Huxley was outraged by the culture of youth, commercial cheeriness, sexual promiscuity, and the inward-looking nature of many Americans; he had also found the book My
Life and Work by Henry Ford on the boat to America, and he saw the book’s principles applied in everything he encountered after leaving San Francisco.
Mr. Scogan, one of the earlier book’s characters, describes an “impersonal generation” of the future that will “take the place of Nature’s hideous system.
Despite following her usual precautions, Linda became pregnant with the Director’s son during their time together and was therefore unable to return to the World State by
the time that she found her way to Malpais.
 For his part Wells published, two years after Brave New World, his own Utopian Shape of Things to Come.
Having been conditioned to the promiscuous social norms of the World State, Linda finds herself at once popular with every man in the pueblo (because she is open to all sexual
advances) and also reviled for the same reason, seen as a whore by the wives of the men who visit her and by the men themselves (who come to her nonetheless).
Lenina is promiscuous and popular but somewhat quirky in her society: she had a four-month relation with Henry Foster, choosing not to have sex with anyone but him for a period
John (“the Savage” or “Mr. Savage”, as he is often called) is an outsider both on the Reservation—where the natives still practice marriage, natural birth, family life and
religion—and the ostensibly civilised World State, based on principles of stability and happiness.
An early trip to the United States gave Brave New World much of its character.
Bernard takes a holiday with Lenina outside the World State to a Savage Reservation in New Mexico, in which the two observe natural-born people, disease, the ageing process,
other languages, and religious lifestyles for the first time.
“ Brave New World also received negative responses from other contemporary critics, although his work was later embraced.
John is intensely moral according to a code that he has been taught by Shakespeare and life in Malpais but is also naïve: his views are as imported into his own consciousness
as are the hypnopedic messages of World State citizens.
: xxii Huxley used the setting and characters in his science fiction novel to express widely felt anxieties, particularly the fear of losing individual identity in the
fast-paced world of the future.
For a while it seems that John might be left alone, after the public’s attention is drawn to other diversions, but a documentary maker has secretly filmed John’s self-flagellation
from a distance, and when released the documentary causes an international sensation.
Despite spending his whole life in the reservation, John has never been accepted by the villagers, and his and Linda’s lives have been hard and unpleasant.
 Wells’ hopeful vision of the future’s possibilities gave Huxley the idea to begin writing a parody of the novels, which became Brave New World.
Linda is desperate to return to the World State and to soma, wanting nothing more from her remaining life than comfort until death.
The islands are full of the most interesting people in the world, individuals who did not fit into the social model of the World State.
Linda, John’s mother, decanted as a Beta-Minus in the World State, originally worked in the DHC’s Fertilizing Room, and subsequently lost during a storm while visiting the
New Mexico Savage Reservation with the Director many years before the events of the novel.
• Kothlu, a native boy with whom Kiakimé is wed. Background figures These are non-fictional and factual characters who lived before the events in this book, but are
of note in the novel: • Henry Ford, who has become a messianic figure to the World State.
Henry ultimately proves himself every bit the ideal World State citizen, finding no courage to defend Lenina from John’s assaults despite having maintained an uncommonly longstanding
sexual relationship with her.
 Bernard and Lenina witness a violent public ritual and then encounter Linda, a woman originally from the World State who is living on the reservation with her son John,
now a young man.
Huxley referred to Brave New World as a “negative utopia”, somewhat influenced by Wells’s own The Sleeper Awakes (dealing with subjects like corporate tyranny and behavioural
conditioning) and the works of D. H.
 Sources of names and references The limited number of names that the World State assigned to its bottle-grown citizens can be traced to political and cultural figures
who contributed to the bureaucratic, economic, and technological systems of Huxley’s age, and presumably those systems in Brave New World.
Men like Ford or Mond seemed to many to have solved the social riddle and made capitalism the common good.
Some children who enter the ward for “death-conditioning” come across as disrespectful to John, and he attacks one physically.
(It is also strongly implied that citizens of the World State believe Freud and Ford to be the same person.
A passage in Crome Yellow contains a brief pre-figuring of Brave New World, showing that Huxley had such a future in mind already in 1921.
Unlike Bernard, he takes his exile in his stride and comes to view it as an opportunity for inspiration in his writing.
Considered hideous and friendless, Linda spends all her time using soma, while John refuses to attend social events organised by Bernard, appalled by what he perceives to
be an empty society.
 Brave New World has frequently been banned and challenged since its original publication.
 From birth, members of every class are indoctrinated by recorded voices repeating slogans while they sleep (called “hypnopædia” in the book) to believe their own class
is superior, but that the other classes perform needed functions.
Ultimately, they all agree that it is for the best, since denying her this request would cause more trouble for Society and Linda herself.
“ He went on to write “Within the next generation I believe that the world’s r
Fanny voices the conventional values of her caste and society, particularly the importance of promiscuity: she advises Lenina that she should have more than one man in her
life because it is unseemly to concentrate on just one.
) • H. G. Wells, “Dr. Wells”, British writer and utopian socialist, whose book Men Like Gods was a motivation for Brave New World.
