Two large expansions of the city limits occurred in 1893 and in 1934 when the city of Zürich merged with many surrounding municipalities, that had been growing increasingly
together since the 19th century.
The Quaianlagen are an important milestone in the development of the modern city of Zürich, as the construction of the new lake front transformed Zürich from a small medieval
town on the rivers Limmat and Sihl to an attractive modern city on the Zürichsee shore, under the guidance of the city engineer Arnold Bürkli.
First of all in 1860 the town schools, hitherto open to “settlers” only on paying high fees, were made accessible to all, next in 1875 ten years’ residence ipso facto conferred
the right of burghership, and in 1893 the eleven outlying districts were incorporated within the town proper.
Today, the city is divided into twelve districts (known as Kreis in German), numbered 1 to 12, each one of which contains between one and four neighborhoods: • Kreis 1, known
as Altstadt, contains the old town, both to the east and west of the start of the Limmat.
[unreliable source] Politics City districts Main article: Subdivisions of Zürich Zürich’s twelve municipal districts The previous boundaries of the city of
Zürich (before 1893) were more or less synonymous with the location of the old town.
Coordinates: 47°22′28″N 08°32′28″E; Country: Switzerland; Canton: Zürich; District: Zürich; Government: Executive: Stadtrat with 9 members; Mayor: Stadtpräsidentin (list),
Corine Mauch SPS/PSS (as of February 2014); Parliament: Gemeinderat, with 125 members; Area: Total: 87.88 km2 (33.93 sq mi); Elevation (Zürich Hauptbahnhof): 408 m (1,339 ft); Highest elevation: (Uetliberg): 871 m (2,858 ft); Lowest elevation
(Limmat): 392 m (1,286 ft); Population: (2018-12-31) Total : 415,215 ; Density: 4,700/km2 (12,000/sq mi); Demonym: German: Zürcher(in); Time zone: UTC+01:00 (Central European Time); Summer (DST): UTC+02:00 (Central European Summer Time);
Postal code(s): 8000–8099; SFOS number: 0261; Surrounded by: Adliswil, Dübendorf, Fällanden, Kilchberg, Maur, Oberengstringen, Opfikon, Regensdorf, Rümlang, Schlieren, Stallikon, Uitikon, Urdorf, Wallisellen, Zollikon; Twin towns: Kunming,
San Francisco Name In German, the city name is written Zürich, and pronounced [ˈtsyːrɪç] in Swiss Standard German or [ˈtsyːʁɪç] in German Standard German.
The enormous immigration from the country districts into the town from the 1830s onwards created an industrial class which, though “settled” in the town, did not possess the
privileges of burghership, and consequently had no share in the municipal government.
Government See also: List of mayors of Zürich The City Council (Stadtrat) constitutes the executive government of the City of Zürich and operates as a collegiate authority.
[page needed] Modern history Bahnhofplatz in 1900 Zürich was the Federal capital for 1839–40, and consequently, the victory of the Conservative party there in 1839
caused a great stir throughout Switzerland.
The second Jewish community of Zürich, formed towards the end of the 14th century, was short-lived, and Jews were expulsed and banned from the city from 1423 until the 19th
However, early settlements have been found dating back more than 6,400 years (although this only indicates human presence in the area and not the presence of a town that early).
 In 1934, eight additional districts in the north and west of Zürich were incorporated.
 In 1893, the twelve outlying districts were incorporated into Zürich, including Aussersihl, the workman’s quarter on the left bank of the Sihl, and additional land was
reclaimed from Lake Zürich.
 With the rise of the Black Death in 1349, Zürich, like most other Swiss cities, responded by persecuting and burning the local Jews, marking the end of the first Jewish
• Kreis 5, known as Industriequartier, is between the Limmat and the train tracks leaving Zürich Hauptbahnhof, it contains the former industrial area of Zürich which has undergone
large-scale rezoning to create upscale modern housing, retail, and commercial real estate.
It is directly connected to Zürich and most of the major Swiss cities.
