In a wider sense, carding can refer to these four processes: • Willowing: loosening the fibres • Lapping: removing the dust to create a flat sheet or lap of cotton •
Carding: combing the tangled lap into a thick rope of 1/2 inch in diameter, a sliver • Drawing: where a drawing frame combines 4 slivers into one, repeated for increased quality Combing is optional, but is used to remove the shorter fibres,
creating a stronger yarn.
This is especially true if spools of elastane are processed from separate spool containers and interwoven through the cylinder with cotton yarn, giving the finished product
more flexibility and preventing it from having a ‘baggy’ appearance.
 Fresh off the loom, cotton fabric not only contains impurities, including warp size, but it also requires further treatment to develop its full potential and to add to
 The techniques used to process these fibres in yarn are essentially the same as with natural fibres, modifications have to be made as these fibres are of
great length, and have no texture such as the scales in cotton and wool that aid meshing.
Going over the same spot twice produces small fibres that will produce pills in finished fabric, something that skilled shearers are usually able to avoid.
 Many other chemical treatments may be applied to cotton fabrics to produce low flammability, crease-resistance and other qualities, but the four most important non-chemical
finishing treatments are: Singeing Main article: Singe § Textiles Singeing is designed to burn off the surface fibres from the fabric to produce smoothness.
It is used to create two kinds of yarn, woolens and worsteds.
Cotton remains the most widely used and common natural fiber making up 90% of all-natural fibers used in the textile industry.
The differing characteristics of each coat allows for very different yarn; the guard hairs can be used for durable outerwear, while the inner coat is what is traditionally
used to produce the ultrafine wedding ring shawls across Europe.
Assorting skeins: where silk is sorted by colour, size and quality, scouring: where the silk is washed in water of 40 degrees for 12 hours to remove the natural gum, drying:
either by steam heating or centrifuge, softening: by rubbing to remove any remaining hard spots.
The silk is far too fine to be woven, so now it is doubled and twisted to make the warp, known as organzine, and the weft, known as tram.
 Spinning – yarn manufacture Main article: Cotton-spinning machinery Spinning Further information: Spinning (textiles) Most spinning today is done using break,
or open-end spinning.
 Scouring Scouring is a chemical washing process carried out on cotton fabric to remove natural waxes and non-fibrous impurities (like the remains of seed fragments)
from the fibres and any soiling or dirt that might remain.
Printing designs onto previously dyed fabric is also possible.
Depending on the weight desired, the cotton may or may not be plied, and the number of strands twisted together varies.
• Angora Silk The processes in silk production are similar to those of cotton but take account that reeled silk is a continuous fibre.
 Jute can be blended with other fibres to make composite fabrics and work continues in Bangladesh to refine the processes and extend the range of usage possible.
These rovings (or slubbings) are then what are used in the spinning process.
When spinning a small amount of oil must be added to the fibre.
Main article: Knitted fabric Knitting by machine is done in two different ways; warp and weft.
 Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn.
In an open shed, the warp threads are moved from one line to the other when the pattern requires it.
However, due to carbon emissions from fertiliser application, use of mechanized tools to harvest the cotton and so forth cotton manufacture tends to emit more CO2 than is
stored in the form of cellulose.
There are many variable processes available at the spinning and fabric-forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production
of a wide range of products.
Because the thread is fine, often three of these would be combined to get the desired number of ends.
 Gassing Further information: Singe § Textiles, and Gassing (textile process) Gassing is the process of passing yarn very rapidly through a series of Bunsen gas
flames in a gassing frame, to burn off the projecting fibres and to make the thread round and smooth and bright.
Fibres less than that form short wool and are described as clothing or carding wool, and are best suited for the jumbled arrangement of woolens.
If the appropriate reagents are used, scouring will also remove size from the fabric, although desizing often precedes scouring and is considered to be a separate process.
If the roving was not a consistent size, then this step could cause a break in the yarn, or jam the machine.
At this stage, even the most naturally white cotton fibres are yellowish, and bleaching is required.
This is a similar process to in cotton.
It was a continuous process, the yarn was coarser, had a greater twist and was stronger, thus suitable for use as warp thread.
