He wrote in his Metaphysics (1026a16): if there were no other independent things besides the composite natural ones, the study of nature would be the primary kind of knowledge;
but if there is some motionless independent thing, the knowledge of this precedes it and is first philosophy, and it is universal in just this way, because it is first.
However, according to Aristotle, the potential being (matter) and the actual one (form) are one and the same.
However, his use of the term science carries a different meaning than that covered by the term “scientific method”.
 Darwin, too, noted these sorts of differences between similar kinds of animal, but unlike Aristotle used the data to come to the theory of evolution.
 Four causes Main article: Four causes Aristotle argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: in the case of a table, the wood used (material
cause), its design (formal cause), the tools and techniques used (efficient cause), and its decorative or practical purpose (final cause).
As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion.
 Life In general, the details of Aristotle’s life are not well-established.
 Aristotle suggested that the reason for anything coming about can be attributed to four different types of simultaneously active factors.
 To put his views into modern terms, he nowhere says that different species can have a common ancestor, or that one kind can change into another, or that kinds can become
 Aristotle’s writings can seem to modern readers close to implying evolution, but while Aristotle was aware that new mutations or hybridizations could occur, he saw these
as rare accidents.
With this definition of the particular substance (i.e., matter and form), Aristotle tries to solve the problem of the unity of the beings, for example, “what is it that makes
a man one”?
Plato argued that there are some universal forms that are not a part of particular things.
 Plato argued that all things have a universal form, which could be either a property or a relation to other things.
 In the case of living things, it implies adaptation to a particular way of life.
Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication; they are generally thought to be lecture aids for
For example, it is possible that there is no particular good in existence, but “good” is still a proper universal form.
It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole (i.e., macrostructure) is the cause of its parts, a relationship known as
the whole-part causation.
Main article: Aristotelian physics Five elements Main article: Classical element In his On Generation and Corruption, Aristotle related each of the four elements proposed
earlier by Empedocles, Earth, Water, Air, and Fire, to two of the four sensible qualities, hot, cold, wet, and dry.
Aristotle makes philosophy in the broad sense coextensive with reasoning, which he also would describe as “science”.
His term aitia is traditionally translated as “cause”, but it does not always refer to temporal sequence; it might be better translated as “explanation”, but the traditional
rendering will be employed here.
There is also more a specific kind of chance, which Aristotle names “luck”, that only applies to people’s moral choices.
Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication.
It identifies ‘what makes of what is made and what causes change of what is changed’ and so suggests all sorts of agents, non-living or living, acting as the sources of change
or movement or rest.
[K] Newton’s “forced” motion corresponds to Aristotle’s “violent” motion with its external agent, but Aristotle’s assumption that the agent’s effect stops immediately
it stops acting (e.g., the ball leaves the thrower’s hand) has awkward consequences: he has to suppose that surrounding fluid helps to push the ball along to make it continue to rise even though the hand is no longer acting on it, resulting
in the Medieval theory of impetus.
So, according to Aristotle, the form of apple exists within each apple, rather than in the world of the forms.
Aristotle argued that a capability like playing the flute could be acquired – the potential made actual – by learning.
 Chance and spontaneity Further information: Accident (philosophy) According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other
types of cause such as simple necessity.
Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of “cause” as either the agent or agency or particular
events or states of affairs.
He was thus critical of Empedocles’s materialist theory of a “survival of the fittest” origin of living things and their organs, and ridiculed the idea that accidents could
lead to orderly results.
 He used the ancient Greek term pepeiramenoi to mean observations, or at most investigative procedures like dissection.
Most of Aristotle’s work is probably not in its original form, because it was most likely edited by students and later lecturers.
 Instead, he practiced a different style of science: systematically gathering data, discovering patterns common to whole groups of animals, and inferring possible
causal explanations from these.
Since, according to Plato there are two Ideas: animal and biped, how then is man a unity?
Aristotle’s ontology places the universal (katholou) in particulars (kath’ hekaston), things in the world, whereas for Plato the universal is a separately existing form which
actual things imitate.
; This style is common in modern biology when large amounts of data become available in a new field, such as genomics.
John Philoponus (in the Middle Ages) and Galileo are said to have shown by experiment that Aristotle’s claim that a heavier object falls faster than a lighter object is incorrect.
