text messaging


  • [citation needed] Over time, this issue was eliminated by switch billing instead of billing at the SMSC and by new features within SMSCs to allow blocking of foreign mobile
    users sending messages through it.

  • [citation needed] Uses Text messaging is most often used between private mobile phone users, as a substitute for voice calls in situations where voice communication is impossible
    or undesirable (e.g., during a school class or a work meeting).

  • [15] As of 2007 text messaging was the most widely used mobile data service, with 74% of all mobile phone users worldwide, or 2.4 billion out of 3.3 billion phone subscribers,
    at the end of 2007 being active users of the Short Message Service.

  • Users should rest assured, that all online or available users on the group received the message and that re-sending the message will only result in some participants receiving
    the message multiple times.

  • An alternative to inbound SMS is based on long numbers (international mobile number format, e.g., +44 7624 805000, or geographic numbers that can handle voice and SMS, e.g.,
    01133203040[37]), which can be used in place of short codes or premium-rated short messages for SMS reception in several applications, such as TV voting,[40] product promotions and campaigns.

  • Services that provide bulk text message sending are also becoming a popular way for clubs, associations, and advertisers to reach a group of opt-in subscribers quickly.

  • [21] In China, SMS is very popular and has brought service providers significant profit (18 billion short messages were sent in 2001).

  • That said, while usually presented to the user simply as a uniform “mail” service (and most users are unaware of the distinction), the operators may still internally transmit
    the content as short messages, especially if the destination is on the same network.

  • In Finland, which has very high mobile phone ownership rates, some TV channels began “SMS chat”, which involved sending short messages to a phone number, and the messages
    would be shown on TV.

  • This indicates participants make new relationships with face-to-face communication at an early stage, but use text messaging to increase their contact later on.

  • There are also free SMS services available, which are often sponsored, that allow sending[25] and receiving[26] SMS from a PC connected to the Internet.

  • The age that a child receives his/her first cell phone has also decreased, making text messaging a popular way of communicating.

  • [citation needed] In 1998, Philippine mobile service providers launched SMS more widely across the country, with initial television marketing campaigns targeting hearing-impaired

  • Almost every time, the messages contained fewer than 160 characters, thus giving the basis for the limit one could type via text messaging.

  • Many operate text-in services on short codes or mobile number ranges, whereas others use lower-cost geographic text-in numbers.

  • Text messages may be sent over a cellular network, or may also be sent via an Internet connection.

  • [39] Outside the United States, premium short messages are increasingly being used for “real-world” services.

  • When Radiolinja’s domestic competitor, Telecom Finland (now part of TeliaSonera) also launched SMS text messaging in 1995 and the two networks offered cross-network SMS functionality,
    Finland became the first nation where SMS text messaging was offered on a competitive as well as on a commercial basis.

  • The service was initially free with subscriptions, but Filipinos quickly exploited the feature to communicate for free instead of using voice calls, which they would be charged

  • Popularity has grown to a sufficient extent that the term texting (used as a verb meaning the act of mobile phone users sending short messages back and forth) has entered
    the common lexicon.

  • Research suggests that Internet-based mobile messaging will have grown to equal the popularity of SMS in 2013, with nearly 10 trillion messages being sent through each technology.

  • Even after users were charged for SMS, it remained cheap, about one-tenth of the price of a voice call.

  • Text messages can also be used to interact with automated systems, for example, to order products or services from e-commerce websites, or to participate in online contests.

  • The possibility of doing something is one thing, implementing it another, but systems existed from 1988 that sent SMS messages to mobile phones[citation needed] (compare ND-NOTIS).

  • To convince more customers to buy unlimited text messaging plans, some major cellphone providers have increased the price to send and receive text messages from $.15 to $.20
    per message.

  • Finnish Radiolinja became the first network to offer a commercial person-to-person SMS text messaging service in 1994.

  • SMS is hugely popular in India, where youngsters often exchange many text messages, and companies provide alerts, infotainment, news, cricket scores updates, railway/airline
    booking, mobile billing, and banking services on SMS.

  • Japanese adolescents first began text messaging, because it was a cheaper form of communication than the other available forms.

  • [44] Just one of many SMS applications that have proven highly popular and successful in the financial services industry is mobile receipts.

  • Japan[edit] Japan was among the first countries to adopt short messages widely, with pioneering non-GSM services including J-Phone’s SkyMail and NTT Docomo’s Short Mail.

  • [48] Mobile service providers in Finland offer contracts in which users can send 1000 text messages a month for €10.

  • In each of these countries, the cost of sending an SMS message varies from €0.04–0.23, depending on the payment plan (with many contractual plans including all or several
    texts for free).

  • In some cases, when one or more people on the group text are offline, in airplane mode, or has their device shut down, a text being sent to the group may reveal an error message
    that the text did not go through.

