valerian (herb)


  • [22] Traditional medicine[edit] Valerian (V. officinalis) essential oil Although valerian is a common traditional medicine used for treating insomnia, there is no good evidence
    it is effective for this purpose.

  • Standardized products may be preferable considering the wide variation of the chemicals in the dried root, as noted above.

  • [1] Hydrophilic extractions of the herb commonly sold over the counter, however, probably do not contain significant amounts of isovaltrate.

  • [25] The European Medicines Agency (EMA) approved the health claim that valerian can be used as a traditional herb to relieve mild nervous tension and to aid sleep; the EMA
    stated that although there is insufficient evidence from clinical studies, its effectiveness as a dried extract is considered plausible.

  • [1][17][18] Valeric acid,[clarification needed] which is responsible for the typical odor of mostly older valerian roots, does not have any sedative properties.

  • [31] Its roots and leaves are one of three alternatives for the one-third of domesticated or medium-sized cats who do not feel the effects of catnip.

  • [1] Red valerian, often grown in gardens, is also sometimes referred to as “valerian”, but is a different species (Centranthus ruber), from the same family but not very closely

  • Crude extract of valerian root may have sedative and anxiolytic effects, and is commonly sold in dietary supplement capsules to promote sleep, but there is insufficient clinical
    evidence that it is effective for this purpose.

  • [1][2] Its roots and leaves cause a catnip-like response in cats.

  • [note 2] • Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[2] • Isovaleric acid[note 3] • Iridoids, including valepotriates: isovaltrate and valtrate[10] • Sesquiterpenes (contained in the
    volatile oil): valerenic acid,[13] hydroxyvalerenic acid and acetoxyvalerenic acid[14] • Flavanones: hesperidin,[15] 6-methylapigenin,[15] and linarin[16] Potential mechanism[edit] Because of valerian’s historical use in traditional medicine
    for diverse purposes, such as for sedation or pain relief, laboratory research has been directed at the GABAA receptor, a class of receptors on which benzodiazepines act.

  • [1] Valerian extract Phytochemicals[edit] Known compounds detected in valerian include:[1] • Alkaloids: actinidine,[10] chatinine,[10][note 1] shyanthine,[10] valerianine,[10]
    and valerine[10] • Isovaleramide may be created in the extraction process.

  • [26] The American Academy of Sleep Medicine’s 2017 clinical practice guidelines recommended against the use of valerian in the treatment of insomnia due to poor effectiveness
    and low quality of evidence.

  • It is also called cat’s love for its catnip-like effects.

  • Also, it is of special value against the plague, the decoction thereof being drunk and the root smelled.


Works Cited

[‘Although many sources list “catinine” as an alkaloid present in extracts from the root of Valeriana officinalis, those sources are incorrect. The correct spelling is “chatinine”. It was discovered by S. Waliszewski in 1891. See: S. Waliszewski (15 March
1891) L’Union pharmaceutique, page 109. Abstracts of this article appeared in: “Chatinine, alcaloïde de la racine de valériane” Répertoire de pharmacie, series 3, vol. 3, pp. 166–167 Archived 2013-06-19 at the Wayback Machine (April 10, 1891); American
Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 66, p. 285 Archived 2013-06-19 at the Wayback Machine (June 1891).
2. ^ Isovaleramide does not appear to be a naturally occurring component of valerian plants; rather, it seems to be an artifact of the extraction process;
specifically, it is produced by treating aqueous extracts of valerian with ammonia.[11]
3. ^ Isovaleric acid does not appear to be a natural constituent of V. officinalis; rather, it is a breakdown product that is created during the extraction process
or by enzymatic hydrolysis during (improper) storage.[12]
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