The Reformation resulted in major changes in state matters and civil life in Zürich, spreading also to a number of other cantons.
In 1839, the city had to yield to the demands of its urban subjects, following the Züriputsch of 6 September.
 Among the 16 railway stations (and 10 additional train stops) within Zürich’s city borders, there are five other major passenger railway stations.
About 70% of the visitors to the city use the tram or bus, and about half of the journeys within the municipality take place on public transport.
The geographic (and historic) centre of the city is the Lindenhof, a small natural hill on the west bank of the Limmat, about 700 m (2,300 ft) north of where the river issues
from Lake Zürich.
As of early 2020, Zürich HB served around 470,000 passengers and nearly 3,000 trains every day.
Zürich lost control of the land and its economic privileges, and the city and the canton separated their possessions between 1803 and 1805.
 Zürich gained Imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbar, becoming an Imperial free city) in 1218 with the extinction of the main line of the Zähringer family and attained
a status comparable to statehood.
The central committee for refugee aid, created in 1933, was located in Zürich.
Most of the district boundaries are fairly similar to the original boundaries of the previously existing municipalities before they were incorporated into the city of Zürich.
• Kreis 7 is on the edge of the Adlisberg hill as well as the Zürichberg, on the eastern side of the city.
View over Zürich and Lake Zürich from the Uetliberg Transport Public transport A paddle steamer on Lake Zürich Public transport is extremely popular in Zürich, and its
inhabitants use public transport in large numbers.
The work contains 6 songs by Süsskind von Trimberg, who may have been a Jew, since the work itself contains reflections on medieval Jewish life, though little is known about
In 1648, Zürich proclaimed itself a republic, shedding its former status of a free imperial city.
The political power of the convent slowly waned in the 14th century, beginning with the establishment of the Zunftordnung (guild laws) in 1336 by Rudolf Brun, who also became
the first independent mayor, i.e.
Today, the Canton of Zürich uses the same coat of arms as the city.
Thus, Zürich became the fifth member of the Confederacy, which was at that time a loose confederation of de facto independent states.
Also, a part of the Katzensee (nature reserve) and the Büsisee, both of which are drained by the Katzenbach to Glatt, belong to the city.
The earliest written record of the town dates from the 2nd century, with a tombstone referring to it as to the Statio Turicensis Quadragesima Galliarum (“Zürich post for collecting
the 2.5% value tax of the Galliae”), discovered at the Lindenhof.
The sunny and desirable residential areas in the hills overlooking Zürich, Waidberg and Zürichberg, and the bottom part of the slope on the western side of the valley on the
Uetliberg, are also densely built.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, the Council of Zürich adopted an isolationist attitude, resulting in a second ring of imposing fortifications built in 1624.
Schauspielhaus Zürich is considered to be one of the most important theatres in the German-speaking world.
As of January 2023 the municipality had 443,037 inhabitants, the urban area 1.315 million (2009), and the Zürich metropolitan area 1.83 million (2011).
When Jews also began to settle in Zürich following their equality in 1862, the Israelitische Cultusgemeinde Zürich was founded.
[failed verification] In the early modern period, the name became associated with the name of the Tigurini, and the name Tigurum rather than the historical Turicum
is sometimes encountered in Modern Latin contexts.
From the 9th century onward, the name is established in an Old High German form Zuri(c)h (857 in villa Zurih, 924 in Zurich curtem, 1416 Zürich Stadt).
[clarification needed] Urban area The areas surrounding the Limmat are almost completely developed with residential, industrial, and commercial zones.
International relations Twin towns and sister cities Zürich is partnered with two sister cities: Kunming and San Francisco.
Zürich was temporarily expelled from the confederacy in 1440 due to a war with the other member states over the territory of Toggenburg (the Old Zürich War).
The Thirty Years’ War which raged across Europe motivated the city to build these walls.
Major parks are also located along the lakeshore (Zürichhorn and Enge), while smaller parks dot the city.