Where Plato spoke of the forms as existing separately from the things that participate in them, Aristotle maintained that universals exist within each thing on which each
universal is predicated.
 Although little information about Aristotle’s childhood has survived, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the
 Motion Further information: History of classical mechanics Aristotle describes two kinds of motion: “violent” or “unnatural motion”, such as that of a thrown stone, in
the Physics (254b10), and “natural motion”, such as of a falling object, in On the Heavens (300a20).
Empirical research Aristotle was the first person to study biology systematically, and biology forms a large part of his writings.
For Aristotle, both matter and form belong to the individual thing (hylomorphism).
 Archimedes corrected Aristotle’s theory that bodies move towards their natural resting places; metal boats can float if they displace enough water; floating depends in
Archimedes’ scheme on the mass and volume of the object, not, as Aristotle thought, its elementary composition.
It was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry.
 His apparent emphasis on animals rather than plants is a historical accident: his works on botany have been lost, but two books on plants by his pupil Theophrastus have
 With this understanding, it can be observed that, as Aristotle stated, heavy objects (on the ground, say) require more force to make them move; and objects pushed with
greater force move faster.
Aristotle’s influence on logic continued well into the 19th century.
For Aristotle, “form” is still what phenomena are based on, but is “instantiated” in a particular substance.
 Epistemology Aristotle’s immanent realism means his epistemology is based on the study of things that exist or happen in the world, and rises to knowledge of the
universal, whereas for Plato epistemology begins with knowledge of universal Forms (or ideas) and descends to knowledge of particular imitations of these.
“) Biology Main article: Aristotle’s biology Among many pioneering zoological observations, Aristotle described the reproductive hectocotyl arm of the octopus (bottom
“‘ Aristotle also made many observations about the hydrologic cycle and meteorology (including his major writings “Meteorologica”).
The influence of physical science extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment
and theories such as classical mechanics were developed.
A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander’s death, but the only evidence of this is an unlikely claim made some six years after
He stated that geological change was too slow to be observed in one person’s lifetime.
In addition, his ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics.
 • The final cause (telos) is its purpose, the reason why a thing exists or is done, including both purposeful and instrumental actions and activities.
The logical works of Aristotle were compiled into a set of six books called the Organon around 40 BC by Andronicus of Rhodes or others among his followers.
 Natural motion depends on the element concerned: the aether naturally moves in a circle around the heavens,[H] while the 4 Empedoclean elements move vertically up (like
fire, as is observed) or down (like earth) towards their natural resting places.
In the Empedoclean scheme, all matter was made of the four elements, in differing proportions.
Little is known about his life.
 Metaphysics Main article: Metaphysics (Aristotle) The word “metaphysics” appears to have been coined by the first century AD editor who assembled various small selections
of Aristotle’s works to the treatise we know by the name Metaphysics.
Henri Carteron held the “extreme view” that Aristotle’s concept of force was basically qualitative, but other authors reject this.
 In Aristotle’s terminology, “natural philosophy” is a branch of philosophy examining the phenomena of the natural world, and includes fields that would be regarded today
as physics, biology and other natural sciences.
The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the Academy’s direction after control passed to Plato’s nephew Speusippus, although it is possible
that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato died.
 In summary, the matter used to make a house has potentiality to be a house and both the activity of building and the form of the final house are actualities, which is
also a final cause or end.
Aristotle was one of the first people to record any geological observations.
For example, the matter of a house is the bricks, stones, timbers, etc., or whatever constitutes the potential house, while the form of the substance is the actual house,
namely ‘covering for bodies and chattels’ or any other differentia that let us define something as a house.
 Classification of living things Further information: Scala naturae Aristotle recorded that the embryo of a dogfish was attached by a cord to a kind of placenta (the yolk
sac), like a higher animal; this formed an exception to the linear scale from highest to lowest.
It tells one what a thing is, that a thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype.
 A contrary opinion is given by Carlo Rovelli, who argues that Aristotle’s physics of motion is correct within its domain of validity, that of objects in the Earth’s gravitational
field immersed in a fluid such as air.