  • Some practical uses of text messaging include the use of SMS for confirming delivery or other tasks, for instant communication between a service provider and a client (e.g.,
    a payment card company and a consumer), and for sending alerts.

  • For example, in Australia, a message typically costs between A$0.20 and $0.25 to send (some prepaid services charge $0.01 between their own phones), compared with a voice
    call, which costs somewhere between $0.40 and $2.00 per minute (commonly charged in half-minute blocks).

  • These sites allow registered users to receive free text messages when items they are interested in go on sale, or when new items are introduced.

  • Text messaging is widely used in business settings; as well, it is used in many civil service and non-governmental organization workplaces.

  • [68] Also, in September 2009, a multi-country campaign in Africa used text messaging to expose stock-

  • As companies seek competitive advantages, many employees are using new technology, collaborative applications, and real-time messaging such as SMS, instant messaging, and
    mobile communications to connect with teammates and customers.

  • Businesses can use SMS for time-critical alerts, updates, and reminders, mobile campaigns, content and entertainment applications.

  • Sub-Saharan Africa[edit] Text messaging will become a key revenue driver for mobile network operators in Africa over the next couple of years.

  • [citation needed] Worldwide use[edit] Europe[edit] SMS is used to send “welcome” messages to mobile phones roaming between countries.

  • [20] Fifty percent of American teens send fifty text messages or more per day, making it their most frequent form of communication.

  • [43] Industry has had to develop new technology to allow companies to archive their employees’ text messages.

  • American Personal Communications (APC), the first GSM carrier in America, provided the first text-messaging service in the United States.

  • Recently, premium messaging companies have come under fire from consumer groups due to a large number of consumers racking up huge phone bills.

  • Services like 82ASK and Any Question Answered have used the PSMS model to enable rapid response to mobile consumers’ questions, using on-call teams of experts and researchers.

  • [14] One factor in the slow take-up of SMS was that operators were slow to set up charging systems, especially for prepaid subscribers, and to eliminate billing fraud, which
    was possible by changing SMSC settings on individual handsets to use the SMSCs of other operators.

  • Users on these plans send on average 1500 SMS messages every month.

  • These messages can be sent based on either the location of the phone or the address to which the handset is registered.

  • Since the location of a handset is known, systems can alert everyone in an area that the events have made impossible to pass through e.g.

  • Commercial uses[edit] A multimedia message displayed on a mobile phone Short codes[edit] Short codes are special telephone numbers, shorter than full telephone numbers, that
    can be used to address SMS and MMS messages from mobile phones or fixed phones.

  • The term originally referred to messages sent using the Short Message Service (SMS).

  • [45] Mobile interaction services are an alternative way of using SMS in business communications with greater certainty.

  • However, short messaging has been largely rendered obsolete by the prevalence of mobile Internet e-mail, which can be sent to and received from any e-mail address, mobile
    or otherwise.

  • Advertisers and service providers use direct text marketing to send messages to mobile users about promotions, payment due dates, and other notifications instead of using
    postal mail, email, or voicemail.

  • Hence there is no “development” in the US in mobile messaging service.

  • One way to guarantee such a quality of text messaging lies in introducing SLAs (Service Level Agreement), which are common in IT contracts.

  • [41] Long numbers are internationally available, as well as enabling businesses to have their own number, rather than short codes, which are usually shared across a lot of

  • The integration between competing providers and technologies necessary for cross-network text messaging was not initially available.

  • This service is primarily aimed at people who, because of disability, are unable to make a voice call.

  • In the US, there is a move to require both traditional operators and Over-the-top messaging providers to support texting to 911.

  • It has grown beyond alphanumeric text to include multimedia messages using the Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) containing digital images, videos, and sound content, as
    well as ideograms known as emoji (happy faces, sad faces, and other icons), and instant messenger applications (usually the term is used when on mobile devices).

  • [62][63] Vodafone launched the first Text messaging service in 1999[64] and has introduced innovative TXT services like Safe TXT and CallMe[65] 2degrees Mobile Ltd launched
    in August 2009.

  • During roaming, that is, when a user connects to another network in different country from his own, the prices may be higher, but in July 2009, EU legislation went into effect
    limiting this price to €0.11.

  • Emergency services[edit] In some countries, text messages can be used to contact emergency services.

  • [27][28] Services such as Facebook Messenger, Snapchat, WhatsApp and Viber have led to a decline in the use of SMS in parts of the world.

  • Some text messages such as SMS can also be used for the remote control of home appliances.

  • In January 2009, Mobile Marketing Association (MMA) published the Mobile Banking Overview for financial institutions in which it discussed the advantages and disadvantages
    of mobile channel platforms such as Short Message Services (SMS), Mobile Web, Mobile Client Applications, SMS with Mobile Web and Secure SMS.

