the exodus


  • [6] In the first book of the Pentateuch, the Book of Genesis, the Israelites had come to live in Egypt in the Land of Goshen during a famine due to the fact that an Israelite,
    Joseph, had become a high official in the court of the pharaoh.

  • [34] While ancient Egyptian texts from the New Kingdom mention “Asiatics” living in Egypt as slaves and workers, these people cannot be securely connected to the Israelites,
    and no contemporary Egyptian text mentions a large-scale exodus of slaves like that described in the Bible.

  • [54] Development and final composition Ezra Reads the Law to the People (Gustave Doré’s illustrations for La Grande Bible de Tours, 1866) The earliest traces of the traditions
    behind the exodus appear in the northern prophets Amos[55] and Hosea,[56] both active in the 8th century BCE in northern Israel, but their southern contemporaries Isaiah and Micah show no knowledge of an exodus[2] (Micah 6:4–5 contains a reference
    to the exodus, which many scholars take to be an addition by a later editor[g]); while Jeremiah, active in the 7th century, mentions both Moses[58] and the Exodus.

  • [4][5] Biblical presentation of the Exodus Narrative Israel in Egypt (Edward Poynter, 1867) The story of the Exodus is told in the first half of Exodus, with the remainder
    recounting the 1st year in the wilderness, and followed by a narrative of 39 more years in the books of Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy, the last four of the first five books of the Bible (also called the Torah or Pentateuch).

  • [21] The Book of Exodus itself attempts to ground the event firmly in history, dating the exodus to the 2666th year after creation (Exodus 12:40-41), the construction of the
    tabernacle to year 2667 (Exodus 40:1-2, 17), stating that the Israelites dwelled in Egypt for 430 years (Exodus 12:40-41), and including place names such as Goshen (Gen. 46:28), Pithom, and Ramesses (Exod.

  • “[18] Scholars posit that a small group of people of Egyptian origin may have joined the early Israelites, and then contributed their own Egyptian Exodus story to all of Israel.

  • [45] It is also possible that oppressive Egyptian rule of Canaan during the late second millennium BCE may have aided the adoption of the story of a small group of Egyptian
    refugees by the native Canaanites among the Israelites.

  • [69] Nadav Na’aman argued for other signs that the Exodus was a tradition in Judah before the destruction of the northern kingdom, including the Song of the Sea and Psalm
    114, as well as the great political importance that the narrative came to assume there.

  • [9] No modern attempt to identify an historical Egyptian prototype for Moses has found wide acceptance, and no period in Egyptian history matches the biblical accounts of
    the Exodus.

  • [79] Scholars broadly agree that the publication of the Torah (or Pentateuch) took place in the mid-Persian period (the 5th century BCE), echoing a traditional Jewish view
    which gives Ezra, the leader of the Jewish community on its return from Babylon, a pivotal role in its promulgation.

  • Both include a nearly identical dedication formula (“These are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt;” Exodus 32:8).

  • [49] Many other scholars reject this view, and instead see the biblical exodus traditions as the invention of the exilic and post-exilic Jewish community, with little to no
    historical basis.

  • [68] The psalm’s version of the Exodus contains some important differences from what is found in the Pentateuch: there is no mention of Moses, there are only seven plagues
    in Egypt, and the manna is described as “food of the mighty” rather than as bread in the wilderness.

  • [67] Some of the earliest evidence for Judahite traditions of the exodus is found in Psalm 78, which portrays the Exodus as beginning a history culminating in the building
    of the temple at Jerusalem.

  • [61][h] A Judahite cultic object associated with the exodus was the brazen serpent or nehushtan: according to 2 Kings 18:4, the brazen serpent had been made by Moses and was
    worshiped in the temple in Jerusalem until the time of king Hezekiah of Judah, who destroyed it as part of a religious reform, possibly around 727 BCE.

  • Michael Graves calls Paul’s discussion of the exodus in 1 Corinthians 5:7-8 and his comparison of the early church in Corinth to the Israelites in the desert “[t]he two most
    significant NT passages touching on the exodus.