 Speculative philosophy Logic Main article: Term logic Further information: Non-Aristotelian logic With the Prior Analytics, Aristotle is credited with the earliest study
of formal logic, and his conception of it was the dominant form of Western logic until 19th-century advances in mathematical logic.
[‘That these dates (the first half of the Olympiad year 384/383 BC, and in 322 shortly before the death of Demosthenes) are correct was shown by August Boeckh (Kleine Schriften VI 195); for further discussion, see Felix Jacoby on FGrHist 244 F 38. Ingemar
Düring, Aristotle in the Ancient Biographical Tradition, Göteborg, 1957, p. 253
2. ^ See Shields 2012, pp. 3–16; Düring 1957 covers ancient biographies of Aristotle.
3. ^ This type of syllogism, with all three terms in ‘a’, is known by the traditional
(medieval) mnemonic Barbara.
4. ^ M is the Middle (here, Men), S is the Subject (Greeks), P is the Predicate (mortal).
5. ^ The first equation can be read as ‘It is not true that there exists an x such that x is a man and that x is not
6. ^ Rhett Allain notes that Newton’s First Law is “essentially a direct reply to Aristotle, that the natural state is not to change motion.
7. ^ Leonard Susskind comments that Aristotle had clearly never gone ice skating or
he would have seen that it takes force to stop an object.
8. ^ For heavenly bodies like the Sun, Moon, and stars, the observed motions are “to a very good approximation” circular around the Earth’s centre, (for example, the apparent rotation
of the sky because of the rotation of the Earth, and the rotation of the moon around the Earth) as Aristotle stated.
9. ^ Drabkin quotes numerous passages from Physics and On the Heavens (De Caelo) which state Aristotle’s laws of motion.
Drabkin agrees that density is treated quantitatively in this passage, but without a sharp definition of density as weight per unit volume.
11. ^ Philoponus and Galileo correctly objected that for the transient phase (still increasing in speed)
with heavy objects falling a short distance, the law does not apply: Galileo used balls on a short incline to show this. Rovelli notes that “Two heavy balls with the same shape and different weight do fall at different speeds from an aeroplane, confirming
Aristotle’s theory, not Galileo’s.”
12. ^ For a different reading of social and economic processes in the Nicomachean Ethics and Politics see Polanyi, Karl (1957) “Aristotle Discovers the Economy” in Primitive, Archaic and Modern Economies:
Essays of Karl Polanyi ed. G. Dalton, Boston 1971, 78–115.
13. ^ “Where, as among the Lacedaemonians, the state of women is bad, almost half of human life is spoilt.”
14. ^ “When the Roman dictator Sulla invaded Athens in 86 BC, he brought
back to Rome a fantastic prize – Aristotle’s library. Books then were papyrus rolls, from 10 to 20 feet long, and since Aristotle’s death in 322 BC, worms and damp had done their worst. The rolls needed repairing, and the texts clarifying and copying
on to new papyrus (imported from Egypt – Moses’ bulrushes). The man in Rome who put Aristotle’s library in order was a Greek scholar, Tyrannio.”
15. ^ Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics 1102a26–27. Aristotle himself never uses the term “esoteric”
or “acroamatic”. For other passages where Aristotle speaks of exōterikoi logoi, see W.D. Ross, Aristotle’s Metaphysics (1953), vol. 2 pp= 408–410. Ross defends an interpretation according to which the phrase, at least in Aristotle’s own works, usually
refers generally to “discussions not peculiar to the Peripatetic school”, rather than to specific works of Aristotle’s own.
16. ^ “veniet flumen orationis aureum fundens Aristoteles”, (Google translation: “Aristotle will come pouring forth a golden
stream of eloquence”).
17. ^ Compare the medieval tale of Phyllis and Alexander above.
18. “Aristotle | Biography, Works, Quotes, Philosophy, Ethics, & Facts”. Britannica.
19. ^ Kantor 1963, p. 116.
20. ^ On the Soul.
21. ^ Collins
22. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Humphreys 2009.
23. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Russell 1972.
24. ^ Barnes 1995, p. 9.
25. ^ Leroi 2015, p. 352.