• Thomas Robert Malthus, 19th century British economist, believed the people of the Earth would eventually be threatened by their inability to raise enough food to feed the
His plans take an unexpected turn when Bernard returns from the Reservation with Linda (see below) and John, a child they both realise is actually his.
 Largely set in a futuristic World State, whose citizens are environmentally engineered into an intelligence-based social hierarchy, the novel anticipates huge scientific
advancements in reproductive technology, sleep-learning, psychological manipulation and classical conditioning that are combined to make a dystopian society which is challenged by the story’s protagonist.
Mustapha Mond also knows them because as a World Controller he has access to a selection of books from throughout history, including the Bible.
In this sense, some fragments of traditional religion are present, such as Christian crosses, which had their tops cut off to be changed to a “T”, representing the Ford Model
T. In England, there is an Arch-Community-Songster of Canterbury, obviously continuing the Archbishop of Canterbury, and in America The Christian Science Monitor continues publication as The Fordian Science Monitor.
Naming Mond after Atatürk links up with their characteristics; he reigned during the time Brave New World was written and revolutionised the ‘old’ Ottoman state into a new
 He had already made a name for himself but still seeks more.
Linda now wants to return to London, and John, too, wants to see this “brave new world”.
History Huxley wrote Brave New World whilst living in Sanary-sur-Mer, France, in the four months from May to August 1931.
Chesterton wrote: After the Age of Utopias came what we may call the American Age, lasting as long as the Boom.
 In 2003, Robert McCrum, writing for The Observer, included Brave New World chronologically at number 53 in “the top 100 greatest novels of all time”, and the novel
was listed at number 87 on The Big Read survey by the BBC.
Fanny then warns Lenina away from a new lover whom she considers undeserving, yet she is ultimately supportive of the young woman’s attraction to the savage John.
Among the novel’s characters, he is uniquely aware of the precise nature of the society he oversees and what it has given up to accomplish its gains.
A new bitterness, and a new bewilderment, ran through all social life, and was reflected in all literature and art.
“ Unlike the most popular optimistic utopian novels of the time, Huxley sought to provide a frightening vision of the future.
203–206 Shakespeare’s use of the phrase is intended ironically, as the speaker is failing to recognise the evil nature of the island’s visitors because of her innocence.
He has read nothing but the complete works of William Shakespeare, which he quotes extensively, and, for the most part, aptly, though his allusion to the “Brave New World”
(Miranda’s words in The Tempest) takes on a darker and bitterly ironic resonance as the novel unfolds.
Linda has taught John to read, although from the only book in her possession—a scientific manual—and another book John found: the complete works of Shakespeare.
Huxley said that Brave New World was inspired by the utopian novels of H. G. Wells, including A Modern Utopia (1905), and as a parody of Men Like Gods (1923).
Critical reception Upon its publication, Rebecca West praised Brave New World as “The most accomplished novel Huxley has yet written”, Joseph Needham lauded it as “Mr.
Huxley’s remarkable book”, and Bertrand Russell also praised it, stating, “Mr. Aldous Huxley has shown his usual masterly skill in Brave New World.
Much of the discourse on man’s future before 1914 was based on the thesis that humanity would solve all economic and social issues.
John asks if he may go to the islands as well, but Mond refuses, saying he wishes to see what happens to John next.
O brave new world, That has such people in’t.
Bernard pleads for a second chance, but Helmholtz welcomes the opportunity to be a true individual, and chooses the Falkland Islands as his destination, believing that their
bad weather will inspire his writing.
: viii Plot The novel opens in the World State city of London in AF (After Ford) 632 (AD 2540 in the Gregorian calendar), where citizens are engineered through artificial
wombs and childhood indoctrination programmes into predetermined classes (or castes) based on intelligence and labour.
The biological techniques used to control the populace in Brave New World do not include genetic engineering; Huxley wrote the book before the structure of DNA was known.
My own belief is that the ruling oligarchy will find less arduous and wasteful ways of governing and of satisfying its lust for power, and these ways will resemble those which
I described in Brave New World.
While the World State lacks any supernatural-based religions, Ford himself is revered as the creator of their society but not as a deity, and characters celebrate Ford Day
and swear oaths by his name (e.g., “By Ford!”).
She, too, visited the reservation on a holiday many years ago, but became separated from her group and was left behind.
She did not try to return to the World State, because of her shame at her pregnancy.
When Huxley was writing Brave New World, organizations such as the Malthusian League had spread throughout Europe, advocating contraception.
Mond outlines for John the events that led to the present society and his arguments for a caste system and social control.
In the book, government policy requires freemartins to form 70% of the female population.
His only friend is Helmholtz Watson, a gifted writer who finds it difficult to use his talents creatively in their pain-free society.
The works of H. G. Wells and George Bernard Shaw on the promises of socialism and a World State were then viewed as the ideas of naive optimists.
The family system will disappear; society, sapped at its very base, will have to find new foundations; and Eros, beautifully and irresponsibly free, will flit like a gay butterfly
from flower to flower through a sunlit world.”
Bernard’s triumph is short-lived; he is ultimately banished to an island for his non-conformist behaviour.
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Photo credit: https://www.flickr.com/photos/hollystar47/10437652486/’]