  • [62] The northern psalms 80 and 81 state that God “brought a vine out of Egypt” (Psalm 80:8) and record ritual observances of Israel’s deliverance from Egypt as well as a
    version of part of the Ten Commandments (Psalm 81:10-11).

  • [15] The covenant is described in stages: at Exodus 24:3–8 the Israelites agree to abide by the “book of the covenant” that Moses has just read to them; shortly afterwards
    God writes the “words of the covenant” – the Ten Commandments – on stone tablets; and finally, as the people gather in Moab to cross into Canaan, the land God has promised them, Moses makes a new covenant between Yahweh and the Israelites
    “beside the covenant he made with them at Horeb” (Deuteronomy 29:1).

  • [18] The majority view of modern scholars is that the Torah does not give an accurate account of the origins of the Israelites, who appear instead to have formed as an entity
    in the central highlands of Canaan in the late second millennium BCE from the indigenous Canaanite culture.

  • [52] Finkelstein and Silberman argued that “the most consistent geographical details of the Exodus story come from the seventh century BCE […] six centuries after the events
    of the Exodus were supposed to have taken place”.

  • [116] Early Christian authors such as Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, and Augustine all emphasized the supersession of the Old Covenant of Moses by the New Covenant of Christ, which
    was open to all people rather than limited to the Jews.

  • [92] The first century CE Roman historian Tacitus included a version of the story that claims that the Hebrews worshiped a donkey as their god in order to ridicule Egyptian
    religion, whereas the Roman biographer Plutarch claimed that the Egyptian god Seth was expelled from Egypt and had two sons named Juda and Hierosolyma.

  • [33] The Bible did not mention the names of any of the pharaohs involved in the Exodus narrative, making it difficult for modern scholars to match Egyptian history and the
    biblical narrative.

  • [38][39] Potential historical origins Ramesses II, one of several suggested pharaohs in the Exodus narrative Despite the absence of any archaeological evidence, many scholars
    nonetheless hold the view that the Exodus likely has some sort of historical basis,[25][24] with Kenton Sparks referring to it as “mythologized history.

  • [75] Joel S. Baden noted that “[t]he seams [between the Exodus and Wilderness traditions] still show: in the narrative of Israel’s rescue from Egypt there is little hint that
    they will be brought anywhere other than Canaan—yet they find themselves heading first, unexpectedly, and in no obvious geographical order, to an obscure mountain.

  • ‘Departure from Egypt’) is the founding myth[a] of the Israelites whose narrative is spread over four books of the Torah (or Pentateuch, corresponding to the first five books
    of the Bible), namely Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.

  • [36] Archaeologists Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman say that archaeology has not found any evidence for even a small band of wandering Israelites living in the
    Sinai: “The conclusion – that Exodus did not happen at the time and in the manner described in the Bible – seems irrefutable […] repeated excavations and surveys throughout the entire area have not provided even the slightest evidence.

  • [61] Evidence from the Bible suggests that the Exodus from Egypt formed a “foundational mythology” or “state ideology” for the Northern Kingdom of Israel.

  • [35] The earliest surviving historical mention of the Israelites, the Egyptian Merneptah Stele (c. 1207 BCE), appears to place them in or around Canaan and gives no indication
    of any exodus.

  • [59] The story may, therefore, have originated a few centuries earlier, perhaps in the 9th or 10th BCE, and there are signs that it took different forms in Israel, in the
    Transjordan region, and in the southern Kingdom of Judah before being unified in the Persian era.

  • [24][25][18] The other position, often associated with the school of Biblical minimalism,[26][27] is that the biblical exodus traditions are the invention of the exilic and
    post-exilic Jewish community, with little to no historical basis.

  • [63] The Books of Kings records the dedication of two golden calves in Bethel and Dan by the Israelite king Jeroboam I, who uses the words “Here are your gods, O Israel, which
    brought you up out of the land of Egypt” (1 Kings 12:28).

  • [53] There is no direct evidence for any of the people or Exodus events in non-biblical ancient texts or in archaeological remains, and this has led most scholars to omit
    the Exodus events from comprehensive histories of Israel.