26. ^ * “the father of logic”: Wentzel Van Huyssteen, Encyclopedia of Science and Religion:
A-I, p. 27
A. “the father of biology”: S. C. Datt, S. B. Srivastava, Science and society, p. 93.
B. “the father of political science”: N. Jayapalan, Aristotle, p. 12, Jonathan Wolff, Lectures on the History of Moral and Political Philosophy,
C. the “father of zoology”: Josef Rudolf Winkler, A Book of Beetles, p. 12
D. “the father of embryology”: D.R. Khanna, Text Book Of Embryology, p. 2
E. “the father of natural law”: Shellens, Max Solomon (1959). “Aristotle on Natural Law”.
Natural Law Forum. 4 (1): 72–100. doi:10.1093/ajj/4.1.72.
F. “the father of scientific method”: Shuttleworth, Martyn. “History of the Scientific Method”. Explorable., Riccardo Pozzo (2004) The impact of Aristotelianism on modern philosophy. CUA
Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-8132-1347-9
G. “the father of rhetoric”: “Aristotle”. History., Bizzell, P. and Bruce Herzberg. (2000). The Rhetorical Tradition: Readings from Classical Times to the Present. NY: Bedford/St. Martin’s. p. 3.
H. “the father
of psychology”: Margot Esther Borden, Psychology in the Light of the East, p. 4
I. “the father of realism”: Russell L. Hamm, Philosophy and Education: Alternatives in Theory and Practice, p. 58
J. “the father of criticism”: Nagendra Prasad, Personal
Bias in Literary Criticism: Dr. Johnson, Matthew Arnold, T.S. Eliot, p. 70. Lord Henry Home Kames, Elements of Criticism, p. 237.
K. “the father of meteorology”:”What is meteorology?”. Meteorological Office.”94.05.01: Meteorology”. Archived from
the original on 21 July 2016. Retrieved 16 June 2015.
L. “the father of individualism”: Allan Gotthelf, Gregory Salmieri, A Companion to Ayn Rand, p. 325.
M. “the father of teleology”: Malcolm Owen Slavin, Daniel H. Kriegman, The Adaptive Design
of the Human Psyche: Psychoanalysis, Evolutionary Biology, and the Therapeutic Process, p. 292.
27. ^ McLeisch 1999, p. 5.
28. ^ Aristoteles-Park in Stagira.
29. ^ Borchers, Timothy A.; Hundley, Heather (2018). Rhetorical theory : an introduction
(Second ed.). Long Grove, Illinois. ISBN 978-1-4786-3580-2. OCLC 1031145493.
30. ^ Hall 2018, p. 14.
31. ^ Anagnostopoulos 2013, p. 4.
32. ^ Blits 1999, pp. 58–63.
33. ^ Evans 2006.
34. ^ Aristotle 1984, pp. Introduction.
35. ^ Jump up
to:a b c Shields 2016.
36. ^ Jump up to:a b Green 1991, pp. 58–59.
37. ^ Smith 2007, p. 88.
38. ^ Green 1991, p. 460.
39. ^ Filonik 2013, pp. 72–73.
40. ^ Jones 1980, p. 216.
41. ^ Gigon 2017, p. 41.
42. ^ Düring 1957, p. T44a-e.
Haase 1992, p. 3862.
44. ^ Degnan 1994, pp. 81–89.
45. ^ Corcoran 2009, pp. 1–20.
46. ^ Kant 1787, pp. Preface.
47. ^ Jump up to:a b c Lagerlund 2016.
48. ^ Predicate Logic.
49. ^ Pickover 2009, p. 52.
50. ^ School of Athens.
52. ^ Prior Analytics, pp. 24b18–20.
53. ^ Bobzien 2015.
54. ^ Jump up to:a b c Smith 2017.
55. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Cohen 2000.
56. ^ Aristotle 1999, p. 111.
57. ^ Metaphysics, p. VIII 1043a 10–30.
58. ^ Lloyd 1968,
59. ^ Metaphysics, p. IX 1050a 5–10.
60. ^ Metaphysics, p. VIII 1045a–b.
61. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Wildberg 2016.
62. ^ Jump up to:a b Lloyd 1968, pp. 133–139, 166–169.
63. ^ Jump up to:a b Allain 2016.
64. ^ Jump up to:a b c
d e f g h i Drabkin 1938, pp. 60–84.
65. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Susskind 2011.
66. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i Rovelli 2015, pp. 23–40.
67. ^ Carteron 1923, pp. 1–32 and passim.
68. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 88–90.
69. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e
Lloyd 1996, pp. 96–100, 106–107.
70. ^ Hankinson 1998, p. 159.
71. ^ Jump up to:a b Leroi 2015, pp. 91–92, 369–373.
72. ^ Lahanas.
73. ^ Physics, p. 2.6.
74. ^ Miller 1973, pp. 204–213.
75. ^ Meteorology, p. 1. 8.
76. ^ Moore 1956, p.
77. ^ Meteorology, p. Book 1, Part 14.
78. ^ Lyell 1832, p. 17.
79. ^ Aristotle (1952). Meteorologica, Chapter II. Translated by Lee, H.D.P. (Loeb Classical Library ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. p. 156. Retrieved 22 January
80. ^ Leroi 2015, p. 7.
81. ^ Leroi 2015, p. 14.
82. ^ Thompson 1910, p. Prefatory Note.
83. ^ “Darwin’s Ghosts, By Rebecca Stott”. independent.co.uk. 2 June 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
84. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 196, 248.
85. ^ Day
2013, pp. 5805–5816.
86. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 66–74, 137.
87. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 118–119.
88. ^ Leroi 2015, p. 73.
89. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 135–136.
90. ^ Leroi 2015, p. 206.
91. ^ Sedley 2007, p. 189.
92. ^ Leroi 2015, p. 273.
93. ^ Taylor
1922, p. 42.
94. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 361–365.
95. ^ Leroi 2011.
96. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 197–200.
97. ^ Jump up to:a b Leroi 2015, pp. 365–368.
98. ^ Taylor 1922, p. 49.
99. ^ Leroi 2015, p. 408.
100. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 72–74.
101. ^ Bergstrom
& Dugatkin 2012, p. 35.
102. ^ Rhodes 1974, p. 7.
103. ^ Mayr 1982, pp. 201–202.
104. ^ Lovejoy 1976.
105. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 111–119.
106. ^ Lennox, James G. (2001). Aristotle’s philosophy of biology : studies in the origins of life science.
Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 346. ISBN 0-521-65976-0.
107. ^ Sandford, Stella (3 December 2019). “From Aristotle to Contemporary Biological Classification: What Kind of Category is “Sex”?”. Redescriptions: Political Thought, Conceptual
History and Feminist Theory. 22 (1): 4–17. doi:10.33134/rds.314. ISSN 2308-0914. S2CID 210140121.
108. ^ Voultsiadou, Eleni; Vafidis, Dimitris (1 January 2007). “Marine invertebrate diversity in Aristotle’s zoology”. Contributions to Zoology. 76
(2): 103–120. doi:10.1163/18759866-07602004. ISSN 1875-9866. S2CID 55152069.
109. ^ von Lieven, Alexander Fürst; Humar, Marcel (2008). “A Cladistic Analysis of Aristotle’s Animal Groups in the “Historia animalium””. History and Philosophy of the
Life Sciences. 30 (2): 227–262. ISSN 0391-9714. JSTOR 23334371. PMID 19203017.
110. ^ Laurin, Michel; Humar, Marcel (2022). “Phylogenetic signal in characters from Aristotle’s History of Animals”. Comptes Rendus Palevol (in French). 21 (1): 1–16.
doi:10.5852/cr-palevol2022v21a1. S2CID 245863171.
111. ^ Mason 1979, pp. 43–44.
112. ^ Leroi 2015, pp. 156–163.
113. ^ Mason 1979, p. 45.
114. ^ Guthrie 2010, p. 348.
115. ^ On the Soul I.3 406b26-407a10. For some scholarship, see Carter,
Jason W. 2017. ‘Aristotle’s Criticism of Timaean Psychology’ Rhizomata 5: 51-78 and Douglas R. Campbell. 2022. “Located in Space: Plato’s Theory of Psychic Motion” Ancient Philosophy 42 (2): 419-442.
116. ^ For instance, W.D. Ross argued that Aristotle
“may well be criticized as having taken [Plato’s] myth as if it were sober prose.” See Ross, William D. ed. 1961. Aristotle: De Anima. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The quotation is from page 189.
