaolin grouping, or waijia (hard or external) styles.

  • These five sets of forms were created by different teams, and later approved by a committee of wushu coaches in China.

  • [29] Sport/self-defense[edit] As a martial art, tai chi emphasizes defense over attack and replies to hard with soft.

  • Traditional schools also emphasize that one is expected to show wude (“martial virtue/heroism”), to protect the defenseless, and show mercy to one’s opponents.

  • Early practitioners such as Yang Chengfu and Sun Lutang promoted the art for its health benefits beginning in the early 20th century.

  • Solo forms (empty-hand and weapon) are catalogues of movements that are practised individually in pushing hands and martial application scenarios to prepare students for self-defense

  • In the late 1980s, CSC standardized more competition forms for the four major styles as well as combined forms.

  • • Although many styles were passed down to respective descendants of the same family, the lineage focused on is that of the martial art and its main styles, not necessarily
    that of the families.

  • In the last 60 years they have become better known to the general public.

  • Yang Luchan became the first person outside the family to learn tai chi.

  • Tai chi (Chinese pinyin: Tàijí), short for Tai chi ch’üan (Tàijíquán), sometimes called “shadowboxing”,[1][2][3] is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for defense training,
    health benefits and meditation.

  • The combined forms simplified and combined classical forms from the original Chen, Yang, Wu, and Sun styles.

  • The study concluded that low-quality evidence suggests that tai chi may have some beneficial health effects when compared to control in a limited number of populations for
    a limited number of outcomes.

  • In most traditional schools, variations of the solo forms can be practised: fast / slow, small-circle / large-circle, square / round (different expressions of leverage through
    the joints), low-sitting/high-sitting (the degree to which weight-bearing knees stay bent throughout the form).

  • [9] These schools believe that tai chi theory and practice were formulated by Taoist monk Zhang Sanfeng in the 12th century, at about the same time that the principles of
    the Neo-Confucian school were rising.

  • • Movement: Tai chi is the practice of appropriate change in response to outside forces, of yielding to and redirecting an attack rather than meeting it with opposing force.

  • [4] Forms Training involves two primary features: taolu (solo “forms”), a sequence of movements that emphasize a straight spine, abdominal breathing and a natural range of
    motion; and tuishou (“pushing hands”) for training with a partner and in a more practical manner.

  • Accurate, repeated practice of the solo routine is said to retrain posture, encourage circulation throughout students’ bodies, maintain flexibility, and familiarize students
    with the martial sequences implied by the forms.

  • [citation needed] He thus created a shortened 37-movement version that he taught in his schools.

  • Many tai chi movements are part of qigong practice.

  • Most modern styles trace their development to the five traditional schools: Chen, Yang, Wu (Hao), Wu, and Sun.