  • [64] Egyptologist Jan Assmann suggested that event, which would have taken place around 931 BCE, may be partially historical due to its association with the historical pharaoh
    Sheshonq I (the biblical Shishak).

  • [6] Moses, in Midian, goes to Mount Horeb, where Yahweh appears in a burning bush and commands him to go to Egypt to free the Hebrew slaves and bring them to the promised
    land in Canaan.

  • [83] The second theory, associated with Joel P. Weinberg and called the “Citizen-Temple Community”, is that the Exodus story was composed to serve the needs of a post-exilic
    Jewish community organized around the Temple, which acted in effect as a bank for those who belonged to it.

  • [51] Philip R. Davies suggested that the story may have been inspired by the return to Israel of Israelites and Judaeans who were placed in Egypt as garrison troops by the
    Assyrians in the fifth and sixth centuries BCE.

  • In the Bible, the Exodus is frequently mentioned as the event that created the Israelite people and forged their bond with God, being described as such by the prophets Hosea,
    Jeremiah, and Ezekiel.

  • [74] Mark Walter Bartusch noted that the nehushtan is not mentioned at any prior point in Kings, and suggests that the brazen serpent was brought to Jerusalem from the Northern
    Kingdom after its destruction in 722 BCE.

  • [25] Evidence in favor of historical traditions forming a background to the Exodus myth include the documented movements of small groups of Ancient Semitic-speaking peoples
    into and out of Egypt during the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Dynasties, some elements of Egyptian folklore and culture in the Exodus narrative,[42] and the names Moses, Aaron and Phinehas, which seem to have an Egyptian origin.

  • [73] The revelation of God on Sinai appears to have originally been a tradition unrelated to the Exodus.

  • [95] There is general agreement that the stories originally had nothing to do with the Jews.

  • Moses and Aaron then go to the pharaoh and ask him to let the Israelites go into the desert for a religious festival, but the pharaoh refuses and commands the Israelites to
    make bricks without straw and increases their workload.

  • [86] Manetho, as preserved in Josephus’s Against Apion, tells how 80,000 lepers and other “impure people”, led by a priest named Osarseph, join forces with the former Hyksos,
    now living in Jerusalem, to take over Egypt.

  • The pharaoh becomes concerned by the number and strength of Israelites in Egypt and enslaves them, commanding them to build at two “supply” or “store cities” called Pithom
    and Rameses (Exodus 1:11).

  • The pharaoh demands for Moses to perform a miracle, and Aaron throws down Moses’ staff, which turns into a tannin (sea monster[10] or snake) (Exodus 7:8-13); however, Pharaoh’s
    magicians[c] are also able to do this, though Moses’ staff devours the others.

  • Pamela Barmash argued that the psalm is a polemic against the Northern Kingdom; as it fails to mention that kingdom’s destruction in 722 BCE, she concluded that it must have
    been written before then.

  • [84] The books containing the Exodus story served as an “identity card” defining who belonged to this community (i.e., to Israel), thus reinforcing Israel’s unity through
    its new institutions.

  • [28] The biblical Exodus narrative is best understood as a founding myth of the Jewish people, providing an ideological foundation for their culture and institutions, not
    an accurate depiction of the history of the Israelites.

  • Early Christians frequently interpreted actions taken in the Exodus, and sometimes the Exodus as a whole, typologically to prefigure Jesus or actions of Jesus.

  • [46][47][48] Alternatively, Nadav Na’aman argued that oppressive Egyptian rule of Canaan during the Nineteenth and especially the Twentieth Dynasty may have inspired the Exodus
    narrative, forming a “collective memory” of Egyptian oppression that was transferred from Canaan to Egypt itself in the popular consciousness.

  • [46] The expulsion of the Hyksos, a Semitic group that had conquered much of Egypt, by the Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt is also frequently discussed as a potential historical
    parallel or origin for the story.

  • [30] The Book of Numbers further states that the number of Israelite males aged 20 years and older in the desert during the wandering were 603,550, including 22,273 first-borns,
    which modern estimates put at 2.5-3 million total Israelites, a number that could not be supported by the Sinai Desert through natural means.