117. ^ See, e.g., Douglas R. Campbell, “Located
in Space: Plato’s Theory of Psychic Motion,” Ancient Philosophy 42 (2): 419-442. 2022.
118. ^ On the Soul I.3.407b14–27. Christopher Shields summarizes it thus: “We might think that an old leather-bound edition of Machiavelli’s The Prince could
come to bear the departed soul of Richard Nixon. Aristotle regards this sort of view as worthy of ridicule.” See Shields, C. 2016. Aristotle: De Anima. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The quotation is from page 133.
119. ^ There’s a large scholarly
discussion of this dialectic between Plato and Aristotle here: Douglas R. Campbell, “The Soul’s Tool: Plato on the Usefulness of the Body,” Elenchos 43 (1): 7-27. 2022.
120. ^ Bloch 2007, p. 12.
121. ^ Bloch 2007, p. 61.
122. ^ Carruthers 2007,
123. ^ Bloch 2007, p. 25.
124. ^ Warren 1921, p. 30.
125. ^ Warren 1921, p. 25.
126. ^ Carruthers 2007, p. 19.
127. ^ Warren 1921, p. 296.
128. ^ Warren 1921, p. 259.
129. ^ Sorabji 2006, p. 54.
130. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f
Holowchak 1996, pp. 405–423.
131. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Shute 1941, pp. 115–118.
132. ^ Holowchak 1996, pp. 405–23.
133. ^ Shute 1941, pp. 115–18.
134. ^ Jump up to:a b Modrak 2009, pp. 169–181.
135. ^ Webb 1990, pp. 174–184.
136. ^ Kraut
137. ^ Nicomachean Ethics Book I. See for example chapter 7.
138. ^ Nicomachean Ethics, p. Book VI.
139. ^ Politics, pp. 1253a19–124.
140. ^ Aristotle 2009, pp. 320–321.
141. ^ Ebenstein & Ebenstein 2002, p. 59.
142. ^ Jump up to:a
b Hutchinson & Johnson 2015, p. 22.
143. ^ Tangian 2020, pp. 35–38.
144. ^ Jump up to:a b c Robbins 2000, pp. 20–24.
145. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Aristotle 1948, pp. 16–28.
146. ^ Kaufmann 1968, pp. 56–60.
147. ^ Garver 1994, pp. 109–110.
Rorty 1996, pp. 3–7.
149. ^ Grimaldi 1998, p. 71.
150. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Halliwell 2002, pp. 152–159.
151. ^ Poetics, p. I 1447a.
152. ^ Poetics, p. IV.
153. ^ Halliwell 2002, pp. 152–59.
154. ^ Poetics, p. III.
155. ^ Poetics,
156. ^ Poetics, p. XXVI.
157. ^ Aesop 1998, pp. Introduction, xi–xii.
158. ^ See Marguerite Deslauriers, “Sexual Difference in Aristotle’s Politics and His Biology,” Classical World 102 3 (2009): 215-231.
159. ^ Freeland 1998.
Morsink 1979, pp. 83–112.
161. ^ Rhetoric, p. Book I, Chapter 5.
162. ^ Leroi 2015, p. 8.
163. ^ Aristotle’s Influence 2018.
164. ^ Garner., Dwight (14 March 2014). “Who’s More Famous Than Jesus?”. The New York Times. Archived from the original
on 1 April 2021.
165. ^ Magee 2010, p. 34.
166. ^ Guthrie 1990, p. 156.
167. ^ Aristotle (Greek philosopher).
168. ^ Durant 2006, p. 92.
169. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Kukkonen 2010, pp. 70–77.
170. ^ Barnes 1982, p. 86.
171. ^ Hooker 1831,
172. ^ Mayr 1982, pp. 90–91.
173. ^ Mason 1979, p. 46.
174. ^ Plutarch 1919, p. Part 1, 7:7.
175. ^ Annas 2001, p. 252.
176. ^ Mason 1979, p. 56.
177. ^ Mayr 1985, pp. 90–94.
178. ^ Sorabji 1990, pp. 20, 28, 35–36.
179. ^ Sorabji
1990, pp. 233–724.
180. ^ Lindberg 1992, p. 162.
