third place


  • In combination with the Industrial Revolution, and as media transitioned from the public space to more comfortable roles inside one’s home, there was a large shift away from
    public activities because they could be enjoyed within the confines of one’s home.

  • In the knowledge economy, the rise of new social environments is blurring the conventional separation between the first place (home), the second place (work), and the third

  • [8][9][10] Variant forms of the concept include the “community coffee house” and the “community living room,” a term which has been adopted by several organizations[11][12]
    to describe the model of a cooperatively-run “third space” which includes commercial or non-commercial functions with an emphasis on providing a free space for social interaction.

  • [21] A third place which provides internet access may create a hollow effect in that the patrons are physically present but do not make social contact with each other, being
    absorbed by their remote connections.

  • In sociology, the third place refers to the social surroundings that are separate from the two usual social environments of home (“first place”) and the workplace (“second

  • However, the online virtual communities constructed within these games share the same characteristics as traditional third places.

  • The regulars Third places harbor a number of regulars that help give the space its tone, and help set the mood and characteristics of the area.

  • [19] Internet access Many workers in the United States conduct remote work, not from home, but from a third place.

  • The regulars set standards for accepted in-game behavior, serving as a type of social moderator (especially for new players).

  • [5] The concept of a “third place” has been picked up by various small businesses, including as a name for various locally owned coffee shops, and is commonly cited in urban
    planning literature on the issue of community-oriented business development and public space.

  • [4] Oldenberg observed that, while many third places such as public parks are completely free, they often tend to be commercial establishments.

  • [24] Furthermore, the combination of elements of the first, second, and third place in new social environments implies the emergence of a new place, the fourth place.

  • [14] Virtual third places[edit] See also: Massively multiplayer online game Since Oldenburg’s writings, there are people in the computer and internet industry that have declared
    that third places are observed or shifting to the virtual world or virtual third places.

  • [20] Remote work can cause isolation and working in public spaces, such as cafes, libraries or coworking areas, may be a happy medium between the home office and the corporate

  • Robert Putnam addressed issues related to third place, but without using the term, in Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital (1995, 2000).

  • The concept of “regulars” within third spaces is also prominent in online gaming communities.

  • As the fourth place only works in the normal living mode, during COVID-19 quarantine restrictions, a new hybrid place emerged from the operation of the different outdoor and
    indoor typologies of other places.

  • The “second place” is the workplace—where people may actually spend most of their time.

  • New social environments in the knowledge city can combine elements of the first and second place (coliving); of the second and third place (coworking); and of the first and
    third place (comingling).

  • While these online communities provide freedom from traditional social status, that is not to say there are no social hierarchies within the games; each game community constructs
    their own social norms that determine in-game social status.

  • Conversation is the main activity Playful and happy conversation is the main focus of activity in third places, although it is not required to be the only activity.

  • [6][7] As the concept of “third place” has become more popular, several coworking office spaces have embraced this concept as the basis of their interior design.

  • The general store or pub and occasionally bookstore or diner are traditional variants of the concept, provided in such cases there is an emphasis on expectation of socialization,
    and customers are invited to stay and “hang out” with or without making any (or additional) purchases.

  • [4] In their research, many types of environments were listed as possible third places.

  • “[2] Other scholars have summarized Oldenburg’s view of a third place with eight characteristics:[1][3] Neutral ground Occupants of third places have little to no obligation
    to be there.

  • [1] In other words, “your third place is where you relax in public, where you encounter familiar faces and make new acquaintances.

  • Leveler (a leveling place) Third places put no importance on an individual’s status in a society.


Works Cited

[‘1. Pete Myers (2012). Going Home: Essays, Articles, and Stories in Honour of the Andersons. p. 37. ISBN 978-1-291-12167-4.
2. ^ White, Rebekah (July–August 2018). “A third place”. New Zealand Geographic (152): 6.
3. ^ Thorsten Quandt;
Sonja Kröger (30 October 2013). Multiplayer: The Social Aspects of Digital Gaming. Routledge. p. 114. ISBN 978-1-134-09219-2.
4. ^ Jump up to:a b Jeffres, Leo W.; Bracken, Cheryl C.; Jian, Guowei; Casey, Mary F. (2009-10-13). “The Impact of Third
Places on Community Quality of Life”. Applied Research in the Quality of Life. 4 (4): 333–345. doi:10.1007/s11482-009-9084-8. ISSN 1871-2584. S2CID 52198882.
5. ^ Oldenburg, Ray (Winter 1996–1997). “Our Vanishing “Third Places”” (PDF). Planning
Commissioners Journal. 25: 10.
6. ^ Diaz, Stuart M Butler and Carmen (2016-09-14). “”Third places” as community builders”. Brookings. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
7. ^ “Hey…Leave my third place alone! – Urban Planning and Design – architecture and design”. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
8. ^ “ATLAS Workbase”. ATLAS Workbase. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
9. ^ “Third Space Coworking”. Third Space. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
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Steelcase. 2015-01-05. Retrieved 2018-03-28.
11. ^ Sue Halpern. “New Deal City”. Mother Jones. No. May 2002. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
12. ^ “Talk of Takoma”. Takoma Voice. No. Takoma Park, Maryland, May 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-19.
13. ^ Rosenbaum,
Mark S. (2006). “Exploring the Social Supportive Role of Third Places in Consumers’ Lives”. Journal of Service Research. 9 (1): 59–72. doi:10.1177/1094670506289530. ISSN 1094-6705. S2CID 167531908.
14. ^ Haggard, Ted (2002). Dog Training, Fly Fishing,
and Sharing Christ in the 21st Century: Empowering Your Church to Build Community Through Shared Interests. Thomas Nelson. p. 224. ISBN 978-0849928970.
15. ^ Charles Soukup, Computer-mediated communication as a virtual third place: building Oldenburg’s
great good places on the world wide web
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S2CID 145655790 – via Wiley Online Library.
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Rubin, Victoria; Sarah Camm (2013-06-14). “Deception in video games: examining varieties of griefing”. Online Information Review. 37 (3): 369–387. doi:10.1108/oir-10-2011-0181.
19. ^ Han, Xiao; Cao, Shinan; Shen, Zhesi; Zhang, Boyu; Wang, Wen-Xu;
Cressman, Ross; Stanley, H. Eugene (2017-03-14). “Emergence of communities and diversity in social networks”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (11): 2887–2891. Bibcode:2017PNAS..114.2887H. doi:10.1073/pnas.1608164114.
ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5358344. PMID 28235785.
20. ^ “Third place office space”. USA Today. October 5, 2006.
21. ^ “Starbucks, “The Third Place”, and Creating the Ultimate Customer Experience”. Fast Company. June 11, 2008.
22. ^ “The new oases”.
The Economist. April 10, 2008.
23. ^ Dalal, Sanghamitra (November 2010). “Book Reviews: Communicating in The Third Space edited by Karin Ikas and Gerhard Wagner”. Transnational Literature. 3 (1).
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“A Typology of Places in the Knowledge Economy: Towards the Fourth Place”. New Metropolitan Perspectives. Smart Innovation, Systems and Technologies. Vol. 100. pp. 444–451. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-92099-3_50. ISBN 978-3-319-92098-6. SSRN 3056754.
25. ^
Elrahman 2021.
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