  • [66] Pauline Viviano, however, concluded that neither the references to Jeroboam’s calves in Hosea (Hosea 8:6 and 10:5) nor the frequent prohibitions of idol worship in the
    seventh-century southern prophet Jeremiah show any knowledge of a tradition of a golden calf having been created in Sinai.

  • [81] The first of these, Persian Imperial authorisation, advanced by Peter Frei in 1985, is that the Persian authorities required the Jews of Jerusalem to present a single
    body of law as the price of local autonomy.

  • [112] Mark suggests that the outpouring of Jesus’ blood creates a new covenant (Mark 14:24) in the same way that Moses’ sacrifice of bulls had created a covenant (Exodus 24:5).

  • 1:11), as well as stating that 600,000 Israelite men were involved (Exodus 12:37).

  • [14] The people are without water, so Yahweh commands Moses to get water from a rock by speaking to it, but Moses strikes the rock with his staff instead, for which Yahweh
    forbids him from entering the promised land.

  • The Israelites will have to remain in the wilderness for forty years,[14] and Yahweh kills the spies through a plague except for the righteous Joshua and Caleb, who will be
    allowed to enter the promised land.

  • [25] Joel S. Baden[44] noted the presence of Semitic-speaking slaves in Egypt who sometimes escaped in small numbers as potential inspirations for the Exodus.

  • They wreak havoc until the pharaoh and his son chase them out to the borders of Syria, where Osarseph gives the lepers a law-code and changes his name to Moses.

  • Most scholars agree that the Exodus stories were written centuries after the apparent setting of the stories.

  • [110] In the New Testament, Jesus is frequently associated with motifs of the Exodus.

  • [98] The fringes worn at the corners of traditional Jewish prayer shawls are described as a physical reminder of the obligation to observe the laws given at the climax of
    Exodus: “Look at it and recall all the commandments of the Lord” (Numbers).

  • [40][41] Most scholars who accept a historical core of the exodus date this possible exodus group to the thirteenth century BCE at the time of Ramses II, with some instead
    dating it to the twelfth century BCE at the time of Ramses III.

  • [28] Lester Grabbe, for instance, argued that “[t]here is no compelling reason that the exodus has to be rooted in history,”[50] and that the details of the story more closely
    fit the seventh through the fifth centuries BCE than the traditional dating to the second millennium BCE.

  • Moses then addresses the Israelites for a final time on the banks of the Jordan River, reviewing their travels and giving them further laws.

  • “[37] Instead, modern archaeology suggests continuity between Canaanite and Israelite settlement, indicating a primarily Canaanite origin for Israel, with no suggestion that
    a group of foreigners from Egypt comprised early Israel.

  • [62] Stephen Russell dated this tradition to “the eighth century BCE or earlier,” and argued that it preserves a genuine Exodus tradition from the Northern Kingdom, but in
    a Judahite recension.

  • [14] Covenant and law The climax of the Exodus is the covenant (binding legal agreement) between God and the Israelites mediated by Moses at Sinai: Yahweh will protect the
    Israelites as his chosen people for all time, and the Israelites will keep Yahweh’s laws and worship only him.

  • [24] Origins and historicity See also: Sources and parallels of the Exodus and Historicity of the Bible There are two main positions on the historicity of the Exodus in modern

  • [94] Egyptologist Jan Assmann proposed that the story comes from oral sources that “must […] predate the first possible acquaintance of an Egyptian writer with the Hebrew

  • “[76] In addition, there is widespread agreement that the revelation of the law in Deuteronomy was originally separate from the Exodus:[77] the original version of Deuteronomy
    is generally dated to the 7th century BCE.


