tudor architecture


  • This, called Richmond Palace has been described as the first prodigy house, a term for the ostentatious mansions of Elizabeth’s courtiers and others, and was influential on
    other great houses for decades to come as well as a seat of royal power and pageantry of an equivalent of modern-day Buckingham Palace or the 18th century St. James’s Palace.

  • 1500) • Lavenham Guildhall, Suffolk (1529) • Much Wenlock Guildhall, Shropshire (1587) • Shrewsbury Old Market Hall, Shropshire (1597) • Old Royal Exchange, London (1565–71
    by Thomas Gresham; burned 1666) Inns of Court[edit] The Hall, Middle Temple, London; damaged and rebuilt after World War II • Lincoln’s Inn Old Hall (ca.

  • [7] Surprisingly, much of the remains beneath the royal college reveal an edifice built with brick, not stone: castles in England going back to the Normans had been built
    with stone, never brick, hence this is an early advancement in technology and style and given its load bearing position at the bottom of the building it is extremely unlikely to have been erected under the aegis of any later monarch.

  • [8] Richmond Palace, west front, drawn by Antony Wyngaerde in 1562 Sheen, was someway down river from (and in the present day part of) London and became a primary residence
    as Henry’s family and court grew larger.

  • The earliest signs of the Renaissance appear under Henry VII; whereas most of his building projects are no longer standing, it is actually under him[dubious – discuss] and
    not his son that the Renaissance began to flower in England, evidenced by ample records of what was built and where, materials used, new features in gardening that did not at all fit the pattern of the earlier medieval walled garden, letters
    from the king expressing his desires and those of his wife’s in the case of Greenwich Palace, as well as his own expressed interest in the New Learning.

  • The building was largely wooden with cloisters and several medieval features, such as a grand central banqueting hall, and the Privy Chambers facing the river very much resembling
    a 15th-century castle.

  • During the reigns of Henry VIII and Edward VI, many Italian artists arrived in England; their decorative features can be seen at Hampton Court Palace, Layer Marney Tower,
    Sutton Place, and elsewhere.

  • [2] Hallmarks of Tudor architecture Upper classes[edit] Buildings constructed by the wealthy or royal had these common characteristics: Kentwell Hall Brick chimneys at Hampton
    Court Palace • An ‘E’ or ‘H’ shaped floor plan • Brick and stone masonry, sometimes with half timbers on upper floors in grand houses earlier in the period • Recycling of older medieval stone, especially after Henry VIII’s Dissolution of the

  • Not all Tudor architecture was of a residential nature, and the dry dock in Portsmouth is very important as it laid the foundation for other civic projects done under Henry
    VIII and Elizabeth I. Henry Tudor built the very first dry dock in the world at this site.

  • However, within months Henry began a magnificent new palace in a version of Renaissance style.

  • Although today the Old Royal Naval College sits on the site of the palace, evidence suggests that, shortly after ascending the throne, Henry spent a very large amount of money
    on enlarging it and finishing off a watchtower built prior to his reign; his Queen, Elizabeth, gave birth to Henry VIII and his brother Edmund in this palace.

  • A part of Henry VIII’s policy was the suppression of the monasteries and several examples of the Middle Ages today lie in ruins because of the nobility raiding the properties
    for building materials, gold, and anything of monetary value: for many the only way to escape being destroyed was the monarch holding a personal interest in keeping the abbey or cathedral intact (Westminster Abbey being an excellent example.)

  • [5] In the early part of his reign, Henry Tudor favoured two sites, both on the River Thames though in opposite directions, with one west of Westminster and one east of it.

  • This is the way it would have looked early in the reign of Elizabeth I. Henry VIII’s most ambitious palace was Nonsuch Palace, south of London and now disappeared, an attempt
    to rival the spectacular French royal palaces of the age and, like them, using imported Italian artists, though the architecture is northern European in inspiration.

  • 1490) • Gray’s Inn Hall (1559; damaged in the Blitz and restored) • Middle Temple Hall (1562–72; damaged in the Blitz and restored) • Staple Inn (1580–86) Other[edit] • The
    Tribunal, Glastonbury (ca.

  • [12] Earlier clerical buildings would have had a cross shape so as to honour Christ, such as in Old St Paul’s and the surviving York Cathedral, but as with all clerical buildings,
    this was a time of great chaos and revolution catalyzed by Henry VIII’s Reformation.