Works Cited

[‘Defoort, Carine (2001). “Is There Such a Thing as Chinese Philosophy Arguments of an Implicit Debate”. Philosophy East and West. 51 (3): 404. doi:10.1353/pew.2001.0039. S2CID 54844585. Just as Shadowboxing (taijiquan) is having success in the West
2. ^
“Wudang Martial Arts”. China Daily. 2010-06-17. Wudang boxing includes boxing varieties such as Taiji (shadowboxing) (…)
3. ^ Bai, Shuping (2009). Taiji Quan (Shadow Boxing), Bilingual English-Chinese. Beijing University Press. ISBN 9787301053911.
4. ^
Jump up to:a b Wile, Douglas (1995). Lost T’ai-chi Classics from the Late Ch’ing Dynasty (Chinese Philosophy and Culture). State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-2654-8.[page needed]
5. ^ Morris, Kelly (1999). “T’ai Chi gently reduces
blood pressure in elderly”. The Lancet. 353 (9156): 904. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)75012-1. S2CID 54366341.
6. ^ Cheng Man-ch’ing (1993). Cheng-Tzu’s Thirteen Treatises on T’ai Chi Ch’uan. North Atlantic Books. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-938190-45-5.
7. ^
Sun Lu Tang (2000). Xing Yi Quan Xue. Unique Publications. p. 3. ISBN 0-86568-185-6.
8. ^ Ranne, Nabil. “Internal power in Taijiquan”. CTND. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
9. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Wile, Douglas (2007). “Taijiquan and Taoism from Religion
to Martial Art and Martial Art to Religion”. Journal of Asian Martial Arts. Via Media Publishing. 16 (4). ISSN 1057-8358.
10. ^ Lam, Dr. Paul (28 January 2014). “What should I wear to practice Tai Chi?”. Tai Chi for Health Institute. Retrieved 2014-12-29.
11. ^
Fu, Zhongwen (2006). Mastering Yang Style Taijiquan. Louis Swaim. Berkeley, California: Blue Snake Books. ISBN 1-58394-152-5.[page needed]
12. ^ Wong Kiew Kit (1996). The Complete Book of Tai Chi Chuan: A Comprehensive Guide to the Principles. Element
Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85230-792-9.
13. ^ Jump up to:a b Wu, Kung-tsao (2006). Wu Family T’ai Chi Ch’uan (吳家太極拳). Chien-ch’uan T’ai-chi Ch’uan Association. ISBN 0-9780499-0-X.[page needed]
14. ^ 由《輔行訣臟腑用藥法要》到香港當代新經學. ASIN B082B24CNP.
15. ^
“International Wushu Federation”. iwuf.org. Archived from the original on 2006-02-09.
16. ^ Jump up to:a b Henning, Stanley (1994). “Ignorance, Legend and Taijiquan”. Journal of the Chen Style Taijiquan Research Association of Hawaii. 2 (3). Archived
from the original on 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2009-11-23.
17. ^ “Origins and Development of Taijiquan”. Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-08-20.
18. ^ “Taijiquan – Brief Analysis of Chen Family Boxing Manuals”. Chinafrominside.com. Retrieved 2016-08-20.
19. ^
“Thirteen Postures of Taijiquan”. egreenway.com. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
20. ^ “Wushu likely to be a “specially-set” sport at Olympics”. Chinese Olympic Committee. October 17, 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-13.
21. ^ “Taijiquan”. UNESCO Culture Sector.
Retrieved 2021-03-06.
22. ^ Choy, Kam Man (1985). Tai Chi Chuan. San Francisco, California: Memorial Edition 1994.[ISBN missing]
23. ^ Logan, Logan (1970). Ting: The Caldron, Chinese Art and Identity in San Francisco. San Francisco, California:
Glide Urban Center.[ISBN missing]
24. ^ Dunning, Jennifer (July 7, 1996), “Sophia Delza Glassgold, 92, Dancer and Teacher”, The New York Times
25. ^ Inventory of the Sophia Delza Papers, 1908–1996 (PDF), Jerome Robbins Dance Division, New York
Public Library for the Performing Arts, February 2006
26. ^ Wolfe Lowenthal (1991). There Are No Secrets: Professor Cheng Man Ch’ing and His Tai Chi Chuan. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-55643-112-8.
27. ^ “Pytt Geddes (obituary)”. The Telegraph.
21 March 2006. Archived from the original on 4 December 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
28. ^ Woolidge, Doug (June 1997). “T’AI CHI”. The International Magazine of T’ai Chi Ch’uan. Wayfarer Publications. 21 (3). ISSN 0730-1049.
29. ^ Yip,
Y. L. (Autumn 2002). “Pivot – Qi”. The Journal of Traditional Eastern Health and Fitness. Insight Graphics Publishers. 12 (3). ISSN 1056-4004.
30. ^ Yang, Jwing-Ming (1998). The Essence of Taiji Qigong, Second Edition : The Internal Foundation of
Taijiquan (Martial Arts-Qigong). YMAA Publication Center. ISBN 978-1-886969-63-6.
31. ^ YeYoung, Bing. “Introduction to Taichi and Qigong”. YeYoung Culture Studies: Sacramento, CA
<http://sactaichi.com>. Archived from the original on 2014-02-01. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
32. ^ Quarta, Cynthia W. (2001). Tai Chi in a Chair (first ed.). Fair Winds Press. ISBN 1-931412-60-X.
33. ^ Yang GY, Wang LQ, Ren J, Zhang Y, Li ML, Zhu YT, Luo J, Cheng YJ, Li
WY, Wayne PM, Liu JP (2015). “Evidence base of clinical studies on Tai Chi: a bibliometric analysis”. PLOS ONE. 10 (3): e0120655. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1020655Y. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120655. PMC 4361587. PMID 25775125.
34. ^ Jump up to:a b
Lee, M. S.; Ernst, E. (2011). “Systematic reviews of t’ai chi: An overview”. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 46 (10): 713–8. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2010.080622. PMID 21586406. S2CID 206878632.
35. ^ Jump up to:a b Baggoley C (2015). “Review of
the Australian Government Rebate on Natural Therapies for Private Health Insurance” (PDF). Australian Government – Department of Health. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
 Lay summary in:
Scott Gavura (November 19, 2015). “Australian review finds no benefit to 17 natural therapies”. Science-Based Medicine.
36. ^ Lomas-Vega, R; Obrero-Gaitán, E; Molina-Ortega, FJ; Del-Pino-Casado, R (September 2017). “Tai Chi for Risk of Falls.
A Meta-analysis”. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 65 (9): 2037–2043. doi:10.1111/jgs.15008. PMID 28736853. S2CID 21131912.
37. ^ Chen, Yi-Wen; Hunt, Michael A.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Peill, Kortni; Reid, W. Darlene (2015-09-17).
“The effect of Tai Chi on four chronic conditions – cancer, osteoarthritis, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses”. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 50 (7): bjsports-2014-094388. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2014-094388.
ISSN 1473-0480. PMID 26383108.
38. ^ Tai Chi: What You Need To Know by National Institutes of Health, March 2022
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/minniemouseaunt/5628970369/’]