Works Cited

[‘1. The term myth is used here in its academic sense, meaning “a traditional story consisting of events that are ostensibly historical, though often supernatural, explaining the origins of a cultural practice or natural phenomenon.” It is not being
used to mean “something that is false”.
2. ^ A “store city” or “supply city” was a city used to store provisions and garrison an important campaign route.[7] The Septuagint version includes a reference to a third “supply city” built by the Hebrews:
” On, which is Heliopolis” (LXX Exodus 1:11, trans. Larry J. Perkins[8][9]).
3. ^ These magicians are referred to in the Hebrew text as ḥartummîm, which derives from Ancient Egyptian ḥrj-tp (Demotic p-hritob, Akkadian: ḥar-tibi) a title meaning
“chief” and shortened from “chief lector priest”.[11] The Pharaoh’s magicians are able to replicate Moses and Aaron’s actions until the third plague (gnats), when they are the first to recognize that a divine power is at work (Exodus 8:19). In plague
four (festering boils), they themselves are afflicted and no longer contest with Moses and Aaron.[12]
4. ^ The term myth is used here in its academic sense, meaning “a traditional story consisting of events that are ostensibly historical, though
often supernatural, explaining the origins of a cultural practice or natural phenomenon.” It is not being used to mean “something that is false”.
5. ^ The name “exodus” is from Greek ἔξοδος exodos, “going out”. For “myth” see Sparks, 2010, p. 73:
“Charter (i.e., foundation) myths tell the story of a society’s origins, and, in doing so, provide the ideological foundations for the culture and its institutions.”[18]
6. ^ “While there is a consensus among scholars that the Exodus did not take
place in the manner described in the Bible, surprisingly most scholars agree that the narrative has a historical core, and that some of the highland settlers came, one way or another, from Egypt…” “Archaeology does not really contribute to the debate
over the historicity or even historical background of the Exodus itself, but if there was indeed such a group, it contributed the Exodus story to that of all Israel. While I agree that it is most likely that there was such a group, I must stress that
this is based on an overall understanding of the development of collective memory and of the authorship of the texts (and their editorial process). Archaeology, unfortunately, cannot directly contribute (yet?) to the study of this specific group of
Israel’s ancestors.”[25]
7. ^ Micah 6:4–5 (“I brought you up out of Egypt and redeemed you from the land of slavery; I sent Moses to lead you, also Aaron and Miriam. My people, remember what Balak king of Moab plotted and what Balaam son of Beor
answered. Remember your journey from Shittim to Gilgal, that you may know the righteous acts of the Lord”) is a late addition to the original book. See ,[57] Miller II, Robert D. (25 November 2013). Illuminating Moses: A History of Reception from
Exodus to the Renaissance. BRILL. p. 19. ISBN 978-90-04-25854-9., McDermott, John J. (2002). Reading the Pentateuch: A Historical Introduction. Paulist Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-8091-4082-4., McKenzie, Steven L. (2005). How to Read the Bible: History,
Prophecy, Literature–Why Modern Readers Need to Know the Difference and What It Means for Faith Today. Oxford University Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-19-803655-5., Collins, John J. (15 April 2018). Introduction to the Hebrew Bible: Third Edition. Augsburg
Fortress, Publishers. p. 354. ISBN 978-1-5064-4605-9. Many scholars assume that the appeal to the exodus here is the work of a Deuteronomistic editor, but this is not necessarily so. and Wolff, Hans Walter (1990). Micah: A Commentary. Augsburg. p.