  • Like e-mail and voicemail and unlike calls (in which the caller hopes to speak directly with the recipient), texting does not require the caller and recipient to both be free
    at the same moment; this permits communication even between busy individuals.


Works Cited

[‘Morris, Robert; Pinchot, Jamie (2010). “Conference on Information Systems Applied Research” (PDF). How Mobile Technology is Changing Our Culture. 3: 10 – via CONISAR.
o ^ “Fifty years of telex”. Telecommunication Journal. 51: 35. 1984. Retrieved 18
May 2017. Just over fifty years ago, in October 1933, the Deutsche Reichspost as it was then known, opened the world’s first public teleprinter network.
o ^ Herbst, Kris; Ubois, Jeff (14 November 1988). “The competition”. Network World. Vol. 5,
no. 46. IDG Network World Inc. p. 68. ISSN 0887-7661. Retrieved 29 December 2017. Telex originated in Germany and rapidly expanded to other countries after World War II.
o ^ “The Text Message Turns 20: A Brief History of SMS”. theweek.com. 3 December
2012. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 1984 […] Sitting at a typewriter at his home in Bonn, Germany, Friedhelm Hillebrand types random sentences and questions, counting every letter, number, and space. Almost every time, the messages amount to fewer
than 160 characters — what would become the limit of early text messages — and thus the concept for the perfect-length, rapid-fire ‘short message’ was born.
o ^ GSM document 19/85, available on the GSM-SMG Archive DVD-ROM
o ^ Hillebrand, ed.
(2010). Short Message Service, the Creation of Personal Global Text Messaging. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-68865-6.
o ^ ITU-T, ed. (1993). Introduction to CCITT Signalling System No. 7. ITU.
o ^ Ariel Bogle (3 December 2017). “It’s been 25 years since
the first-ever text message and the kids are alright”. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
o ^ Ahmed, Rashmee Z (4 December 2002). “UK hails 10th birthday of SMS”. The Times of India. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
o ^ “Airwide Solutions Says Happy
15th Birthday to SMS” (Press release). Airwide Solutions. 5 December 2007. Archived from the original on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 2 February 2016. In December 1992, Airwide was responsible for delivering the first ever SMS. The message, delivered
on the Vodafone network, said ‘Merry Christmas’ […].
o ^ Shannon, Victoria (5 December 2007). “15 years of text messages, a ‘cultural phenomenon'”. The New York Times. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
o ^ Snowden, Collette (2006). “Casting a Powerful
Spell: The Evolution of SMS”. In Anandam P. Kavoori and Noah Arceneaux (ed.). The Cell Phone Reader: Essays in Social Transformation. New York: Peter Lang. pp. 107–08. ISBN 978-0-8204-7919-4.
o ^ Dresser, Michael (16 November 1995). “PCS network
launched in Baltimore-D.C. area – First system in nation offers digital challenge to cellular phone industry”. The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
o ^ “GSM World press release”. gsmworld.com. 12 February 2001. Archived from the original
on 15 February 2002.
o ^ “TCP/IP Internetworking With ‘gawk'”. Gnu.org.
o ^ “Lange-afstandsbediening met uw mobieltje” [Long remote control with your mobile phone] (in Dutch). Elektor.nl. 1 June 2011. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
o ^ Grégory
Ester (June 2011). “Geolocation with the ATM18”. Elektor. Retrieved 15 January 2020.
o ^ “SMS types on”. Routomessaging.com. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “Flash SMS”. Ozeki SMS wiki. Archived from
the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “Living the fast, young life in Asia”. synovate.com. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012.
o ^ NGAK, CHENDA. “Teens are sending 60 texts a day, study says”. CBS NEWS. Retrieved
19 March 2012.
o ^ “News report on text rates for 2001”. tymcc.com.cn. Archived from the original on 5 April 2004.
o ^ “Filipinos sent 1 billion text messages”. technology.inquirer.net. Philippine Daily Inquirer. 4 March 2008. Archived from the
original on 10 May 2011.
o ^ Jump up to:a b HULIQ (24 January 2008). “Detroit Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick, Christine Beatty in Sex SMS Scandal”. Huliq.com. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “Send text free”.
o ^ “Receive Texts for Free | the SMS Bay”.
o ^
Crocker, Peter (15 January 2013). “Converged-mobile-messaging analysis and forecasts” (PDF). tyntec.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
o ^ “Mobile and SMS interaction service conducts study that says
that IP-based mobile messaging will be just as popular as traditional SMS” mobile news, 23 January 2013.Retrieved: 23 January 2013
o ^ “Women use emoticons more than men in text messaging :-)”. Rice University. 10 October 2012.
o ^ “Mountaineering
Council of Scotland news 24/11/10”. Mcofs.org.uk. 24 November 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “goforawalk.com news December 2010”. Go4awalk.com. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “911 Services And Text Messaging”. 9-1-1Colorado Foundation. Retrieved
