Research conducted by the Migration Policy Institute for the Equality and Human Rights Commission suggests that, between May 2004 and September 2009, 1.5 million workers
migrated from the new EU member states to the UK, but that many have returned home, with the result that the number of nationals of the new member states in the UK increased by some 700,000 over the same period.
 The heavy numbers of migrants resulted in the establishment of a Cabinet committee in June 1950 to find “ways which might be adopted to check the immigration into this
country of coloured people from British colonial territories”.
 Although the Committee recommended not to introduce restrictions, the Commonwealth Immigrants Act was passed in 1962 as a response to public sentiment that the new arrivals
“should return to their own countries” and that “no more of them come to this country”.
[b] By 1972, with the passing of the Immigration Act, only holders of work permits, or people with parents or grandparents born in the UK could gain entry – effectively stemming
primary immigration from Commonwealth countries.
 Foreign born population percentage over time in England and Wales from 1851 to 2021 By 1972, only holders of work permits, or people with parents or grandparents born
in the UK could gain entry – significantly reducing primary immigration from Commonwealth countries.
 In 2008, the UK Government began phasing in a new points-based immigration system for people from outside of the European Economic Area.
 British Empire and the Commonwealth Following the end of the Second World War, the British Nationality Act 1948 allowed the 800,000,000 subjects in the
British Empire to live and work in the United Kingdom without needing a visa, although this was not an anticipated consequence of the Act, which “was never intended to facilitate mass migration”.
 Non-European immigration rose significantly during the period from 1997, not least because of the government’s abolition of the primary purpose rule in June 1997.
In 2021, since Brexit came into effect,[a] previous EU citizenship’s right to newly move to and reside in the UK on a permanent basis does not apply anymore.
 Indians began arriving in the UK in large numbers shortly after their country gained independence in 1947, although there were a number of people from India living
in the UK even in the earlier years.
 At the same time the proposal opened the door to free movement of certain European workers from European Economic Community member states.
 However, critics of the UK’s asylum policy often point out the “safe third country rule” – the convention that asylum seekers must apply in the first free nation they
reach, not go “asylum shopping” for the nation they prefer.
 The rules proposal drew criticism from Conservative Party backbenchers, because it formally implemented a limit of six months of leave to enter as a visitor for white
“Old Commonwealth” citizens who were “non-patrial” (did not have Right of Abode under the 1971 act, generally because they did not have a parent or grandparent from the UK).
 This change made it easier for UK residents to bring foreign spouses into the country.
Both the Labour Party and the Conservatives have suggested policies perceived as being “tough on asylum” (although the Conservatives have dropped a previous pledge to
limit the number of people who could claim asylum in the UK, which would likely have breached the UN Refugee Convention) and the tabloid media frequently print headlines about an “immigration crisis”.
7.5 million people (11.9% of the population at the time) were born overseas, although the census gives no indication of their immigration status or intended length of stay.
 For the first time, the 1968 Act required migrants to have a “substantial connection with the United Kingdom”, namely to be connected by birth or ancestry to a UK national.
 Many other European Union member states exercised their right to temporary immigration control (which ended in 2011) over entrants from these accession states,
but some subsequently removed these restrictions ahead of the 2011 deadline.
In June 2010, The newly elected Coalition government brought in a temporary cap on immigration of those entering the UK from outside the EU, with the limit set as 24,100,
in order to stop an expected rush of applications before a permanent cap was imposed in April 2011.
Though immigration is a matter that is reserved to the UK Government under the legislation that established devolution for Scotland in 1999, the Scottish Government was able
to get an agreement from the Home Office for their Fresh Talent Initiative which was designed to encourage foreign graduates of Scottish universities to stay in Scotland to look for employment.
 In February 2011, the Leader of the Labour Party, Ed Miliband, stated that he thought that the Labour government’s decision to permit the unlimited immigration of eastern
European migrants had been a mistake, arguing that they had underestimated the potential number of migrants and that the scale of migration had had a negative impact on wages.
 Immigrants from the European Union Foreign born population pyramid in 2021 One of the Four Freedoms of the European Union, of which the United Kingdom is a former
member, is the right to the free movement of workers as codified in the Directive 2004/38/EC and the EEA Regulations (UK).