23. ISBN 978-0-8066-2449-5. apud Hamborg, Graham R. (24 May 2012). Still Selling the Righteous: A Redaction-critical Investigation of Reasons for Judgment in Amos 2.6-16. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 156–157. ISBN 978-0-567-04860-8.
8. ^ However,
the date of composition of the Song of the Sea -ostensibly celebrating the victory at the Reed Sea -ranges from an early mid-12 century BCE period through post-exilic times, down to as late as 350 BCE.[70][71][72]
9. ^ “[Hezekiah] broke in pieces
the bronze serpent that Moses had made, for until those days the people of Israel had made offerings to it; it was called Nehushtan” (2 Kings 18:4).
10. ^ “In every generation a person is duty-bound to regard himself as if he personally has gone
forth from Egypt, since it is said,’And you shall tell your son in that day saying, it is because of that which the Lord did for me when I came forth out of Egypt.” —Exodus 13:8[105]
11. Romer 2008, p. 2.
12. ^ Jump up to:a b Lemche 1985, p.
13. ^ Redmount 2001, p. 63: “Clearly, significant portions are not and were never intended to be historiographic. […] The biblical Exodus account was never intended to function or to be understood as history in the present-day sense of the
14. ^ Berlin & Brettler 2004.
15. ^ Jump up to:a b Baden 2019, p. xiv.
16. ^ Jump up to:a b c Redmount 2001, p. 59.
17. ^ Assmann 2018, p. 94.
18. ^ Pietersma & Wright 2014.
19. ^ Jump up to:a b Dozeman & Shectman 2016, p. 139.
20. ^
Dozeman & Shectman 2016, p. 149.
21. ^ Assmann 2018, p. 139.
22. ^ Jump up to:a b Assmann 2018, pp. 139–142.
23. ^ Redmount 2001, pp. 59–60.
24. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Redmount 2001, p. 60.
25. ^ Bandstra 2008, p. 28-29.
26. ^ McKenzie 2005,
p. 4–5.
27. ^ Bandstra 2008, p. 146.
28. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Sparks 2010, p. 73.
29. ^ Jump up to:a b c Grabbe 2017, p. 36.
30. ^ Meyers 2005, pp. 6–7.
31. ^ Jump up to:a b Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 81.
32. ^ Faust 2015, p.476: “While
there is a consensus among scholars that the Exodus did not take place in the manner described in the Bible, surprisingly most scholars agree that the narrative has a historical core, and that some of the highland settlers came, one way or another,
from Egypt..”.
33. ^ Redmount 2001, p. 61: “A few authorities have concluded that the core events of the Exodus saga are entirely literary fabrications. But most biblical scholars still subscribe to some variation of the Documentary Hypothesis,
and support the basic historicity of the biblical narrative.”
34. ^ Jump up to:a b c Redmount 2001, p. 87: “The biblical text has its own inner logic and consistency, largely divorced from the concerns of secular history. […] conversely, the Bible,
never intended to function primarily as a historical document, cannot meet modern canons of historical accuracy and reliability. There is, in fact, remarkably little of proven or provable historical worth or reliability in the biblical Exodus narrative,
and no reliable independent witnesses attest to the historicity or date of the Exodus events.”
35. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Faust 2015, p. 476.
36. ^ Davies 2004, pp. 23–24.
37. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, pp. 86–87.
38. ^ Jump up to:a b Russell 2009,
p. 11.
39. ^ Collins 2005, p. 46.
40. ^ Dozeman & Shectman 2016, pp. 138–139.
41. ^ Dever 2003, pp. 18–19.
42. ^ Grabbe 2014, pp. 63–64.
43. ^ Dever 2003, pp. 15–17.
44. ^ Grabbe 2014, p. 69.
45. ^ Barmash 2015b, pp. 2–3.
46. ^ Grabbe
2014, pp. 65–67.
47. ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, p. 63.