10 February 2014.
o ^ Lakhani, Nina. (24 September 2011) Text reminders could save NHS millions – Health News – Health & Families. The Independent. Retrieved on 5 April 2012.
o ^ Sims, H., Sanghara, H., Hayes, D., Wandiembe, S., Finch, M., Jakobsen,
H., Tsakanikos, E., Okocha, C.I., Kravariti, E. (2012). “Text message reminders of appointments: a pilot intervention at four community mental health clinics in london”. Psychiatric Services. 63 (2): 161–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.201100211. PMID 22302334.
o ^
“Technical & Pricing Information”. HSL Mobile. Archived from the original on 30 May 2013. Retrieved 14 June 2011.
o ^ “HTTP SMS API – Easy to implement – BudgetSMS.net”. BudgetSMS. Archived from the original on 4 February 2016. Retrieved 14 June
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d Andrew Orlowski (18 April 2008). “Cheapo textable landline numbers for all”. The Register.
o ^ “Short Message Service (SMS)”. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014.
o ^ Bud, Andrew (12 December 2013). “Privacy
and trust: The implications of U.S. carriers ending premium SMS billing”. VentureBeat. VentureBeat. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
o ^ “Vote! – Eurovision Song Contest Tel Aviv 2019”. 3 May 2017.
o ^ “BBC Radio 2 – The Chris Evans Breakfast Show –
Contact Us”.
o ^ “Penn State Live – PSUTXT test a success”. Live.psu.edu. 31 March 2008. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “Regulatory Notice 07-59, Supervision of Electronic Communications, December 2007”.
Financial Industry Regulatory Authority. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
o ^ “TynTec calls for industry benchmarked SMS service level agreements”. Mobile Industry Review. 29 April 2008. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
o ^ Mobile Banking
Overview (NA). mmaglobal.com January 2009
o ^ “RTE article on Ireland SMS usage”. Rte.ie. 26 September 2006. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “One billion text messages are sent every week in the UK”. Mobile Data Association. Archived from the original
on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “The new proposal for reducing roaming prices”. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
o ^ “Wireless Quick Facts”. CTIA. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010.
o ^ Kristen Purcell; Roger Entner; Nichole Henderson
(14 September 2010). “The Rise of Apps Culture”. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
o ^ “Sprint Nextel Text Messaging”. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010.
o ^ “Notice of Text Messaging
Increase”. Verizon Wireless. Archived from the original on 19 May 2010.
o ^ “Sen. to carriers: Why do text messages cost $1,300 per meg?”. ZDNet. 10 September 2008.
o ^ Igarashi, T., Takai, J., & Yoshida, T. (2005). “Gender differences in social
network development via mobile phone text messages: A longitudinal study”. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships. 22 (5): 691–713. doi:10.1177/0265407505056492. S2CID 145367428.
o ^ Ishii, Kenichi (2006). “Implications of Mobility: The Uses
of Personal Communication Media in Everyday Life”. Journal of Communication. 56 (2): 346–365. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00023.x.
o ^ Lafraniere, Sharon (20 January 2010). “China to Scan Text Messages to Spot ‘Unhealthy Content'”. The New York
o ^ Lin, Angel & Tong, Avin (2008). “Mobile Cultures of Migrant Workers in Southern China: Informal Literacies in the Negotiation of (New) Social Relations of the New Working Women”. Knowledge, Technology & Policy. 21 (2): 73–81. doi:10.1007/s12130-008-9045-9.
hdl:10722/146528. S2CID 110625303.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Rheingold, Howard (2002) Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution, Perseus, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. xi–xxii, 157–82 ISBN 0-7382-0861-2.
o ^ Manila’s Talk of the Town Is Text Messaging.
Partners.nytimes.com. Retrieved on 5 April 2012.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Research and Markets: Philippines – Telecoms, Mobile and Broadband. Business Wire (23 August 2010). Retrieved on 5 April 2012.
o ^ Jump up to:a b “The Philippines Reaffirms Status
As “Text Messaging Capital Of The World””. wayodd.com. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
o ^ McBeth, Paul (22 July 2013). “Vodafone boosts mobile customers, ending long run of losses”. National Business Review.
Retrieved 15 January 2020.
o ^ Company information from the Vodafone New Zealand website
o ^ Vodafone history timeline. Vodafone.co.nz. Retrieved on 8 June 2015.
o ^ “A free TXT service to say Call Me”. Archived from the original on 10 January
o ^ “Smoking cessation using mobile phone text messaging is as effective in Māori as non-Māori”. The New Zealand Medical Journal. 118 (1216). 3 June 2005. Archived from the original on 24 November 2009. More than 85% of young New Zealand adults