  • For example, during the reign of Edward VI parishioners witnessed a royal decree ripping out the rood screen in every single church: none of these now survive and in addition
    many altarpieces were burned.

  • Open floor fireplaces were a feature during the time of Henry VII but had declined in use by the 1560s for all but the poor as the growing middle classes were becoming more
    able to build them into their homes.

  • Instead, fireplaces could now be placed upstairs and it became possible to have a second story that ran the whole length of the house.

  • The statue of Our Lady of Walsingham at the centre of the shrine was brought back to London as a trophy to be destroyed, and the property itself was turned over to a man in
    the king’s favour whereafter it was mined for its stone.

  • [citation needed] Henry VIII and Later[edit] Henry VII was succeeded by his second son, Henry VIII, a man of a very different character of his father, who spent enormous amounts
    of money on building many palaces, most now vanished, as well as other expensive forms of display.

  • During this period, the arrival of the chimney stack and enclosed hearths resulted in the decline of the great hall based around an open hearth that was typical of earlier
    Medieval architecture.

  • [16] Building of new churches became much less frequent, and as a result England actually has larger numbers of medieval churches whose main fabric has survived than most
    parts of Europe.

  • 1644) • St. John’s Gate, Clerkenwell Priory, London (1504) • Ford’s Hospital, Coventry Domestic[edit] Royal Residences[edit] • Henry VII, Greenwich Palace, Greenwich, London
    (1498-1504; d. 1660) • Henry VII, Richmond Palace, Richmond-upon-Thames, London (1498-1502, d. 1649) Fragments of original palace still extant.

  • Development The reign of Henry VII[edit] Tudor style buildings have several features that separate them from Medieval and later 17th-century design.

  • Ordinary medieval village houses were often made much pleasanter to live in by the addition of brick fireplaces and chimneys, replacing an open hearth.

  • Over the centuries an Augustinian priory was erected upon the site that grew wealthy from pilgrims’ donations and for its era this one of the most popular shrines in all of
    England: Monarchs from nearly five centuries prior had worshipped at the place by 1510, up to and including Henry VII and Elizabeth.

  • Recent evidence[citation needed] suggests that he made notable improvements to other properties belonging to the crown, including Greenwich Palace, also known as the Palace
    of Placentia.

  • Timber framing on the upper floors of a house started appearing after 1400 CE in Europe and originally it was a method used to keep water from going back into the walls, instead
    being redirected back to the soil.

  • 1560) • Eastbury Manor House, Dagenham (1566–73) Outside of London[edit] Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire The long gallery, Little Moreton Hall, Cheshire Portal, Burghley House,
    near Peterborough Wollaton Hall Elizabethan gardens at Kenilworth Castle (see Prodigy house) • Compton Wynyates, Warks.

  • Much of the Tudor palace survives at Hampton Court Palace, which Henry took over from his disgraced minister Cardinal Wolsey and expanded, and this is now the surviving Tudor
    royal palace that best shows the style.

  • There are ample records in British royal archives of how Henry VII and his queen spent their time away from political activity.

  • Tragically, however, larger buildings like Jervaulx or Fountains, buildings whose wealth and grandeur were meant to rival Notre-Dame de Paris often do not even have their
    stained glass windows and are a shadow of their former selves.

  • The great majority of images, and elements of church furniture disapproved of by the Protestants, were destroyed in waves under Henry VIII, Edward VI, and later during the
    English Commonwealth.

  • (1564–85, d.) Metropolitan London[edit] • London Charterhouse Great Hall (1545) • Great Hall, Carew Manor, Beddington (ca.

  • They would be taken out to provide for the king’s table in spring and they are numerous.

  • [17] Tudor chimney-pieces were made large and elaborate to draw attention to the owner’s adoption of this new technology.

  • Gatehouse of Oxburgh Hall in Oxborough However, with the arrival of gunpowder and cannons by the time of Henry VI, fortifications like castles became increasingly obsolete.

  • • Oven not separated from apparatus used in fireplace, especially after the reign of Edward VI; middle-class homes had no use for such enormous ovens nor money to build them.