Shortly afterwards, refugees from Kenya and Uganda, fearing discrimination from their own national governments, began to arrive in Britain; as they had retained their British
nationality granted by the 1948 Act, they were not subject to the later controls.
 Post-war immigration (1945–1983) Following the end of the Second World War, substantial groups of people from Soviet-controlled territories settled in the UK, particularly
Poles and Ukrainians.
 A report by the Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) entitled International Migration and Rural Economies, suggests that intra-EU migration since
enlargement has resulted in migrants settling in rural locations without a prior history of immigration.
The UK recruited displaced people as so-called European Volunteer Workers in order to provide labour to industries that were required in order to aid economic recovery after
 In January 2021, analysis by the Economic Statistics Centre of Excellence suggested that there had been an “unprecedented exodus” of almost 1.3 million foreign-born people
from the UK between July 2019 and September 2020, in part due to the burden of job losses resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic falling disproportionately on foreign-born workers.
 Official figures for numbers of people claiming asylum in the UK were at a 13-year low by March 2006.
In April 2006, changes to the managed migration system were proposed that would create one points-based immigration system for the UK in place of all other schemes.
 In February 2003, Prime Minister Tony Blair promised on television to reduce the number of asylum seekers by half within 7 months, apparently catching unawares
the members of his own government with responsibility for immigration policy.
 A points-based system is composed of five tiers was first described by the UK Border Agency as follows: • Tier 1 – for highly skilled individuals, who can contribute
to growth and productivity; • Tier 2 – for skilled workers with a job offer, to fill gaps in the United Kingdom workforce; • Tier 3 – for limited numbers of low-skilled workers needed to fill temporary labour shortages; • Tier 4 – for students;
• Tier 5 – for temporary workers and young people covered by the Youth Mobility Scheme, who are allowed to work in the United Kingdom for a limited time to satisfy primarily non-economic objectives.
 Since the accession of the UK to the European Communities in the 1970s and the creation of the EU in the early 1990s, immigrants relocated from member states of the European
Union, exercising one of the European Union’s Four Freedoms.
 Public salience on immigration over time The Immigration Rules, under the Immigration Act 1971, were updated in 2012 (Appendix FM) to create a strict minimum income
threshold for non-EU spouses and children to be given leave to remain in the UK.
 However, in July 2010 the government was accused of back-tracking on this promise after the Immigration Minister Damian Green announced that the plan was to minimise,
rather than end, child detention.
 Introducing the legislation to the House of Commons, the Conservative Home Secretary Rab Butler stated that: The justification for the control which is included in this
Bill, which I shall describe in more detail in a few moments, is that a sizeable part of the entire population of the Earth is at present legally entitled to come and stay in this already densely populated country.
 — Rab Butler MP, 16 November 1961 The new Act required migrants to have a job before they arrived, to possess special skills or who would meet the “labour needs” of the
 Managed migration “Managed migration” is the term for all legal labour and student migration from outside of the European Union and this accounts for a substantial percentage
of overall immigration figures for the UK.
From April 2013 to April 2014, a total of 560,000 immigrants were estimated to have arrived in the UK, including 81,000 British citizens and 214,000 from other parts of the
An estimated 317,000 people left, including 131,000 British citizens and 83,000 other EU citizens.
 Minutes from a Cabinet meeting the next day conclude that “anti-European sentiment” among backbenchers, who instead preferred “Old Commonwealth” migration to the UK,
was at the core of the result.
 Immigration Rules and prior statutory instruments and controls on aliens In 1914, Parliament enacted “panic legislation”, The Alien Restrictions Act, 1914, during
the onset of World War I to place limits on the entry into, and stay in, the UK of foreign nationals.
Citizens by descent cannot automatically pass on British nationality to a child born outside the United Kingdom or its Overseas Territories (though in some situations the
child can be registered as a citizen).
 Refugees and asylum seekers The UK is a signatory to the UN 1951 Refugee Convention as well as the 1967 Protocol and has therefore a responsibility to offer protection
to people who seek asylum and fall into the legal definition of a “refugee”, and moreover not to return (or refoule) any displaced person to places where they would otherwise face persecution.