181. ^ Sorabji 1990, pp. 20–21, 28–29, 393–406, 407–408.
182. ^ Jump up to:a b Kennedy-Day 1998.
183. ^ Staley 1989.
184. ^ Averroes 1953, p. III, 2, 43.
185. ^ Nasr 1996, pp. 59–60.
Jump up to:a b Phyllis and Aristotle.
187. ^ Hasse 2014.
188. ^ Aquinas 2013.
189. ^ Kuhn 2018.
190. ^ Lagerlund.
191. ^ Allen & Fisher 2011, p. 17.
192. ^ Aristotle Phyllis.
193. ^ Lafferty, Roger. “The Philosophy of Dante”, pg. 4
Inferno, Canto XI, lines 70-115, Mandelbaum translation.
195. ^ “Moses Maimonides”. Britannica.
196. ^ Levi ben Gershom, The Wars of the Lord: Book one, Immortality of the soul, p. 35.
197. ^ Leon Simon, Aspects Of The Hebrew Genius: A Volume
Of Essays On Jewish Literature And Thought (1910), p. 127.
198. ^ Herbert A. Davidson, Herbert A. |q (Herbert Alan) Davidson, Professor of Hebrew Emeritus Herbert Davidson, Moses Maimonides: The Man and His Works, p. 98.
199. ^ Menachem Kellner,
Maimonides on Judaism and the Jewish People, p. 77.
200. ^ Aird 2011, pp. 118–29.
201. ^ Machamer 2017.
202. ^ Durant 2006, p. 86.
203. ^ Deslauriers & Destrée 2013, pp. 102, 106–107.
204. ^ Sikka 1997, p. 265.
205. ^ Boole 2003.
Wilkins, John (2009). Species: a history of the idea. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-520-27139-5. OCLC 314379168.
207. ^ Pasipoularides, Ares (2010). The heart’s vortex: intracardiac blood flow phenomena. Shelton, Connecticut:
People’s Medical Publishing House. p. 118. ISBN 978-1-60795-033-2. OCLC 680621287.
208. ^ Darwin 1872, p. xiii
209. ^ Aristotle, Physics, translated by Hardie, R. P. and Gayle, R. K. and hosted by MIT’s Internet Classics Archive, retrieved 23
210. ^ O’Rourke, F. (2009). Philosophy. In J. McCourt (Ed.), James Joyce in Context (Literature in Context, pp. 320-331). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511576072.029
211. ^ William Robert Wians, Aristotle’s
Philosophical Development: Problems and Prospects, p. 1.
212. ^ Burns 2009, p. 2.
213. ^ Sciabarra 1995, p. 12.
214. ^ James P. Sterba, From Rationality to Equality, p. 94.
215. ^ F. Novotny, The Posthumous Life of Plato, p. 573
216. ^ Matt
Vidal, Tony Smith, Tomás Rotta, Paul Prew, The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, p. 215.
217. ^ Judith A. Swanson, C. David Corbin, Aristotle’s ‘Politics’: A Reader’s Guide, p. 146.
218. ^ Dijksterhuis 1969, p. 72.
219. ^ Jump up to:a b Leroi
2015, p. 353.
220. ^ Medawar & Medawar 1984, p. 28.
221. ^ Knight 2007, pp. passim.
222. ^ Leroi 2015.
223. ^ MacDougall-Shackleton 2011, pp. 2076–2085.
224. ^ Hladký & Havlíček 2013.
225. ^ Aristotelis Opera.
226. ^ When libraries were
227. ^ Jump up to:a b Barnes 1995, p. 12.
228. ^ House 1956, p. 35.
229. ^ Irwin & Fine 1996, pp. xi–xii.
230. ^ Cicero 1874.
231. ^ Barnes & Griffin 1999, pp. 1–69.
232. ^ Anagnostopoulos 2013, p. 16.
233. ^ Barnes 1995, pp. 10–15.
Lucas Cranach the Elder.
235. ^ Lee & Robinson 2005.
236. ^ Aristotle with Bust 2002.
237. ^ Phelan 2002.
238. ^ Held 1969.
239. ^ Jones 2002.
240. ^ Aristotle Mountains.
241. ^ Aristoteles.
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