now have a mobile phone (statistics by ethnicity are not available), and text messaging among this age group has rapidly developed into a new communications medium.
o ^ “Text Messaging will be Huge for Mobile Operators in Africa”. thepinehillsnews.com.
17 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “Silence = Death. In South Africa, text messages can end the silence”. Brian S Hall. 28 March 2011. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 29
March 2012.
o ^ “AFRICA: Text messages highlight drug stock-outs”. PlusNews. 17 September 2009. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ Shoeb Adnan (14 March 2015). “5 Negative Effects of Mobile Phone In Our
Social Life”.
o ^ “Instant Messaging: Friend or Foe of Student Writing?”. Newhorizons.org. Archived from the original on 13 June 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ Boswell, Sean. “Lost in Translation: Texting Killing Human Communication Skills”.
The DePaulia. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
o ^ “Officials: Students can use ‘text speak’ on tests”. USA Today. 13 November 2006. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
o ^ Crace, John (16 September 2008). “Gr8 db8r
takes on linguistic Luddites: Language guru David Crystal tells John Crace that txt spk is responsible for neither bad spelling nor moral decay”. The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ Crystal, David Txtng: the gr8 db8. New York: Oxford
University Press, 2008. pp. 131–137 ISBN 0-19-162340-7
o ^ The New Yorker “Thumbspeak” Menand, Louis. 20 October 2008.
o ^ Crystal, David: the gr8 db8. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. Print.
o ^ Ling, Rich; Baron, Naomi S.; Lenhart,
Amanda; Campbell, Scott W. (2 October 2014). “”Girls Text Really Weird”: Gender, Texting and Identity Among Teens”. Journal of Children and Media. 8 (4): 423–439. doi:10.1080/17482798.2014.931290. S2CID 143302111.
o ^ Ling, Rich; Bertel, Troels
Fibæk; Sundsøy, Pål Roe (2012). “The socio-demographics of texting”. New Media & Society. 14 (2): 281–298. doi:10.1177/1461444811412711. S2CID 41608163.
o ^ Rosen, L.D., Chang, J., Erwin, L., Carrier, L.M., & Cheever, N.A. (2010). “The Relationship
Between “Textisms” and Formal and Informal Writing Among Young Adults”. Communication Research. 37 (3): 420–440. doi:10.1177/0093650210362465. S2CID 46309911.
o ^ Lee, Joan Hwechong (2011). What does txting do 2 language: The influences of exposure
to messaging and print media on acceptability constraints (MA thesis). University of Calgary. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
o ^ Plester, B.; Wood, C.; Joshi, P. (2009). “Exploring the relationship between
children’s knowledge of text message abbreviations and school literacy outcomes”. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 27 (Pt 1): 145–61. doi:10.1348/026151008X320507. PMID 19972666.
o ^ “Teens Admit Text Messaging Most Distracting While
Driving”. Liberty Mutual Group. 19 July 2007. Archived from the original on 19 November 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2010.
o ^ Texting And Driving Worse Than Drinking and Driving, CNBC, 25 June 2009
o ^ In Study, Texting Lifts Crash Risk by Large
Margin, The New York Times, 27 July 2009
o ^ “Rentrak executive bios” (PDF).
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Lamberg, E. M.; Muratori, L. M. (2012). “Cell phones change the way we walk”. Gait & Posture. 35 (4): 688–90. doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2011.12.005.
PMID 22226937.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Sammy Licence; et al. (29 July 2015). “Gait Pattern Alterations during Walking, Texting and Walking and Texting during Cognitively Distractive Tasks while Negotiating Common Pedestrian Obstacles”. PLOS One.
10 (7): e0133281. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1033281L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133281. PMC 4519241. PMID 26222430.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Nasar, J; Hecht, P; Wener, R (2008). “Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety”. Accident Analysis
& Prevention. 40 (1): 69–75. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2007.04.005. PMID 18215534.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c Lopresti-Goodman, S. M.; Rivera, A.; Dressel, C. (2012). “Practicing Safe Text: The Impact of Texting on Walking Behavior”. Applied Cognitive Psychology.
26 (4): 644–648. doi:10.1002/acp.2846.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Uchiyama, M; Demura, S.; Natsuhori, E. (2012). “Changes in gait properties during texting messages by a cell phone. Attention and gait control”. Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze
Mediche. 171 (3): 331–340.
o ^ Schwebel, D. C.; Stavrinos, D; Byington, K. W.; Davis, T; O’Neal, E. E.; De Jong, D (2012). “Distraction and pedestrian safety: How talking on the phone, texting, and listening to music impact crossing the street”.
Accident Analysis & Prevention. 45: 266–71. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2011.07.011. PMC 3266515. PMID 22269509.
o ^ Stavrinos, D.; Byington, K. W.; Schwebel, D. C. (2011). “Distracted walking: Cell phones increase injury risk for college pedestrians”. Journal