48. ^ Barmash 2015b, p. 4.
49. ^ Shaw 2002, p. 313.
50. ^ Dever 2003, p. 231.
51. ^ Friedman, Richard Elliott (2017-09-12). The Exodus. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-256526-6.
52. ^
Meyers 2005, pp. 8–10.
53. ^ Redmount 2001, p. 65.
54. ^ “Joel S. Baden | Yale Divinity School”. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
55. ^ Baden 2019, pp. 6–7.
56. ^ Jump up to:a b Faust 2015, p. 477.
57. ^ Redmount 2001, p. 78.
58. ^
Redford 1992, pp. 412–413.
59. ^ Na’aman 2011, pp. 62–69.
60. ^ Grabbe 2014, p. 84.
61. ^ Grabbe 2014, p. 85.
62. ^ Davies 2015, p. 105.
63. ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, p. 65.
64. ^ Moore & Kelle 2011, p. 88.
65. ^ Amos 9:7
66. ^
Hosea 12:9
67. ^ Lemche 1985, p. 315.
68. ^ Jeremiah 15:1
69. ^ Jeremiah 16:14
70. ^ Russell 2009, p. 1.
71. ^ Jump up to:a b Na’aman 2011, p. 40.
72. ^ Jump up to:a b Assmann 2018, p. 50.
73. ^ Barmash 2015b, pp. 10–12.
74. ^ Russell
2009, p. 41.
75. ^ Russell 2009, p. 55.
76. ^ Russell 2009, pp. 41–43, 46–47.
77. ^ Viviano 2019, pp. 46–47.
78. ^ Barmash 2015b, p. 8-9.
79. ^ Barmash 2015b, p. 9.
80. ^ Russell 2007, p. 96.
81. ^ Cross 1997, p. 124.
82. ^ Brenner
2012, pp. 1–20, 15, 19.
83. ^ Jump up to:a b Bartusch 2003, p. 41.
84. ^ Dijkstra 2006, p. 28.
85. ^ Baden 2019, p. 9.
86. ^ Baden 2019, p. 10.
87. ^ Assmann 2018, p. 204.
88. ^ Grabbe 2017, p. 49.
89. ^ Dever 2001, p. 99.
90. ^ Romer
2008, p. 2 and fn.3.
91. ^ Ska 2006, p. 217.
92. ^ Ska 2006, p. 218.
93. ^ Eskenazi 2009, p. 86.
94. ^ Ska 2006, pp. 226–227.
95. ^ Ska 2006, p. 225.
96. ^ Jump up to:a b c Droge 1996, p. 134.
97. ^ Assmann 2009, pp. 29, 34–35.
98. ^
Droge 1996, p. 131.
99. ^ Jump up to:a b c Assmann 2009, p. 34.
100. ^ Droge 1996, pp. 134–35.
101. ^ Feldman 1998, p. 342.
102. ^ Assmann 2009, p. 35.
103. ^ Assmann 2009, p. 37.
104. ^ Gmirkin 2006, p. 170.
105. ^ Assmann 2003, p.
106. ^ Gruen 2016, pp. 218–220.
107. ^ Baden 2019, pp. 35–36.
108. ^ Jump up to:a b c Tigay 2004, p. 106.
109. ^ Sarason 2015, p. 53.
110. ^ Nelson 2015, p. 43.
111. ^ Black 2018, p. 10.
112. ^ Black 2018, p. 26.
113. ^ Jump up
to:a b Black 2018, p. 19.
114. ^ Klein 1979, p. 105.
115. ^ Neusner 2005, p. 75.
116. ^ Black 2018, pp. 22–23.
117. ^ Black 2018, pp. 19–20.
118. ^ Black 2018, p. 20.
119. ^ Black 2018, pp. 60–61.
120. ^ Baden 2019, pp. 80–86.
121. ^
Jump up to:a b Graves 2019, p. 548.
122. ^ Perkins 2006, p. 114.
123. ^ Perkins 2006, p. 107.
124. ^ Baden 2019, p. 53.
125. ^ Graves 2019, pp. 548–549.
126. ^ Dozeman & Shectman 2016, p. 150.
127. ^ Dozeman & Shectman 2016, p. 160.
128. ^
Tigay 2004, p. 107.
129. ^ Assmann 2018, p. 335.
130. ^ Coomber 2012, p. 123.
• Assmann, Jan (2018). The Invention of Religion: Faith and Covenant in the Book of Exodus. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400889235.
• Assmann, Jan (2009).
Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674020306.
• Assmann, Jan (2003). The mind of Egypt: history and meaning in the time of the Pharaohs. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674012110.
• Baden, Joel S. (2019).
The Book of Exodus: A Biography. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-16954-5.
• Bandstra, Barry L. (2008). Reading the Old Testament: Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-0495391050.
• Barmash,
Pamela (2015b). “Out of the Mists of History: The Exaltation of the Exodus in the Bible”. In Barmash, Pamela; Nelson, W. David (eds.). Exodus in the Jewish Experience: Echoes and Reverberations. Lexington Books. pp. 1–22. ISBN 9781498502931.
• Bartusch,
Mark W. (2003). Understanding Dan: An Exegetical Study of a Biblical City, Tribe, and Ancestor. Sheffield Academic Press.
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