 Finishing – processing of textiles Main article: Finishing (textiles) Finishing is a broad range of physical and chemical processes/treatments that complete one
stage of textile manufacturing, sometimes in preparation for the next step.
 There are six stages to the manufacturing of cotton textiles: • Cultivating and Harvesting • Preparatory Processes • Spinning • Weaving or Knitting • Finishing • Marketing
Cultivating and harvesting Cotton is grown in locations with long, hot, dry summers with plenty of sunshine and low humidity.
 The consumption of energy in form of water and electricity is relatively high, especially in processes like washing, de-sizing, bleaching, rinsing, dyeing, printing, coating
Pirning (processing the weft) A pirn-winding frame was used to transfer the weft from cheeses of yarn onto the pirns that would fit into the shuttle.
At the same time, air is blown across the bars, which carries the cotton into a cotton chamber.
 Winding After being spun and plied, the cotton thread is taken to a warping room where the winding machine takes the required length of yarn and winds it onto warpers’
Since combining several slivers produces a very thick rope of cotton fibres, the slivers are separated into rovings.
Grading is done on quality as well as length of the fibres.
• Beating-up: The third primary movement of the loom when making cloth: the action of the reed as it drives each pick of weft to the fell of the cloth.
The working conditions of cotton production were often harsh, with long hours, low pay, and dangerous machinery.
The working conditions of cotton production were often harsh, with long hours, low pay, and dangerous machinery.
This amount of cotton could be used to produce up to 9.4 million T-shirts.
People often use cotton clothing and accessories because of comfort, not limited to different weathers.
In general, synthetic fibres are created by forcing, or extruding, fibre forming materials through holes (called spinnerets) into the air, thus forming a thread.
The cotton leaves the carding machine in the form of a sliver: a large rope of fibres.
Nylon, the first synthetic fibre, made its debut in the United States as a replacement for silk, and was used for parachutes and other military uses.
It is difficult to bleach, and is used for making cord and rope.
Ideally, the wool is cut as close to the skin as possible to maximise fibre length.
 Mercerising Main article: Mercerised cotton A further possibility is mercerising, during which the fabric is treated with a caustic soda solution, to cause swelling
of the fibres.
 Spinning them together, like in lopi, produces a unique yarn that combines the strength of the guard hairs with the loft and softness of the undercoat.
When the cotton comes out of a bale, it is all packed together and still contains vegetable matter.
Sewing thread was made of several threads twisted together, or doubled.
The cotton, aided by fans, then collects on a screen and gets fed through more rollers where it emerges as a continuous soft fleecy sheet, known as a lap.
Power dominates consumption pattern in spinning and weaving, while thermal energy is the major factor for chemical wet processing.
These are distinguished by the direction of the wool fibres in relation to the thread; woolens are perpendicularly arranged, allowing for fluffy yarns that trap air, while
worsteds have parallel fibres, creating a strong and smooth yarn.
Thus, the yarn needs to be wrapped onto a beam, and onto pirns before weaving can commence.
Long wool fibres can be up to 15 in, but anything over 2.5 inches is suitable for combing into worsteds.
 There is a higher rate of cotton being produced compared to the actual workers needed to produce the material.
To fluff up the cotton and remove the vegetable matter, the cotton is sent through a picker or a similar machine.
Shrinking (sanforising) Main article: Sanforization Sanforisation is a form of mechanical pre-shrinking, so that the fabric will shrink less upon laundering.
The carding machine consists mainly of one big roller with smaller ones surrounding it.
The bale is broken open using a machine with large spikes, called an opener.
Approximately 25 per cent of energy in the total textile production like fibre production, spinning, twisting, weaving, knitting, clothing manufacturing etc.
 • Mule spinning • Mule spinning • Ring spinning • Ring spinning Measurements Main article: Units of textile measurement • Cotton Counts: Refers to the thickness
of the cotton yarn where 840 yards of yarns weighs 1 pound (0.45 kg).
Cotton is mercerised under tension, and all alkali must be washed out before the tension is released, or shrinkage will take place.
 Desizing Depending on the size that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a dilute acid and then rinsed, or enzymes may be used to break down the size.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/minniemouseaunt/3454461550/’]