of Safety Research. 42 (2): 101–107. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2011.01.004. PMID 21569892.
o ^ Hyman, S.M.; Boss, I.E.; Wise, B.M.; McKenzie, K.E.; Caggiano, J.M. (2010). “Did you see the unicycling clown? Inattentional blindness while walking and talking
on a cell phone”. Applied Cognitive Psychology. 29 (5): 597–607. doi:10.1002/acp.1638.
o ^ Hincapié-Ramos, Juan David; Irani, Pourang (1 January 2013). CrashAlert: Enhancing Peripheral Alertness for Eyes-busy Mobile Interaction While Walking. SIGCHI
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. pp. 3385–3388. doi:10.1145/2470654.2466463. ISBN 9781450318990.
o ^ “Samsung Releasing Smartphone-Paired Technologies for Blind People”. medGadget. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2016.
o ^
Peng, En; Peursum, Patrick; Li, Ling; Venkatesh, Svetha (26 October 2010). “A Smartphone-Based Obstacle Sensor for the Visually Impaired”. Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing. International Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing. Lecture
Notes in Computer Science. Vol. 6406. pp. 590–604. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16355-5_45. hdl:20.500.11937/14536. ISBN 978-3-642-16354-8.
o ^ Foerster, Klaus-Tycho; Gross, Alex; Hail, Nino; Uitto, Jara; Wattenhofer, Roger (1 January 2014). SpareEye:
Enhancing the Safety of Inattentionally Blind Smartphone Users. 13th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia. pp. 68–72. doi:10.1145/2677972.2677973. ISBN 9781450333047.
o ^ Wang, Tianyu; Cardone, Giuseppe; Corradi, Antonio;
Torresani, Lorenzo; Campbell, Andrew T. (1 January 2012). WalkSafe: A Pedestrian Safety App for Mobile Phone Users Who Walk and Talk While Crossing Roads. Twelfth Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems & Applications. pp. 5:1–5:6. doi:10.1145/2162081.2162089.
ISBN 9781450312073.
o ^ Jump up to:a b “Encyclopedia of Risks and Threats”. MySecureCyberspace. Archived from the original on 22 September 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2009.
o ^ Roberts, Yvonne (31 July 2005). “The One and Only”. p. 22. Following
a string of extramarital affairs and several lurid “sexting” episodes, Warne has found himself home alone, with Simone Warne taking their three children and flying the conjugal coop.
o ^ “Texting: From Faux Pas to Faux Sex”. From the Mind of GrandDiva.
13 February 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2009.
o ^ “Sexting with friends is the new High School “note””. XYHD.TV. Archived from the original on 6 July 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2009.
o ^ “Sex and Tech Survey”. Thenationalcampaign.org. Archived
from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ Strassberg, Donald; McKinnon, Ryan K. (7 June 2012). “Sexting by High School Students: An Exploratory and Descriptive Study”. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 42 (1): 15–21. doi:10.1007/s10508-012-9969-8.
PMID 22674035. S2CID 7998778.
o ^ Maffly, Brian. “‘Sexting’ prevalent among high-schoolers, study finds”. Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
o ^ Collins, Lois (16 June 2012). “As many as 20% of teens have ‘sexted’, according to new
study”. Deseret News. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
o ^ “Sending Sexually Explicit Photos by Cell Phone Is Common Among Teens”. Science Daily. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
o ^ “U Study Finds ‘Sexting’ More Common Among Teens Than You Might Think”. University
of Utah. 14 June 2012.
o ^ “‘Sexting’ Prevalent Among High-Schoolers, Study Finds”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Prevention Information Network. Archived from the original on 14 April 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
o ^ Nauert,
Rick (14 June 2012). “1 in 5 Teens ‘Sexting’ – Many Without a Clue”. PsychCentral. Archived from the original on 25 April 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
o ^ “U study: More teens ‘sext’ than previously thought”. Fox 13 News. 15 June 2012. Retrieved
4 July 2012.
o ^ “Most teens unaware about legal consequences of sexting: Study”. Times of India. Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
o ^ “Sexting is More Common Among Teens Than Previously Thought, Say Researchers”.
International Business Times. 16 June 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
o ^ “Why teens indulge in so much ‘sexting’?”. Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
o ^ “Connie Schultz: Making kids to tell law’s
naked truth is the perfect sentence”. The Plain Dealer. 13 December 2008. Archived from the original on 1 February 2009.
o ^ “Maryland Newsline – Business & Tech Special Report: Teens and Technology”. Newsline.umd.edu. 17 May 2006. Archived from
the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ Top News – Students dial up trouble in new twist to cheating Archived 5 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine
o ^ Okada, T. (2005). Youth culture and shaping of Japanese mobile media: personalization