  • Examples Institutional Ecclesiastical[edit] Henry VII Lady Chapel at Westminster Abbey (1503–09) First Quad gate tower, St. John’s College, Cambridge (1511-20) The Gate of
    Honor, Caius Court, Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge (1565) See also: Perpendicular Gothic • The final stages of King’s College Chapel, Cambridge (1446–1515) • St Peter and St Paul’s Church, Lavenham, Suffolk (1485–1525) • Red Mount Chapel,
    King’s Lynn, Norfolk (ca.

  • [17] Fireplaces were quite large by modern standards, and intended to heat as much of the home as possible as well as cook upon them because in this period England was much
    more prone to snow.

  • Managing the flames would be the job of either a spit boy (Henry VII’s reign) or later on a new invention where a turnspit dog ran on a treadmill (Elizabeth I’s reign.)

  • • More emphasis on wooden staircases in homes of the middle class and gentry • Outhouses in the back of the home, especially beyond cities in market towns, often referred
    to as “the jakes” in documents that survive.

  • [citation needed] Prior to 1485, many wealthy and noble landowners lived in homes that were not necessarily comfortable but built to withstand sieges, though manor houses
    that were only lightly fortified, if at all, had been increasingly built.

  • In the much more slow-moving styles of vernacular architecture, “Tudor” has become a designation for half-timbered buildings, although there are cruck and frame houses with
    half timbering that considerably predate 1485 and others well after 1603; an expert examination is required to determine the building’s age.

  • • Classical accents such as round-headed arches over doors and alcoves, plus prominent balustrades from time of Henry VIII to Elizabeth I • Large brick chimneys, often topped
    with narrow decorative chimney pots in the homes of the upper middle class and higher.

  • Brick was something of an exotic and expensive rarity at the beginning of the period, but during it became very widely used in many parts of England, even for modest buildings,
    gradually restricting traditional methods such as wood framed, daub and wattle and half-timbering to the lower classes by the end of the period.

  • • Curvilinear gables, an influence taken from Dutch designs, from the mid-century • Displays of glass in large windows several feet long; only the rich could afford numerous
    expensive large windows.

  • [4] Within three years of Henry Tudor’s ascension to the throne, however, Bartolomeu Dias had rounded the future tip of today’s South Africa and by doing so would change the
    world forever: he opened up a sea passage to Asia and opened a route that completely cut out the reliance on the Silk Road and the Turks who controlled it.

  • [2] The building of churches had already slowed somewhat before the English Reformation, after a great boom in the previous century, but was brought to a nearly complete stop
    by the Reformation.

  • Scotland was a different country throughout the period, and is not covered here, but early Renaissance architecture in Scotland was influenced by close contacts between the
    French and Scottish courts, and there are a number of buildings from before 1560 that show a more thorough adoption of continental Renaissance styles than their English equivalents.

  • • Arms- The Tudor dynasty is famous for using its Tudor rose as a decorative device, but also the royal coat of arms was in use throughout the period as a p.r.

  • • Wide, enormous stone fireplaces with very large hearths meant to accommodate larger scale entertaining; in aristocratic homes the formal rooms may have large chimneypieces
    in stone, sometimes with the family’s heraldry.

  • Very specific to royalty, the royal coat of arms of the House of Tudor would have been distinct from all others that have sat the throne: in common with most royal houses,
    the three lions passant and the fleur de lys pattern did impale the shield, with the motto of “God and my right.”

  • Many chimneys were coated with lime or plaster inside to the misfortune of the owner: when heated these would decompose and thus the very first fire codes were implemented
    during the reign of Elizabeth I, as many lost their homes because of faulty installation.

  • He also added a sizeable chapel to the grounds with black and white tiles, discovered in 2006.

  • Upon his rise to power he inherited many castles, but notably he did very little to these.

  • In many regions stone architecture, which presents no exposed timber on the facade, was the norm for good houses, while everywhere the poorest lived in single-storey houses
    using wood frames and wattle and daub, too flimsy for any to have survived four centuries.

  • As time wore on, quadrangular, ‘H’ or ‘E’ shaped floor plans became more common, with the H shape coming to fruition during the reign of Henry VII’s son and successor.

  • Castles and smaller manor houses often had moats, portcullises and crenelations designed for archers to stand guard and pick off approaching enemies.

