She made her remarks days before a new batch of peers were due to be created and several months after the passage of the House of Lords Reform Act 2014, enabling life peers
to retire or resign their seats in the House, which had previously only been possible for hereditary peers and bishops.
In 1968 the Labour Government of Harold Wilson attempted to reform the House of Lords by introducing a system under which hereditary peers would be allowed to remain in the
House and take part in debate, but would be unable to vote.
 This total, however, remains greater than the membership of 669 peers in March 2000, after implementation of the House of Lords Act 1999 removed the bulk of the hereditary
peers from their seats; it is well above the proposed 600-member cap, and is still larger than the House of Commons’s 650 members.
The proposals were considered by a Joint Committee on House of Lords Reform made up of both MPs and Peers, which issued its final report on 23 April 2012, making the following
suggestions: • The reformed House of Lords should have 450 members.
• The current powers of the House of Lords would not change and the House of Commons shall retain its status as the primary House of Parliament.
 The Parliament Act 1911 effectively abolished the power of the House of Lords to reject legislation, or to amend it in a way unacceptable to the House of Commons; and
most bills could be delayed for no more than three parliamentary sessions or two calendar years.
 Lords reform Main article: Reform of the House of Lords First admission of women There were no women sitting in the House of Lords until 1958, when a small
number came into the chamber as a result of the Life Peerages Act 1958.
The Parliament Act 1949 reduced the delaying power of the House of Lords further to two sessions or one year.
It reached a record size of 1,330 in October 1999, immediately before the major Lords reform (House of Lords Act 1999) reduced it to 669, mostly life peers, by March 2000.
After a further general election in December 1910, and with a reluctant promise by King George V to create sufficient new Liberal peers to overcome the Lords’ opposition to
the measure if necessary, the Asquith Government secured the passage of a bill to curtail the powers of the House of Lords.
The Labour Government introduced legislation to expel all hereditary peers from the Upper House as a first step in Lords reform.
 The number of members of the House of Lords since 1998 The chamber’s membership again expanded in the following decades, increasing to above eight hundred active members
in 2014 and prompting further reforms in the House of Lords Reform Act that year.
Former MPs would be allowed to stand for election to the Upper House, but members of the Upper House would not be immediately allowed to become MPs.
On 19 March 1649, the House of Lords was abolished by an Act of Parliament, which declared that “The Commons of England [find] by too long experience that the House of Lords
is useless and dangerous to the people of England.
Thus, all but 92 hereditary peers were expelled under the House of Lords Act 1999 (see below for its provisions), making the House of Lords predominantly an appointed house.
It went on to explain that there was cross-party consensus for the Chamber to be re-titled the “Senate of the United Kingdom”; however, to ensure the debate remained on the
role of the Upper House rather than its title, the white paper was neutral on the title issue.
“ 2010–present The House of Lords paid tribute to Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, 12 April 2021 The Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition agreed, after the 2010
general election, to outline clearly a provision for a wholly or mainly elected second chamber, elected by proportional representation.
 In July 2008, Jack Straw, the Secretary of State for Justice and Lord Chancellor, introduced a white paper to the House of Commons proposing to replace the House of Lords
with an 80–100% elected chamber, with one third being elected at each general election, to serve a term of approximately 12–15 years.
20th century Punch 1911 cartoon shows Asquith and Lloyd George preparing coronets for 500 new peers to threaten takeover of House of Lords The status of the House of
Lords returned to the forefront of debate after the election of a Liberal Government in 1906.
He had created 117 new peers between entering office in May 2010 and leaving in July 2016, a faster rate of elevation than any PM in British history; at the same time his
government had tried (in vain) to reduce the House of Commons by 50, from 650 to 600 MPs.
 Having made the powers of the House of Lords a primary campaign issue, the Liberals were narrowly re-elected in January 1910.
• Twenty Independent Members (a third) shall take their seats within the reformed house at the same time as elected members do so, and for the same 15-year term.
Given that this vote took place after the vote on 80% – whose result was already known when the vote on 100% took place – this showed a clear preference for a fully elected
Upper House among those who voted for the only other option that passed.
 While members of the Lords may also take on roles as government ministers, high-ranking officials such as cabinet ministers are usually drawn from the Commons.
The House of Lords cannot delay a money bill (a bill that, in the view of the Speaker of the House of Commons, solely concerns national taxation or public funds) for more
than one month.
 The white paper stated that, as the peerage would be totally separated from membership of the Upper House, the name “House of Lords” would no longer be appropriate.
(In his first year, Tony Blair was defeated 38 times in the Lords—but that was before the major reform with the House of Lords Act 1999.)
Other public bills cannot be delayed by the House of Lords for more than two parliamentary sessions, or one calendar year.
 The House of Lords also has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual.
 Neither party, however, pursued reforms with much enthusiasm, and the House of Lords remained primarily hereditary.
A cross-party campaign initiative called “Elect the Lords” was set up to make the case for a predominantly elected Upper Chamber in the run up to the 2005 general election.
The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled,
also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
 By April 2019, with the retirement of nearly one hundred peers since the passage of the House of Lords Reform Act 2014, the number of active peers had been reduced to
a total of 782, of whom 665 were life peers.
However, the power of the Lords to reject a bill passed by the House of Commons is severely restricted by the Parliament Acts.
These provisions, however, only apply to public bills that originate in the House of Commons, and cannot have the effect of extending a parliamentary term beyond five years.
 In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the more powerful House of Commons that is independent of the electoral process.