and the keitainInternet as multimedia, in M. Ito, D. Okabe and M. Matsuda (eds), Personal, Portable, Pedestrian: Mobile Phones in Japanese Life, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press ISBN 0-262-09039-2
o ^ “Exams ban for mobile phone users”. BBC News.
15 April 2005. Retrieved 25 May 2010.
o ^ Goggin, G (2006) Cell Phone Culture: Mobile technology in everyday life. New York: Routledge ISBN 0-415-36744-1
o ^ Carrier, L. M.; Rosen, L. D.; Cheever, N. A.; Lim, A. (2015). “Causes, effects, and practicalities
of everyday multitasking”. Developmental Review. 35: 64–78. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2014.12.005. Special issue on Living in the “Net” Generation: Multitasking, Learning and Development.
o ^ Rosen, L. D.; Lim, A. F.; Carrier, L. M.; Cheever, N. A. (2011).
“An Empirical Examination of the Educational Impact of Text Message-Induced Task Switching in the Classroom: Educational Implications and Strategies to Enhance Learning”. Psicología Educativa (Spain). 17 (2): 163–77. doi:10.5093/ed2011v17n2a4.
o ^
Harding, S. & Rosenberg, D. (Ed). (2005). Histories of the Future. London: Duke University Press, p. 84 ISBN 0-8223-3473-9
o ^ Lewandowski, Gary; Harrington, Samantha (2006). “The influence of phonetic abbreviations on evaluation of student performance”
(PDF). Current Research in Social Psychology. 11 (15): 215–226. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 January 2014.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c d Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances H; Parrila, Rauno (May 2015). “Undergraduates’ attitudes to text
messaging language use and intrusions of textisms into formal writing”. New Media & Society. 17 (5): 792–809. doi:10.1177/1461444813516832. ISSN 1461-4448. S2CID 424414.
o ^ Fortress SMS technical report
o ^ Robert Burnett; Ylva Hård af Segerstad
(8 September 2005). “The SMS murder mystery” in Safety and Security in a Networked World. Balancing Cyber-Rights & Responsibilities, Oxford Internet Institute.
o ^ “SMS Alert Service for Dutch Police”. textually.org. 8 December 2005. Archived from
the original on 22 March 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ CryptoSMS – Crypto for Criminals
o ^ Weiss, Todd R. (18 June 2007). “Boston police turn to text messages to fight crime”. Computerworld.com. Archived from the original on 9 January 2014.
Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “Malaysia permits text message divorce”. 27 July 2003 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
o ^ “A Warrant Is Needed To Obtain Text Messages, State High Court Rules”. www.wbur.org.
o ^ Goggin, Gerard (2006). “SMS Riot: Transmitting
Race on a Sydney Beach, December 2005: The Politics of Transmission”. M/C Journal. 9 (1). doi:10.5204/mcj.2582.
o ^ “Text messages ‘fuel trouble'”. The Sydney Morning Herald. 11 December 2005.
o ^ “Police consider SMS Cronulla messages ‘a crime'”.
ABC News. 9 December 2005.
o ^ Kennedy, Les (6 December 2006). “Man in court over Cronulla revenge SMS”. The Sydney Morning Herald.
o ^ Miletic, Daniella (13 January 2008). “Police probe how 500 teens got a party invite”. The Age. Retrieved 8
March 2020.
o ^ Nixon, Christine (15 January 2008). “We were all young once, but teens need limits”. Herald Sun. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
o ^ “The Social Impacts of Mobile Phones and Text Messaging”. Dgp.toronto.edu. Archived from the original
on 17 February 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ Arce, Alberto; Butler, Desmond; Gillum, Jack (3 April 2014). “U’S’ secretly created ‘Cuban Twitter’ to stir unrest”. Washington Post. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014.
Retrieved 6 April 2014.
o ^ Olson, Parmy (4 April 2014). “Why The U’S’ Government’s Fake ‘Cuban Twitter’ Service Failed”. Forbes. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
o ^ Nagourney, Adam (29 March 2009). “In politics, blogs and text messages are the new
American way”. International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on 8 September 2006. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ Jump up to:a b c “Text Messaging in U.S. Politics”. Newsweek. 1 August 2006. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “TxtMob”. TxtMob.
Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Niessen, Louis W.; Ferrari, Uta; Ali, Liaquat; Seissler, Jochen; Lechner, Andreas (1 August 2015). “Effects of Mobile Phone SMS to Improve Glycemic Control Among Patients With Type 2
Diabetes in Bangladesh: A Prospective, Parallel-Group, Randomized Controlled Trial”. Diabetes Care. 38 (8): e112–e113. doi:10.2337/dc15-0505. ISSN 0149-5992. PMID 26207059.
o ^ Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Farmer, Andrew J; Bobrow, Kirsten;
Maddison, Ralph; Whittaker, Robyn; Pfaeffli Dale, Leila Anne; Lechner, Andreas; Lear, Scott; Eapen, Zubin; Niessen, Louis Wilhelmus; Santo, Karla (October 2019). “Mobile phone text-messaging interventions aimed to prevent cardiovascular diseases (Text2PreventCVD):
systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis”. Open Heart. 6 (2): e001017. doi:10.1136/openhrt-2019-001017. ISSN 2053-3624. PMC 6802999. PMID 31673381.