  • The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England and Wales, during the Tudor period (1485–1603) and even beyond, and also the tentative
    introduction of Renaissance architecture to Britain.

  • During Henry VIII’s Reformation, however, the records show that the monks at Walsingham were turned out into the streets, the priory chapel was desecrated, and the gold and
    silver ornamentations of the architecture were looted.

  • [11] It was also fashionable for these larger buildings to incorporate ‘devices’, or riddles, designed into the building, which served to demonstrate the owner’s wit and to
    delight visitors.

  • Predating the Norman Conquest, this area of the present day United Kingdom was a major site of pilgrimage dedicated to the Virgin Mary, the mother of Christ.

  • As his older brother Arthur was the one expected to rule, and not Henry, his parents selected an education for him that would have prepared him for the Church: he was tutored
    heavily in theology.

  • This had been one of the royal palaces since the reign of Edward II, with the most recent additions as at 1496 being by Henry V in 1414.

  • [15] This fateful decision later in life made him able to debate the usefulness of the clergy owning so much land and power outside the crown, and changed which version of
    the faith he defended.

  • Flushable toilets were centuries away for the middle classes and in some less common cases they would not move indoors completely until the second half of the 20th century.


Works Cited

[‘ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). “Tudor Period”. Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 363.
2. ^ Jump up to:a b
c d Picard, Liza (2003). Elizabeth’s London. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-0-7538-1757-5.
3. ^ “King Henry VII – The Accountant King”.
4. ^ “Durchbruch am Kap des Schreckens – ARTE”. 8 December 2007. Archived from the original on 8 December 2007.
Retrieved 5 June 2018.
5. ^ “1495 – Worlds First Dry Dock – Portsmouth Royal Dockyard Historical Trust”. portsmouthdockyard.org.uk. Retrieved 5 June 2018.
6. ^ “The traces of the Tudor palace at Greenwich are a truly remarkable find | Apollo Magazine”.
Apollo Magazine. 30 August 2017. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
7. ^ Daley, Jason. “Part of Henry VIII’s Birthplace Discovered”. Smithsonian. Retrieved 4 June 2018.
8. ^ “Henry VIII’s Lost Chapel Discovered Under Parking Lot”. news.nationalgeographic.com.
Retrieved 4 June 2018.
9. ^ “Richmond Palace” (PDF). London Borough of Richmond Upon Thames.
10. ^ “BBC News – Henry VIII replica wine fountain unveiled”. 29 April 2010.
11. ^ Pragnall, Hubert (1984). Styles of English Architecture. Frome: Batsford.
ISBN 978-0-7134-3768-3.
12. ^ Airs, Malcolm (1982). Service, Alastair (ed.). Tudor and Jacobean. The Buildings of Britain. London: Barrie and Jenkins. ISBN 978-0-09-147830-8.
13. ^ “Defender of the faith | English royal title”. Encyclopedia Britannica.
Retrieved 11 December 2020.
14. ^ “Henry VII – the man”.
15. ^ “Henry VIII”. HISTORY. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
16. ^ Aston, Margaret (26 November 2015). Broken Idols of the English Reformation. ISBN 9781316060476.
17. ^ Jump up to:a b Quiney,
Anthony (1989). Period Houses, a guide to authentic architectural features. London: George Phillip. ISBN 978-0-540-01173-5.
18. ^ Frances Lennard & Maria Hayward, Tapestry Conservation: Principles and Practice (Abingdon, 2006), p. 16.
19. ^ Craven,
Jackie Craven Jackie; Writing, Doctor of Arts in; Architecture, Has Over 20 Years of Experience Writing About; decor, the arts She is the author of two books on home; Design, Sustainable; Poetry, A. Collection of Art-Themed. “Give Your Home a Medieval
Look With Half-Timbered Construction”. ThoughtCo. Retrieved 3 June 2019. {{cite web}}: |first4= has generic name (help)
20. ^ Best, Michael. “Domestic architecture :: Life and Times :: Internet Shakespeare Editions”. internetshakespeare.uvic.ca.
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21. ^ Eakins, Lara E. “”Black and White” Tudor Buildings”. Tudorhistory.org. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
22. ^ Davenport, Peter (1988). “Bath History Volume II: Bath Abbey” (PDF). historyofbath.org. Retrieved 30 May 2022.

Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/rocketjim54/4933822052/’]