The Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer used umber to create shadows on whitewashed walls that were warmer and more harmonious than those created with black pigment.
History Umber was one of the first pigments used by humans; it is found along with carbon black, red and yellow ocher in cave paintings from the Neolithic period.
Use in art • The Italian baroque painter Caravaggio used umber to create the darkness in his chiaroscuro (“light-dark”) style of painting.
 Dark brown pigments were rarely used in Medieval art; artists of that period preferred bright, distinct colors such as red, blue and green.
Vermeer used umber for the shadows on the whitewashed walls, since they were warmer than those made with black.
 The great age of umber was the baroque period, where it often provided the dark shades in the chiaroscuro (light-dark) style of painting.
Pigments containing the natural umber earths are typically identified by the Color Index Generic Name, PBr7 (Pigment brown 7).
Rembrandt used umbers to create his rich and complex browns, as a ground, and to speed the drying of his paintings.
 The first recorded use of burnt umber as a color name in English was in 1650.
• The presence of a large amount of manganese makes umber earth colors darker than ochre or sienna.
[‘• Roelofs, Isabelle; Petillion, Fabien (2012). La couleur expliquée aux artistes. Editions Eyrolles. ISBN 978-2-212-13486-5.
• Ball, Philip (2001). Histoire vivante des couleurs. Paris: Hazan Publishers. ISBN 978-2-754105-033.
• Thompson, Daniel
V. (1956). The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting. Dover. ISBN 0-486-20327-1.
• “Umber / #635147 hex color”. ColorHexa. Retrieved 2021-11-12.
• ^ Jump up to:a b Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (5th ed.). Oxford University Press.
2002. A red brown earth containing iron and manganese oxides and darker than ochre and sienna, used to make various pigments.
• ^ Jump up to:a b c d e St. Clair, Kassia (2016). The Secret Lives of Colour. London: John Murray. p. 250–252. ISBN 9781473630819.
• ^ Roelofs & Petillion 2012, p. 30
• ^ Jump up to:a b c St. Clair 2016, p. 237.
• ^ Thompson 1956, pp. 88–89
• ^ “Umber”. Pigments through the Ages. WebExhibits.
• ^ “Industrialization”. Pigments through the ages. WebExhibits.
Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 191; Color Sample of Burnt Umber: Page 53 Plate 15 Color Sample A12
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/clairity/2756028421/’]