o ^ Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Lechner, Andreas; Ferrari, Uta; Seissler,
Jochen; Holle, Rolf; Niessen, Louis W. (1 March 2016). “Mobile phone use and willingness to pay for SMS for diabetes in Bangladesh”. Journal of Public Health. 38 (1): 163–169. doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdv009. ISSN 1741-3842. PMID 25687131.
o ^ Patrick,
K.; Griswold, W. G.; Raab, F; Intille, S. S. (2008). “Health and the mobile phone”. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 35 (2): 177–81. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.05.001. PMC 2527290. PMID 18550322.
o ^ Terry, Ken (31 October 2012). “Text Messaging
Between Clinicians Increasing in Hospitals”. InformationWeek. Retrieved 19 December 2013.
o ^ “HIPAA compliant messaging for healthcare providers”. OnPage. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
o ^ “New Zealand woman diagnosed with text thumb”. Brisbane
Times. 24 December 2007. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Shuter, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sumana (2010). “Emerging Interpersonal Norms of Text Messaging in India and the United States”. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research.
29 (2): 123–147. doi:10.1080/17475759.2010.526319. S2CID 143705457.
o ^ “Text Messaging”. The Emily Post Institute. Archived from the original on 26 January 2008. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “How do we communicate in business today?”. Plantronics.
Archived from the original on 23 December 2010.
o ^ Alison Diana (30 September 2010). “Executives Demand Communications Arsenal”. InformationWeek. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 11 October 2010.
o ^ “Accident Claim Text
Scam”. Kathirvel.com. 7 July 2010. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “Sprint and Cingular Named in Complaints”. The New York Times. 21 July 2005.
o ^ “UCAN report on Sprint SPAM SMS settlement”. Utility Consumers’
Action Network. 5 October 2006. Archived from the original on 18 July 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “Warning over ‘scam’ that charges users to receive texts”. bbc.co.uk. 28 March 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
o ^ Jump up to:a b Biggs,
John (1 July 2008). “AT&T’s text messages cost $1,310 per megabyte”. TechCrunch. Retrieved 3 October 2022.
o ^ Jones, Ashley (28 July 2009). “Texting prices rise as carriers make profits”. The Daily Universe. Archived from the original on 28 March
2010. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
o ^ Crystal, David (2008). txting; the gr8 db8. New York: Oxford. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-19-954490-5.
o ^ Albanesius, Chloe (16 June 2009). “AT&T, Verizon Deny Text-Message Price-Fixing”. PC Magazine.
o ^ Reardon,
Marguerite (16 June 2009). “AT&T and Verizon deny price-fixing accusations”. CNET News. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
o ^ The death of SMS has been greatly exaggerated. Phonearena.com. Retrieved on 8 June 2015.
o ^ “Don’t Use SMS for Confidential Communication”.
Gartner Group. 26 November 2002. Archived from the original on 14 December 2002. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ Jump up to:a b “Sonja satte sms-verdensrekord | TV 2 Nyhetene”. Tv2nyhetene.no. 14 November 2009. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ “Fastest
fingers top text record”. BBC News. 22 March 2005. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
o ^ “Fastest Text Messager”. The book of alternative records. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
o ^ “World’s fastest texter in Dunedin”. Tvnz.co.nz. TECHNOLOGY News. 17 November
2007. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
o ^ “Most Text Messages Sent or Received in a Single Month”. The Universal Records Database. 14 September 2010. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 15
November 2010.
o ^ Sang-hun, Choe (27 January 2010). “Rule of Thumbs: Koreans Reign in Texting World”. The New York Times. Seoul. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
o ^ “World Record Texting Speed App – iTextFast”. PR Mac. United States. 6 April 2011.
Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
o ^ “A race to the wire as old hand at Morse code beats txt msgrs”. timesonline.co.uk. London: The Times Online. 16 April 2005.
o ^ eeggs.com (21 November 2001). “Nokia Mobile
Phones Easter Eggs”. Eeggs.com. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
o ^ Nokia app lets you key SMSes in Morse Code, 1 June 2005, Boing Boing.
o ^ “Back to the Future – Morse Code and Cellular Phones”. oreillynet.com. O’Reilly Network. 28 June 2005. Archived
from the original on 3 July 2005.
o ^ Nokia files patent for Morse Code-generating cellphone, 12 March 2005, Engadget.
o ^ George, Justin (11 September 2008) “Bucs fans can tattle via text”. tampabay.com.
o ^ “Schooling fans on good behavior”.
sportsbusinessdaily.com (21 November 2011).

Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rose_braverman/6776075110/’]