virginia livingston


  • Researchers confirmed that bacteria provided by Livingston produced hCG, but several other studies demonstrated that numerous bacteria in both cancer patients and healthy
    individuals also produced the substance.

  • The results were reported in The New England Journal of Medicine in 1991, and found no differences in survival among patients whether treated conventionally, or via Livingston’s

  • During this time, she also began a small test trial of anti-bacterial vaccines made from the body fluids of cancer patients and reported moderate success.

  • Controversy Though some bacteria have been associated with cancer[12] (for instance H. pylori has been associated with stomach cancer[13]) Livingston’s postulated relationship
    between cancer and P. cryptocides was never proven in several follow up studies conducted by independent investigators.

  • [6] The American Cancer Society (ACS) did not support Livingston’s treatment protocol for cancer, and has categorically denied her theory of the cancer bacterium P. cryptocides
    the primary cause of human cancer.

  • Cassileth also said, her study group “hypothesized that survival time would not differ between the two groups on the basis of the assumption that the unproved remedy would
    be no more effective with end-stage disease than conventional care, itself largely ineffective”.

  • [14] The study’s lead investigator, Barrie Cassileth, acknowledged that “the University of Pennsylvania patients had a significantly better quality of life at all times, including
    enrollment” and that, quality of life “was different at base line”, with Livingston’s patients rated worse.

  • She also published a paper describing the presence of a substance identified as Actinomycin-D which she said could damage chromosomes and promote cancer.

  • Thinking that scleroderma had some characteristics that were like cancer, Livingston then began studying malignant tissues and subsequently claimed to find evidence of acid-fast
    organisms in every sample.

  • The NEJM report also stated that when comparing the two groups, the “quality of life were consistently better among conventionally treated patients from enrollment on”.

  • Virginia Livingston (1906–1990) was an American physician and cancer researcher who advocated the unsupported theory that a specific species of bacteria she named Progenitor
    cryptocides was the primary cause of cancer in humans.

  • While there, Livingston became interested in the study of tuberculosis and leprosy, and later scleroderma, a disease affecting the tissues and skin.

  • [citation needed] Clinical testing A case-control study using self-selected, matched but not randomized groups with late stage cancer compared survival and quality of life
    between cancer patients receiving conventional treatment and those undergoing the Livingston-Wheeler therapy.

  • [5] This finding led to speculation that such bacteria could be transmitted from poultry to humans and this became a primary reason Livingston ordered her cancer patients
    to not eat poultry while they underwent her treatment.

  • Based on this trial, the ACS deemed Livingston’s cancer therapy without efficacy, and considered it an “unproven therapy”.

  • [8] Between the years 1965-1968, Livingston received Fleet Foundation and Kerr Grants, and continued her investigation into a bacterial cause of human cancer.

  • [14] Patients in both treatment arms also received conventional therapies in addition to Livingston’s therapy.

  • Livingston claimed that when RSV cultures were passed through special filters designed to hold back all but the smallest virus particles, she was able to grow bacteria; this
    was considered a controversial claim since bacteria are considerably larger than viruses and should not exist in filtered RSV serum.

  • It was this early research that prompted the young physician to devote her career to the study of a specific microorganism involved in cancer.

  • [14] While both groups of patients in the trial deteriorated at equal rates, patients in the Livingston-treated group were reported to have had a “poorer quality of life”
    at the start of the trial.

  • However, even given technological limitations at the time, Livingston’s classification methods were described as full of “remarkable errors”, attributing characteristics to
    Actinomycetales (the order Livingston believed P. cryptocides belonged to) shared by no other members of the order.

  • Therefore, the results cannot be generalized to patients with less advanced stages of disease or to other treatment regimens.”

  • The American Cancer Society, which did not support Livingston’s treatment protocol for cancer, categorically denied her theory of cancer origins.


Works Cited

[‘Lerner, Michael G. (1994). “Chapter Sixteen: Virginia C. Livingston–Integrating Diet, Nutritional Supplements, and Immunotherapy”. Choices in healing: integrating the best of conventional and complementary approaches to cancer. Cambridge, Mass: MIT
Press. ISBN 978-0-262-62104-5.
1. ^ Wuerthele-Caspe, V; Brodkin, E; Mermod, C (1947). “Etiology of scleroderma; a preliminary clinical report”. The Journal of the Medical Society of New Jersey. 44 (7): 256–9. PMID 20248313.
2. ^ Livingston, V
(1947). “Microorganisms associated with Neoplasms”. New York Microscopial Society Bulletin. 2 (2).
3. ^ Jump up to:a b Addeo, Edmond G.; Virginia Livingston-Wheeler (1984). The conquest of cancer: vaccines and diet. New York: F. Watts. ISBN 978-0-531-09806-6.
4. ^
Wuerthele-Caspe, V (1955). “Neoplastic infections of man and animals”. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association. 10 (8): 261–6. PMID 13242416.
5. ^ Jump up to:a b c “Unproven methods of cancer management: Livingston-Wheeler therapy”.
CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 40 (2): 103–108. 1990. doi:10.3322/canjclin.40.2.103. PMID 2106368.
6. ^ Wuerthele-Caspe, V; Alexander-Jackson, E; Gregory, M; Smith, LW; Diller, IC; Mankowski, Z (1956). “Intracellular acid-fast microorganism;
isolated from two cases of hepatolenticular degeneration”. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association. 11 (4): 120–9. PMID 13306623.
7. ^ Livingston, V (1965). “Mycobacterial Forms in Myocardial Vascular Disease”. The Journal of the Am
Med Women’s Association. 20 (5): 449–452.
8. ^ Wolter, G.; Livingston, A.; Livingston, V.; Alexander-Jackson, E. (1970). “Toxic fractions obtained from tumor isolates and related clinical implications”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.
174 (2): 675–689. Bibcode:1970NYASA.174..675L. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1970.tb45590.x. PMID 5278141. S2CID 21611876.
9. ^ Jump up to:a b Livingston, VW; Alexander-Jackson, E (1970). “A specific type of organism cultivated from malignancy: bacteriology
and proposed classification”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 174 (2): 636–54. Bibcode:1970NYASA.174..636L. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1970.tb45588.x. PMID 5278140. S2CID 38563836.
10. ^ Livingston, VW; Livingston, AM (1974). “Some cultural,
immunological, and biochemical properties of Progenitor cryptocides”. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences. 36 (6): 569–82. doi:10.1111/j.2164-0947.1974.tb01602.x. PMID 4530542.
11. ^ Mager, D. L. (2006). “Bacteria and cancer: cause,
coincidence or cure? A review”. Journal of Translational Medicine. 4: 14. doi:10.1186/1479-5876-4-14. PMC 1479838. PMID 16566840.
12. ^ Peter, S.; Beglinger, C. (2007). “Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: the causal relationship”. Digestion.
75 (1): 25–35. doi:10.1159/000101564. PMID 17429205. S2CID 21288653.
13. ^ Jump up to:a b c Cassileth, B. R.; Lusk, E. J.; Guerry, D.; Blake, A. D.; Walsh, W. P.; Kascius, L.; Schultz, D. J. (1991). “Survival and Quality of Life among Patients Receiving
Unproven as Compared with Conventional Cancer Therapy”. New England Journal of Medicine. 324 (17): 1180–1185. doi:10.1056/NEJM199104253241706. PMID 2011162.
14. ^ Moss, R (1990). “The Cancer Chronicles”. 6. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires
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