 In comparison, migration to and from Central and Eastern Europe has increased since 2004 with the accession to the European Union of eight Central and Eastern European
states, since there is free movement of labour within the EU.
Immigrants with the right to stay in the UK are denied housing and cannot be released.
 Until the Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, all Commonwealth citizens could enter and stay in the UK without any restriction.
 Research commissioned by the Regeneration and Economic Development Analysis Expert Panel suggested migrant workers leaving the UK due to the recession are likely to return
in the future and cited evidence of “strong links between initial temporary migration and intended permanent migration”.
The former government adviser Andrew Neather in the Evening Standard stated that the deliberate policy of ministers from late-2000 until early-2008 was to open up the UK to
Foreign born population of the United Kingdom by country of birth and nationality Since 1945, immigration to the United Kingdom, controlled by British immigration law and
to an extent by British nationality law, has been significant, in particular from the Republic of Ireland and from the former British Empire, especially India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, and Hong
The Act made Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies (CUKCs), whose passports were not directly issued by the UK Government (i.e., passports issued by the Governor of
a colony or by the Commander of a British protectorate), subject to immigration control.
 Commonwealth immigration, made up largely of economic migrants, rose from 3,000 per year in 1953 to 46,800 in 1956 and 136,400 in 1961.
 Office for National Statistics migration estimates published in November 2021 suggest that the number of EU nationals leaving the UK exceeded the number arriving by around
94,000, compared to net inward migration from the EU to the UK of 32,000 in 2019.
 The Ireland Act 1949 has the unusual status of recognising the Republic of Ireland, but affirming that its citizens are not citizens of a foreign country
for the purposes of any law in the United Kingdom.
 Research conducted by the Refugee Council suggests that most asylum seekers in the UK had their destination chosen for them by external parties or agents, rather than
choosing the UK themselves.
 By the early 1950s, roughly 20 Orders in Council had been passed to flesh out the details for immigration control.
This can mean refugees being returned to a country where they face certain death.
Concern is also raised about the treatment of those held in detention and the practice of dawn raiding families, and holding young children in immigration detention centres
for long periods of time.
 In 2009, for the first time since the enlargement, more nationals of the eight Central and Eastern European states that joined the EU in 2004 left the UK than arrived.
EU migrants were noted to be less likely to become British citizens than non-EU migrants.
 Human rights organisations such as Amnesty International have argued that the government’s new policies, particularly those concerning detention centres, have detrimental
effects on asylum applicants and their children, and those facilities have seen a number of hunger strikes and suicides.
There are restrictions on the benefits that members of eight of these accession countries (‘A8’ nationals) can claim, which are covered by the Worker Registration Scheme.
Enoch Powell gave the famous “Rivers of Blood” speech on 20 April 1968 in which he warned his audience of what he believed would be the consequences of continued unchecked
immigration from the Commonwealth to Britain.
There were immigration caps on the number who could enter and, subsequently, some applicants were turned away.
• Someone who changes their country of usual residence for a period of at least a year, so that the country of destination effectively becomes the country of usual residence.
Grants of settlement are made on the basis of various factors, including employment, family formation and reunification, and asylum (including to deal with backlogs of asylum
 Following the independence of Pakistan, Pakistani immigration to the United Kingdom increased, especially during the 1950s and 1960s.
 This migration was initially encouraged to help fill gaps in the UK labour market for both skilled and unskilled jobs, including in public services such as the newly
created National Health Service and London Transport.
 The policy of detaining asylum-seeking children was to be abandoned as part of the coalition agreement between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats, who formed
a government in May 2010.
 There is also a Public Performance Target to remove more asylum seekers who have been judged not to be refugees under the international definition than new anticipated
 During the period of the introduction of the “hostile environment” policy under Prime Minister Theresa May, more than 1,300 changes were made to the Rules in 2012 alone.
[‘The Brexit came into force by the end of the transition period provisionally from 1 January 2021, and formally into force on 1 May 2021 after completion of the ratification processes by both parties (the EU and the UK).
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/nikontino/13561908485/’]