But when in 1845 the Radicals regained power at Zürich, which was again the Federal capital for 1845–46, Zürich took the lead in opposing the Sonderbund cantons.
The area includes a section of the northern Swiss Plateau.
 Archaeological findings A woman who died in about 200 BC was found buried in a carved tree trunk during a construction project at the Kern school complex in March
2017 in Aussersihl.
It is made up of 125 members (Gemeindrat / Gemeinderätin), with elections held every four years.
 Topographic map of Zürich and surroundings Felsenegg from Lake Zürich Zürich from Waidberg On its west side, the Limmat valley is flanked by the wooded heights
of the Albis chain, which runs along the western border.
Of the total area of the municipality of Zürich (in 1996, without the lake), 45.4% is residential, industrial and commercial, 15.5% is transportation infrastructure, 26.5%
is forest, 11%: is agriculture and 1.2% is water.
 After Emperor Constantine’s reforms in AD 318, the border between Gaul and Italy (two of the four praetorian prefectures of the Roman Empire) was located east of Turicum,
crossing the river Linth between Lake Walen and Lake Zürich, where a castle and garrison looked over Turicum’s safety.
Permanently settled for over 2,000 years, Zürich was founded by the Romans, who called it Turicum.
 The ZVV network of public transport contains at least four means of mass-transit: any train that stops within the network’s borders, in particular the S-Bahn (local trains),
Zürich trams, and buses (both diesel and electric, also called trolley buses) and boats on the lake and river.
The “green lungs” of the city include the vast forest areas of Adlisberg, Zürichberg, Käferberg, Hönggerberg and Uetliberg.
Sources show that there was a synagogue in Zürich in the 13th century, implying the existence of a Jewish community.
Some examples are the new disinfection section of the public city hospital in Triemli (Minergie-P quality – passive house),[clarification needed] the continued optimisation
and creation of public transportation, enlargement of the bicycle-only network, research and projects for renewable energy and enclosure of speed-ways.
• Kreis 8, officially called Riesbach, but colloquially known as Seefeld, lies on the eastern side of Lake Zürich.
The regular election of the City Council by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years.
As of May 2018, the Zürich City Council was made up of three representatives of the SP (Social Democratic Party, one of whom is the mayor), two members each of the Green Party
and the FDP (Free Democratic Party), and one member each of GLP (Green Liberal Party) and AL (Alternative Left Party), giving the left parties a combined six out of nine seats.
The executive body holds its meetings in the City Hall (German: Stadthaus), on the left bank of the Limmat.
 Geography Zürich is situated at 408 m (1,339 ft) above sea level on the lower (northern) end of Lake Zürich (Zürichsee) about 30 km (19 mi) north of the Alps, nestling
between the wooded hills on the west and east side.
Both Zurich Airport and Zürich’s main railway station are the largest and busiest in the country.
There is an average of 59.5 so-called bright days (number of days with sunshine duration greater than 80%) through the year, the most in July and August (7.4, 7.7 days), and
the least in January and December (2.7, 1.8 days).
The Foehn wind, which plays an important role in the northern alpine valleys, also has some impact on Zürich.
The first development towards its later Germanic form is attested as early as the 6th century with the form Ziurichi.
The fortifications required a lot of resources, which were taken from subject territories without reaching any agreement.
The partially channeled and straightened Limmat does not flow in the central part of the valley, but always along its right (northeastern) side.
 Aerial view (1961) Extensive developments took place during the 19th century.
Archaeologists revealed that she was approximately 40 years old when she died and likely carried out little physical labor when she was alive.
[‘o The official language in all municipalities in German-speaking Switzerland is German, where ‘German’ is used as an umbrella term for all varieties of German. By law, one may communicate with the authorities using any variant of German, in written
or oral form. However, the authorities will always use Swiss Standard German (the Swiss variety of Standard German) in documents and writing. Orally, they would use either Hochdeutsch (i.e., Swiss Standard German or what the particular speaker considers
High German), or a dialectal variant depending on the speaker’s origin.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/23155134@N06/11102341464/’]