When Michael Foot became leader of the Labour Party in 1980, abolition of the House of Lords became a part of the party’s agenda; under his successor, Neil Kinnock, however,
a reformed Upper House was proposed instead.
“, three essential features of a legitimate House of Lords: The first was that it must have adequate powers over legislation to make the government think twice before
making a decision.
 Over the course of the century the powers of the upper house were further reduced stepwise, culminating in the 20th century with the Parliament Act 1911; the Commons
gradually became the stronger House of Parliament.
By October 2018, the Lord Speaker’s committee commended the reduction in peers’ numbers, noting that the rate of departures had been greater than expected, with the House
of Commons Public Administration and Constitutional Affairs Select Committee approving the progress achieved without legislation.
In recent history, it has been very rare for major cabinet positions (except Lord Chancellor and Leader of the House of Lords) to have been filled by peers.
In the meantime, the creation of new hereditary peerages (except for members of the Royal Family) has been arrested, with the exception of three that were created during the
administration of Conservative PM Margaret Thatcher in the 1980s.
• Elections to the reformed Lords should take place at the same time as elections to the House of Commons.
In particular, all prime ministers since 1902 have been members of the lower house.
The details of the proposal were: • The upper chamber shall continue to be known as the House of Lords for legislative purposes.
In addition to its role as the upper house, until the establishment of the Supreme Court in 2009, the House of Lords, through the Law Lords, acted as the final court of appeal
in the United Kingdom judicial system.
Conflicts between the King and the Parliament (for the most part, the House of Commons) ultimately led to the English Civil War during the 1640s.
Before the new peers were created, however, the Lords who opposed the bill admitted defeat and abstained from the vote, allowing the passage of the bill.
She also criticised successive prime ministers for filling the second chamber with “lobby fodder” in an attempt to help their policies become law.
The House of Lords formerly maintained the absolute power to reject a bill relating to revenue or Supply, but this power was curtailed by the Parliament Acts.
Entire cities such as Manchester had not even one representative in the House of Commons, while the 11 voters of Old Sarum retained their ancient right to elect two MPs despite
This plan, however, was defeated in the House of Commons by a coalition of traditionalist Conservatives (such as Enoch Powell), and Labour members who continued to advocate
the outright abolition of the Upper House (such as Michael Foot).
New Labour Era The Labour Party included in its 1997 general election manifesto a commitment to remove the hereditary peerage from the House of Lords.
Thus, the House of Lords’ oversight of the government is limited.
 While the House of Commons has a defined number of members, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed.
(The House of Commons, however, often waives its privileges and allows the Upper House to make amendments with financial implications.)
 The Labour Party had, for most of the 20th century, a commitment, based on the party’s historic opposition to class privilege, to abolish the House of Lords, or at least
expel the hereditary element.
The House of Lords, she argued, had enough power to make it relevant.
The House of Lords remained more powerful than the House of Commons, but the Lower House continued to grow in influence, reaching a zenith in relation to the House of Lords
during the middle 17th century.
The House of Lords remains a source for junior ministers and members of government.
In December 2017, the Lords debated and broadly approved its report, which proposed a cap on membership at 600 peers, with a fifteen-year term limit for new peers and a “two-out,
one-in” limit on new appointments.
On 30 November 2009, a Code of Conduct for Members of the House of Lords was agreed by them.
In April 2011, a cross-party group of former leading politicians, including many senior members of the House of Lords, called on the Prime Minister David Cameron to stop creating
 However, this Bill was abandoned by the Government on 6 August 2012, following opposition from within the Conservative Party.
By a custom that prevailed even before the Parliament Acts, the House of Lords is further restrained insofar as financial bills are concerned.
This new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 Members of Parliament (MPs) and 16 Peers to represent Scotland.
In December 1979 the Conservative Monday Club published his extensive paper entitled Lords Reform – Why tamper with the House of Lords?
These included a 300-member hybrid house, of whom 80% would be elected.
 In August 2014, despite there being a seating capacity for only around 230 to 400 on the benches in the Lords chamber, the House had 774 active members (plus
54 who were not entitled to attend or vote, having been suspended or granted leave of absence).
Critics argue the House of Lords is the second largest legislature after the Chinese National People’s Congress and dwarfs upper houses in other bicameral democracies such
as the United States (100 senators), France (348 senators), Australia (76 senators), Canada (105 appointed senators) and India (250 members).
As an interim measure, appointment of new peers would reflect the shares of the vote secured by the political parties in the last general election.
But this was nevertheless only an indicative vote, and many political and legislative hurdles remained to be overcome for supporters of an elected House of Lords.
Like the House of Commons, the Lords also has a Government Chief Whip as well as several Junior Whips.
The House of Lords voting for the Parliament Act 1911 19th century The 19th century was marked by several changes to the House of Lords.
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o ^ “Companion to the Standing Orders and guide to the proceedings of the House of Lords”. October 2006. paragraphs 4.59 and 4.60.
o ^ See Lords Journal vol. CXVI p. 162, vol. CXXIII p. 354, vol. 192 p. 231, vol. 215 pp. 200–1,
vol. 218 p. 119, vol. 221 p. 539, vol. 225 p. 194, vol. 226 p. 339, vol. 228 p. 308, vol. 229 p. 89, and vol. 233 p. 791.
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taking the 2005–2006 session, the average attendance was around 408, or 56% of members.
o ^ Jointly with Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities
Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/5402157745/’]